Feature Papers – Chemical Sensors for Industrial Applications, Environmental, and Food Monitoring

A special issue of Chemosensors (ISSN 2227-9040). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 December 2022) | Viewed by 26328

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Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

“Chemical Sensors for Industrial Applications, and Environmental and Food Monitoring’’ publishes original peer-reviewed papers covering diverse aspects of applied chemical sensors. In contrast to other sections of “Chemosensors’’ based on sensing technology or data transfer, this section focuses on the applications. Therefore papers on new sensors for the chemical analysis of environmental, food, or industrial applications are welcome regardless of the sensing technology or data management methodology used. The papers can be based in single sensors or arrays. It will be particularly appreciated if submitted manuscripts include tests in real environments, real samples, or show the potential for adoption by industry or chemical analysis laboratories.

In order to celebrate the journal has received its 2020 journal Impact Factor 3.398, we are launching this Special Issue to publish top-quality papers from editorial board members and leading researchers. All papers will be published in open access and without any charges.

If you are interested in publishing your work in the Special Issue, please contact me or the editorial office.

Dr. Jose Vicente Ros Lis
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Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 2744 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Sensing Platform Based on Renewable Carbon Modified with Antimony Nanoparticles for Methylparaben Detection in Personal Care Products
by Gabriela Contesa Gomes, Martin Kássio Leme da Silva, Francisco Contini Barreto and Ivana Cesarino
Chemosensors 2023, 11(2), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11020141 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1498
Abstract
This paper describes for the first time the surface modification of glassy carbon (GC) electrodes with bamboo-based renewable carbon (RC) and antimony nanoparticles (SbNPs) for the determination of methylparaben (MePa) in personal care products (PCPs). The synthesized RC-SbNP material was successfully characterized by [...] Read more.
This paper describes for the first time the surface modification of glassy carbon (GC) electrodes with bamboo-based renewable carbon (RC) and antimony nanoparticles (SbNPs) for the determination of methylparaben (MePa) in personal care products (PCPs). The synthesized RC-SbNP material was successfully characterized by scanning electron microcopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The proposed sensor was applied in the detection of MePa using the optimized parameters by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The analytical range for detection of MePa was 0.2 to 9.0 µmol L−1, with limits of detection and quantification of 0.05 µmol L−1 and 0.16 µmol L−1, respectively. The determination of MePa in real PCP samples was performed using the proposed GC/RC-SbNP sensor by DPV and UV-vis spectrophotometry as comparative methodology. The use of RC-SbNP material for the development of electrochemical sensors brings a fresh approach to low-cost devices for MePa analysis. Full article
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11 pages, 4299 KiB  
Article
Microbiological Risk Assessment of Ready-to-Eat Leafy Green Salads via a Novel Electrochemical Sensor
by Simone Grasso, Maria Vittoria Di Loreto, Alyexandra Arienzo, Valentina Gallo, Anna Sabatini, Alessandro Zompanti, Giorgio Pennazza, Laura De Gara, Giovanni Antonini and Marco Santonico
Chemosensors 2022, 10(4), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10040134 - 01 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2795
Abstract
Nowadays, the growing interest in a healthy lifestyle, to compensate for modern stressful habits, has led to an increased demand for wholesome products with quick preparation times. Fresh and ready-to-eat leafy green vegetables are generally perceived as salutary and safe, although they have [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the growing interest in a healthy lifestyle, to compensate for modern stressful habits, has led to an increased demand for wholesome products with quick preparation times. Fresh and ready-to-eat leafy green vegetables are generally perceived as salutary and safe, although they have been recognized as a source of food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. The reason is that these products retain much of their indigenous microflora after minimal industrial processing, and are expected to be consumed without any additional treatment by consumers. Microbiological safety requires a systematic approach that encompasses all aspects of production, processing and distribution. Nevertheless, the most common laboratory techniques used for the detection of pathogens are expensive, time consuming, need laboratory professionals and are not able to provide prompt results, required to undertake effective corrective actions. In this context, the solution proposed in this work is a novel electrochemical sensing system, able to provide real-time information on microbiological risk, which is also potentially embeddable in an industrial production line. The results showed the sensor ability to detect leafy green salad bacterial contaminations with adequate sensibility, even at a low concentration. Full article
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15 pages, 1310 KiB  
Article
Impact of the Covering Vegetable Oil on the Sensory Profile of Canned Tuna of Katsuwonus pelamis Species and Tuna’s Taste Evaluation Using an Electronic Tongue
by Nuno Ferreiro, Nuno Rodrigues, Ana C. A. Veloso, Conceição Fernandes, Helga Paiva, José A. Pereira and António M. Peres
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10010018 - 03 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1967
Abstract
The impact of the covering vegetable oil (sunflower oil, refined olive oil and extra virgin olive oil, EVOO) on the physicochemical and sensory profiles of canned tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis species) was evaluated, using analytical techniques and a sensory panel. The results showed [...] Read more.
