Gas Sensing beyond MOX Semiconductors

A special issue of Chemosensors (ISSN 2227-9040). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials for Chemical Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 16710

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Physics and Earth Science, University of Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara, Italy
Interests: nanostructured materials; gas sensors; semiconductors: hybrid materials; inorganic and organic synthesis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
University of Ferrara, Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Via G. Saragat 1/C, 44122, Ferrara, Italy
Interests: chemoresistive gas sensors; metal-oxide semiconductors; non-metal oxides; agri-food application; remote gas sensing

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Guest Editor
Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara, Italy
Interests: gas sensors; metal-oxide chemoresistive materials; nanophased materials; two-dimensional materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Chemoresistive gas sensors are steadily attracting increasing attention, even though they have been investigated and commercialized since 1970. This technology is mainly based on the development and use of nanostructured Metal OXide Semiconductors (MOXS) as sensing materials, which act both as receptors and transducers in the sensing mechanism. Sensors based on MOXS highlight very interesting features, i.e., high sensitivity, low cost, small size, low-power consumption and amenability of large-scale production through microfabrication methods and easiness of integration. All these peculiarities have allowed researchers to develop devices that find their way to the market, providing solutions to many applications. Nevertheless, MOXS gas sensors showed performance weaknesses, such as low selectivity and high working temperature, which still limited their widespread employment in several utilizations.

Recently, a huge effort has been devoted by researchers to develop and investigate new advanced nanostructured semiconductors that can overcome the above-mentioned MOXS limitations.

Some of these innovative non-MOXS materials highlighted noteworthy features, such as exceptional electronic properties and great and specific chemical reactivity, which result in optimal sensing performance, including high sensitivity and selectivity, and low activation temperature (2D materials, metal organic frameworks, carbon nanotubes, polymers, etc). The aim of this Special Issue is to broaden and deepen the use and knowledge on innovative non-MOXS sensing materials.

Accordingly, this Special Issue will cover topics on gas sensing beyond MOXS. You are invited to contribute with relevant reviews and original research articles focused on:

  • Development of novel non-MOXS materials and sensing strategies
  • Investigation of sensing performance of non-MOXS nanostructure unexplored so far
  • Understanding the sensing mechanism in non-MOXS and advances in investigation techniques
  • Development of non-MOXS-based sensing platforms for specific applications

Dr. Andrea Gaiardo
Dr. Barbara Fabbri
Prof. Dr. Vincenzo Guidi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Non-MOXS sensing materials
  • Chemical sensors
  • 2D materials
  • Metal organic frameworks
  • Polymers for gas sensing
  • Organic-based sensing materials
  • Sensing material synthesis and characterization
  • Gas sensing performances
  • Innovative gas sensing materials
  • Gas sensing applications
  • Micro and nanofabrication processes
  • Surface functionalization
  • Semiconductor-based gas sensors
  • Gas sensing mechanism
  • Gas sensing platforms