The impact of the covering vegetable oil (sunflower oil, refined olive oil and extra virgin olive oil, EVOO) on the physicochemical and sensory profiles of canned tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis species) was evaluated, using analytical techniques and a sensory panel. The results showed that canned tuna covered with EVOO possesses a higher content of total phenols and an enhanced antioxidant capacity. This covering medium also increased the appreciated redness-yellowness color of the canned tuna, which showed a higher chromatic and intense color. Olfactory and kinesthetic sensations were significantly dependent on the type of oil used as covering medium. Tuna succulence and adhesiveness were promoted by the use of EVOO, which also contributed to decreasing the tuna-related aroma sensations. The tuna sensory data could be successfully used to identify the type of vegetable oil used. Moreover, a potentiometric electronic tongue allowed discriminating between the canned tuna samples according to the vegetable oil used (mean sensitivity of 96 ± 8%; repeated K-fold cross-validation) and the fruity intensity of the EVOO (mean sensitivity of 100%; repeated K-fold cross-validation). Thus, the taste sensor device could be a practical tool to verify the authenticity of the declared covering medium in canned tuna and to perceive the differences in consumers’ taste. Full article
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12 pages, 708 KiB  
Article
Applications of the Photoionization Detector (PID) in Occupational Hygiene. Estimation of Air Changes per Hour in Premises with Natural Ventilation
by María D. Maeso-García, Francesc A. Esteve-Turrillas and Jorge Verdú-Andrés
Chemosensors 2021, 9(12), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9120331 - 25 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2745
Abstract
The importance of ventilation in closed workplaces increased after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. New methodologies for measuring the number of air changes per hour (ACH) in a premise where natural ventilation is applied are necessary. It is demonstrated how the ionic [...] Read more.
The importance of ventilation in closed workplaces increased after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. New methodologies for measuring the number of air changes per hour (ACH) in a premise where natural ventilation is applied are necessary. It is demonstrated how the ionic photoionization detector (PID) can be employed for tracer gas decay methodology using a volatile organic solvent (acetone). The methodology applied to calculate ACH in a naturally ventilated room, with various combinations of door and window openings, provides ACH values of between 2 and 17 h−1. Two classrooms were studied to verify if the minimum ventilation requirements recommended by official guidelines were met. The values for ACH on different days varied, mainly between 15 and 35 h−1, with some exceptional values higher than 40 h−1 on very windy days. These results agree with the quality air data recorded by the installed CO2 sensors, ensuring adequate hygienic conditions for the users of the rooms. The fast response of the PID allows the measurement of different locations in the room during the same assay, which provides additional information regarding the air distribution inside during the ventilation process. This methodology is fast and easy, and the necessary equipment is simple to obtain and use routinely, whether it is needed to measure several rooms or to monitor one room periodically. Full article
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13 pages, 1864 KiB  
Article
A Sensor-Based Methodology to Differentiate Pure and Mixed White Tequilas Based on Fused Infrared Spectra and Multivariate Data Treatment
by Christian Hazael Pérez-Beltrán, Víctor M. Zúñiga-Arroyo, José M. Andrade, Luis Cuadros-Rodríguez, Guadalupe Pérez-Caballero and Ana M. Jiménez-Carvelo
Chemosensors 2021, 9(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9030047 - 27 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2405
Abstract
Mexican Tequila is one of the most demanded import spirits in Europe. Its fast-raising worldwide request makes counterfeiting a profitable activity affecting both consumers and legal distillers. In this paper, a sensor-based methodology based on a combination of infrared measurements (IR) and multivariate [...] Read more.
Mexican Tequila is one of the most demanded import spirits in Europe. Its fast-raising worldwide request makes counterfeiting a profitable activity affecting both consumers and legal distillers. In this paper, a sensor-based methodology based on a combination of infrared measurements (IR) and multivariate data analysis (MVA) is presented. The case study is about differentiating two categories of white Tequila: pure Tequila (or ‘100% agave’) and mixed Tequila (or simply, Tequila). The IR spectra were treated and fused with a low-level approach. Exploratory data analysis was performed using PCA and partial least squares (PLS), whilst the authentication analyses were carried out with PLS-discriminant analysis (DA) and soft independent modeling for class analogy (SIMCA) models. Results demonstrated that data fusion of IR spectra enhanced the outcomes of the authentication models capable of differentiating pure from mixed Tequilas. In fact, PLS-DA presented the best results which correctly classified all fifteen commercial validation samples. The methodology thus presented is fast, cheap, and of simple application in the Tequila industry. Full article
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15 pages, 7373 KiB  
Article
Colorimetric Chemosensor Array for Determination of Halides
by Michal Šídlo, Přemysl Lubal and Pavel Anzenbacher, Jr.
Chemosensors 2021, 9(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9020039 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2772
Abstract
The halide anions are essential for supporting life. Therefore, halide anion analyses are of paramount importance. For this reason, we have performed both qualitative and quantitative ana- lyses of halides (chloride, bromide, iodide) using the Tl(III) complex of azodye, 4-(2-pyridylazo)re- sorcinol (PAR), a [...] Read more.
The halide anions are essential for supporting life. Therefore, halide anion analyses are of paramount importance. For this reason, we have performed both qualitative and quantitative ana- lyses of halides (chloride, bromide, iodide) using the Tl(III) complex of azodye, 4-(2-pyridylazo)re- sorcinol (PAR), a potential new chemical reagent/sensor that utilizes the substitution reaction whereas the Tl(III)PAR complex reacts with a halide to yield a more stable thallium(III)-halide while releasing the PAR ligand in a process accompanied by color change of the solution. The experimental conditions (e.g., pH, ratio metal ion-to-ligand ratio, etc.) for the substitution reaction between the metal complex and a halide were optimized to achieve increased sensitivity and a lower limit of detection (chloride 7 mM, bromide 0.15 mM, iodide 0.05 mM). It is demonstrated that this single chemosensor can, due to release of colored PAR ligand and the associated analyte-specific changes in the UV/VIS spectra, be employed for a multicomponent analysis of mixtures of anions (chloride + bromide, chloride + iodide, bromide + iodide). The spectrophotometric data evaluated by artificial neural networks (ANNs) enable distinguishing among the halides and to determine halide species concentrations in a mixture. The Tl(III)-PAR complex was also used to construct sensor arrays utilizing a standard 96-well plate format where the output was recorded at several wavelengths (up to 7) using a conventional plate reader. It is shown that the data obtained using a digital scanner employing only three different input channels may also be successfully used for a subsequent ANN analysis. The results of all approaches utilized for data evaluation were similar. To increase the practical utility of the chemosensor, we have developed a test paper strip indicator useful for routine naked-eye visual determination of halides. This test can also be used for halide anion determination in solutions using densitometer. The methodology described in this paper can be used for a simple, inexpensive, and fast routine analysis both in a laboratory as well as in a field setting. Full article
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17 pages, 4938 KiB  
Article
Monitoring Corrosion Processes via Visible Fiber-Optic Evanescent Wave Sensor
by Dervis Türkmen, Achim Krug and Boris Mizaikoff
Chemosensors 2020, 8(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors8030076 - 23 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2829
Abstract
Ferrous objects, especially those that are additionally exposed to harsh environments, e.g., high humidity, have the common problem of suffering aggressive corrosion processes. Without a precaution, this leads in many cases to a limited functionality followed by treatment steps, and expensive repairing costs, [...] Read more.
Ferrous objects, especially those that are additionally exposed to harsh environments, e.g., high humidity, have the common problem of suffering aggressive corrosion processes. Without a precaution, this leads in many cases to a limited functionality followed by treatment steps, and expensive repairing costs, as well as to defects/uselessness and even to safety problems, e.g., bridge-collapsing, escaping gas and liquids from pipelines, or leaking oil tankers destroying the ecological system. Conventionally applied methods are confined to laboratory use due to bulky instruments, and are, therefore, time-intensive and may cause erroneous results. Therefore, a sensor based on fiber-optic evanescent wave spectroscopy (FEWS) working in the visible spectral range was developed. The sensor system is comprised of an uncoated single crystal sapphire fiber as a waveguide operating in the visible spectral range in combination with a laser diode as a light source at a specific wavelength and a photodiode for signal detection. Within this study, the potential of the developed sensor was investigated. The corrosion process was simulated by implementing a corroded iron bar inside the measuring cell. When corrosion starts, iron ions are released leading to a complexation reaction with the dye. The results showed the potential use of the developed sensor system enabling implementation for online and on-site detection and monitoring of components susceptible to corrosion. Full article
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17 pages, 4809 KiB  
Article
Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Water by Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy and Diamond-Like Carbon Coated Silicon Wafers
by Carina Dettenrieder, Dervis Türkmen, Andreas Mattsson, Lars Österlund, Mikael Karlsson and Boris Mizaikoff
Chemosensors 2020, 8(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors8030075 - 23 Aug 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4070
Abstract
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one of the most commonly detected contaminants in water. The occurrence is mainly in gasoline and other petroleum-based products, fumigants, paints and plastics. Releases into the environment and the widespread use have an impact on the ecosystem such [...] Read more.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one of the most commonly detected contaminants in water. The occurrence is mainly in gasoline and other petroleum-based products, fumigants, paints and plastics. Releases into the environment and the widespread use have an impact on the ecosystem such as humans and animals due to their toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity. VOCs may persist in groundwater and may enter drinking water supplies. In this paper, a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated silicon waveguide in combination with a polymer film (ethylene/propylene copolymer, E/P-co) for enrichment of analytes was investigated to determine its suitability for ATR-FTIR (attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopic detection of VOCs. The DLC film was fluorine-terminated enhancing the adhesion of the hydrophobic polymer to the waveguide surface. The analytes diffuse into the hydrophobic polymer whereas water is excluded from the emanating evanescent field. Therefore, direct detection in aqueous systems is enabled. Nine VOCs, i.e., ethylbenzene (EB), trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (TeCE), the xylene isomers (p-xylene, pXYL; m-xylene, mXYL; o-xylene, oXYL), naphthalene (NAPH), toluene (TOL), and benzene (BENZ), were evaluated simultaneously qualitatively and quantitatively showing the potential of DLC coatings revealing high sensitivities in the low ppb to ppm concentration range, i.e., 50 ppb for TeCE. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time of IR spectroscopic detection of VOCs in aqueous solutions using DLC-coated waveguides in combination with a hydrophobic polymer. By utilizing a DLC-coated waveguide, a versatile sensor for real-time monitoring in harsh environments such as effluents, leaking pipelines, and underground storage tanks is feasible due to response times within a few minutes. Full article
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Review