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 3889 KiB  
Article
Phosphorescent O2-Probes Based on Ir(III) Complexes for Bioimaging Applications
by Mozhgan Samandarsangari, Ilya S. Kritchenkov, Daria O. Kozina, Anastasia D. Komarova, Marina V. Shirmanova and Sergey P. Tunik
Chemosensors 2023, 11(5), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11050263 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1534
Abstract
The design, synthesis, and investigation of new molecular oxygen probes for bioimaging, based on phosphorescent transition metal complexes are among the topical problems of modern chemistry and advanced bioimaging. Three new iridium [Ir(N^C)2(N^N)]+ complexes with cyclometallating 4-(pyridin-2-yl)-benzoic acid derivatives and [...] Read more.
The design, synthesis, and investigation of new molecular oxygen probes for bioimaging, based on phosphorescent transition metal complexes are among the topical problems of modern chemistry and advanced bioimaging. Three new iridium [Ir(N^C)2(N^N)]+ complexes with cyclometallating 4-(pyridin-2-yl)-benzoic acid derivatives and different di-imine chelate ligands have been synthesized and characterized by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The periphery of these complexes is decorated with three relatively small “double-tail” oligo(ethylene glycol) fragments. All these complexes exhibit phosphorescence; their photophysical properties have been thoroughly studied, and quantum chemical calculations of their photophysical properties were also performed. It turned out that the changes in the nature of the di-imine ligand greatly affected the character of the electronic transitions responsible for their emission. Two complexes in this series show the desired photophysical characteristics; they demonstrate appreciable quantum yield (14–15% in degassed aqueous solutions) and a strong response to the changes in oxygen concentration, ca. three-fold increase in emission intensity, and an excited state lifetime upon deaeration of the aqueous solution. The study of their photophysical properties in model biological systems (buffer solutions containing fetal bovine serum—FBS) and cytotoxicity assays (MTT) showed that these complexes satisfy the requirements for application in bioimaging experiments. It was found that these molecular probes are internalized into cultured cancer cells and localized mainly in mitochondria and lysosomes. Phosphorescent lifetime imaging (PLIM) experiments showed that under hypoxic conditions in cells, a 1.5-fold increase in the excitation state lifetime was observed compared to aerated cells, suggesting the applicability of these complexes for the analysis of hypoxia in biological objects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensing beyond MOX Semiconductors)
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20 pages, 6397 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Surfactants on the Deposition and Performance of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Gas Sensors for NO2 and NH3 Detection
by Antonio Orlando, Asma Mushtaq, Andrea Gaiardo, Matteo Valt, Lia Vanzetti, Martina Aurora Costa Angeli, Enrico Avancini, Bajramshahe Shkodra, Mattia Petrelli, Pietro Tosato, Soufiane Krik, David Novel, Paolo Lugli and Luisa Petti
Chemosensors 2023, 11(2), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11020127 - 09 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1789
Abstract
Solid-state chemiresistive gas sensors have attracted a lot of researchers’ attention during the last half-century thanks to their ability to detect different gases with high sensitivity, low power consumption, low cost, and high portability. Among the most promising sensitive materials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) [...] Read more.
Solid-state chemiresistive gas sensors have attracted a lot of researchers’ attention during the last half-century thanks to their ability to detect different gases with high sensitivity, low power consumption, low cost, and high portability. Among the most promising sensitive materials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted a lot of interest due to their large active surface area (in the range of 50–1400 m2/g, depending on their composition) and the fact that they can operate at room temperature. In this study, single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-based sensing films were prepared and deposited by spray deposition for the fabrication of gas sensors. For the deposition, various SWCNTs were prepared in deionized water with the addition of specific surfactants, i.e., carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), which act as dispersing agents to create a suitable ink for deposition. This study aims to elucidate the possible differences in the sensing performance of the fabricated devices due to the use of the two different surfactants. To achieve this goal, all the devices were tested versus ethanol (C2H5OH), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ammonia (NH3). The produced devices demonstrated high selectivity towards NH3 and NO2. The different sensors, prepared with different deposition thicknesses (from 0.51 nm to 18.41 nm), were tested in dry and wet conditions (40% humidity), highlighting an enhanced response as a function of relative humidity. In addition, sensor performance was evaluated at different working temperatures, showing the best performance when heated up to 150 °C. The best sensing conditions we found were against NO2, sensors with 10 layers of deposition and an operating temperature of 150 °C; in this condition, sensors showed high responses compared those found in the literature (62.5%—SDS-based and 78.6%—CMC-based). Finally, cross-sensitivity measurements showed how the produced sensors are good candidates for the practical and selective detection of NO2, even in the presence of the most important interfering gases identified, i.e., NH3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensing beyond MOX Semiconductors)
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11 pages, 3899 KiB  
Article
Indium Oxide Decorated WS2 Microflakes for Selective Ammonia Sensors at Room Temperature
by Qiyilan Guang, Baoyu Huang, Jun Yu, Jianwei Zhang and Xiaogan Li
Chemosensors 2022, 10(10), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10100402 - 08 Oct 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1446
Abstract
Tungsten sulfide decorated with indium oxide nanoparticles (In2O3/WS2) was studied for a chemiresistive-type NH3 sensor at room temperature. It was found that the responses of the developed In2O3/WS2 heterostructure nanocomposite-based sensors [...] Read more.
Tungsten sulfide decorated with indium oxide nanoparticles (In2O3/WS2) was studied for a chemiresistive-type NH3 sensor at room temperature. It was found that the responses of the developed In2O3/WS2 heterostructure nanocomposite-based sensors are significantly improved to 3.81 from 1.45 for WS2. The response and recovery time of the heterostructure-based sensor was found to significantly decrease to 88 s/116 s (10 ppm) from 112 s/192 s for the WS2-based one. The sensor also exhibits excellent selectivity and signal reproducibility. In comparison to WS2 decorated with both ZnO and SnO2 in similar ways, the In2O3-decorated WS2 has overall better sensing performance in terms of sensitivity, selectivity and response/recovery speeds for NH3 from 1 ppm to 10 ppm at room temperature. The improved sensing properties of WS2 incorporating In2O3 could be attributed to the joint enhancement mechanisms of the “electronic and catalytic” sensitizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensing beyond MOX Semiconductors)
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Review