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20 pages, 8502 KiB  
Review
Health Monitoring of Aviation Hydraulic Fluids Using Opto-Chemical Sensor Technologies
by Andreas Helwig, Gerhard Müller and Sumit Paul
Chemosensors 2020, 8(4), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors8040131 - 13 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4039
Abstract
Passenger safety requires that in commercial airplanes hydraulic actuators be powered by fire-resistant hydraulic fluids. As a downside, such fluids are hygroscopic which means that these tend to accumulate humidity from the environment and that the dissolved humidity tends to produce acidity which [...] Read more.
Passenger safety requires that in commercial airplanes hydraulic actuators be powered by fire-resistant hydraulic fluids. As a downside, such fluids are hygroscopic which means that these tend to accumulate humidity from the environment and that the dissolved humidity tends to produce acidity which can corrode all kinds of metallic components inside a hydraulic system. As such damage in safety-critical subsystems is hard to localize and expensive to repair, sensor technologies are required which allow the state of water contamination and fluid degradation to be routinely checked and necessary maintenance actions to be scheduled in a way that causes minimum flight interruptions. The paper reviews progress that has been made in developing such sensor systems and in commissioning these into practical flight operation. Sensor technologies that proved optimally adapted to this purpose are multi-channel non-dispersive (NDIR) systems working in the mid-infrared range. Additional options concern optical absorption sensors working in the near-infrared and visible ranges as well as fluorescence sensors. Full article
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