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18 pages, 973 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Gas Sensing Technology Using Non-Oxide II-VI Semiconductors CdS, CdSe, and CdTe
by Masanori Ando, Hideya Kawasaki, Satoru Tamura, Yoshikazu Haramoto and Yasushi Shigeri
Chemosensors 2022, 10(11), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10110482 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2100
Abstract
In recent years, there has been an increasing need and demand for gas sensors to detect hazardous gases in the atmosphere, as they are indispensable for environmental monitoring. Typical hazardous gas sensors that have been widely put to practical use include conductometric gas [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been an increasing need and demand for gas sensors to detect hazardous gases in the atmosphere, as they are indispensable for environmental monitoring. Typical hazardous gas sensors that have been widely put to practical use include conductometric gas sensors, such as semiconductor gas sensors that use the change in electrical resistance of metal oxide semiconductors, catalytic combustion gas sensors, and electrochemical gas sensors. However, there is a growing demand for gas sensors that perform better and more safely, while also being smaller, lighter, less energy-demanding, and less costly. Therefore, new gas sensor materials are being explored, as well as optical gas sensor technology that expresses gas detection not electrically but optically. Cadmium sulfide (CdS), cadmium selenide (CdSe), and cadmium telluride (CdTe) are typical group II-VI non-oxide semiconductors that have been used as, for example, electronic materials. Recently, they have attracted attention as new gas sensor materials. In this article, recent advances in conductometric and optical gas sensing technologies using CdS, CdSe, and CdTe are reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensing beyond MOX Semiconductors)
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39 pages, 3816 KiB  
Review
Materials for Chemical Sensing: A Comprehensive Review on the Recent Advances and Outlook Using Ionic Liquids, Metal–Organic Frameworks (MOFs), and MOF-Based Composites
by Valentina Gargiulo, Michela Alfè, Laura Giordano and Stefano Lettieri
Chemosensors 2022, 10(8), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10080290 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3222
Abstract
The ability to measure and monitor the concentration of specific chemical and/or gaseous species (i.e., “analytes”) is the main requirement in many fields, including industrial processes, medical applications, and workplace safety management. As a consequence, several kinds of sensors have been developed in [...] Read more.
The ability to measure and monitor the concentration of specific chemical and/or gaseous species (i.e., “analytes”) is the main requirement in many fields, including industrial processes, medical applications, and workplace safety management. As a consequence, several kinds of sensors have been developed in the modern era according to some practical guidelines that regard the characteristics of the active (sensing) materials on which the sensor devices are based. These characteristics include the cost-effectiveness of the materials’ manufacturing, the sensitivity to analytes, the material stability, and the possibility of exploiting them for low-cost and portable devices. Consequently, many gas sensors employ well-defined transduction methods, the most popular being the oxidation (or reduction) of the analyte in an electrochemical reactor, optical techniques, and chemiresistive responses to gas adsorption. In recent years, many of the efforts devoted to improving these methods have been directed towards the use of certain classes of specific materials. In particular, ionic liquids have been employed as electrolytes of exceptional properties for the preparation of amperometric gas sensors, while metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are used as highly porous and reactive materials which can be employed, in pure form or as a component of MOF-based functional composites, as active materials of chemiresistive or optical sensors. Here, we report on the most recent developments relative to the use of these classes of materials in chemical sensing. We discuss the main features of these materials and the reasons why they are considered interesting in the field of chemical sensors. Subsequently, we review some of the technological and scientific results published in the span of the last six years that we consider among the most interesting and useful ones for expanding the awareness on future trends in chemical sensing. Finally, we discuss the prospects for the use of these materials and the factors involved in their possible use for new generations of sensor devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensing beyond MOX Semiconductors)
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33 pages, 11137 KiB  
Review
Metal-Organic-Frameworks: Low Temperature Gas Sensing and Air Quality Monitoring
by Xiaohu Chen, Reza Behboodian, Darren Bagnall, Mahdiar Taheri and Noushin Nasiri
Chemosensors 2021, 9(11), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9110316 - 08 Nov 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3668
Abstract
As an emerging class of hybrid nanoporous materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted significant attention as promising multifunctional building blocks for the development of highly sensitive and selective gas sensors due to their unique properties, such as large surface area, highly diversified structures, [...] Read more.
As an emerging class of hybrid nanoporous materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted significant attention as promising multifunctional building blocks for the development of highly sensitive and selective gas sensors due to their unique properties, such as large surface area, highly diversified structures, functionalizable sites and specific adsorption affinities. Here, we provide a review of recent advances in the design and fabrication of MOF nanomaterials for the low-temperature detection of different gases for air quality and environmental monitoring applications. The impact of key structural parameters including surface morphologies, metal nodes, organic linkers and functional groups on the sensing performance of state-of-the-art sensing technologies are discussed. This review is concluded by summarising achievements and current challenges, providing a future perspective for the development of the next generation of MOF-based nanostructured materials for low-temperature detection of gas molecules in real-world environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensing beyond MOX Semiconductors)
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