Advances in Magnetic Sensors with Nanocomponents

A special issue of Chemosensors (ISSN 2227-9040). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials for Chemical Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 April 2023) | Viewed by 21512

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
QUIPRE department, Inorganic Chemistry-University of Cantabria, Nanomedice-IDIVAL, Avda. de Los Castros 46, 39005 Santander, Spain
Interests: advanced magnetic materials; magnetic nanomaterials; magnetic sensors; chemical sensors; magnetoimpedance effect; nanoparticle synthesis; material characterization

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Guest Editor
CITIMAC department, University of Cantabria, Avda. de Los Castros 48, 39005 Santander, Spain
Interests: functional materials; nanomagnetism; advanced magnetic materials; X-ray and neutron diffraction; phase transitions; caloric effects; amorphous materials; magnetic sensors

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Magnetic sensors have attracted scientific attention for their technological findings in a broad scope of fields. These applications range from space research to security systems, high-density magnetic recording, environmental monitoring, and biomedicine. The miniaturization of sensors and technological devices is a pillar of the development in smart-novel nanomaterials that challenges the materials science community. The current tendencies in sensors require high sensitivity, a quick response, small size, and stability, while reducing the production cost and power consumption. Recent trends in sensors are based on basic research combining both chemical and physical principles. One of the assets relies on the possibility of integrating different nanosensors in a compact device.

This Special Issue of Chemosensors will be focused on the latest advances and novel ideas that are devoted to designing magnetic devices and applications, magnetic sensing technology, chemical detection systems, basic phenomena, and fundamental studies of new nanomaterials suitable for the next generation of sensors. Short communications, research papers, and review articles are welcome. Potential topics of this Special Issue encompass but are not restricted to the following areas:

  • Nanomaterials synthesis methods;
  • Magnetic measurements and instrumentation, measurement standards, and spectroscopy;
  • Fundamentals and physics involving basic effects, theory, and modeling of magnetic sensors;
  • Nano- and microtechnologies;
  • Magnetochemical devices and nanosensors;
  • Novel and smart magnetic materials for sensor applications and their signal processing;
  • Magnetic sensors such as Hall effect devices, magnetometers, magnetoimpedance sensors, magnetoresistance sensors, magnetoelastic sensors, and flexible electronics, including biomedical and environmental applications.

We look forward for your valuable contributions to this Special Issue.

Dr. Lorena Gonzalez-Legarreta
Dr. David González-Alonso
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Chemosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Characterization of magnetic nanomaterials
  • Magnetic sensors
  • Magnetic nanomaterials
  • Magnetic micro- and nanowires
  • Smart materials and composites
  • Complex structures with nanocomponents
  • Sensing materials
  • Magnetic biosensors

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 5479 KiB  
Article
Effect of UV Irradiation on the Growth of ZnO:Er Nanorods and Their Intrinsic Defects
by Maksym Buryi, Katarína Ridzoňová, Neda Neykova, Lucie Landová, František Hájek, Vladimir Babin, Kateřina Děcká, Rupendra Kumar Sharma and Ognen Pop-Georgievski
Chemosensors 2023, 11(3), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11030156 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1445
Abstract
Nanorods of erbium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Er) were fabricated using a hydrothermal method. One batch was prepared with and another one without constant ultraviolet (UV) irradiation applied during the growth. The nanorods were free-standing (FS) as well as deposited onto a fused silica glass [...] Read more.
Nanorods of erbium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Er) were fabricated using a hydrothermal method. One batch was prepared with and another one without constant ultraviolet (UV) irradiation applied during the growth. The nanorods were free-standing (FS) as well as deposited onto a fused silica glass substrate (GS). The goal was to study the atomistic aspects influencing the charge transport of ZnO nanoparticles, especially considering the differences between the FS and GS samples. We focused on the excitons; the intrinsic defects, such as zinc interstitials, zinc vacancies, and related shallow donors; and the conduction electrons. UV irradiation was applied for the first time during the ZnO:Er nanorod growth. This led to almost total exciton and zinc vacancy luminescence reduction, and the number of shallow donors was strongly suppressed in the GS samples. The effect was much less pronounced in the FS rods. Moreover, the exciton emission remained unchanged there. At the same time, the Er3+ content was decreased in the FS particles grown under constant UV irradiation while Er3+ was not detected in the GS particles at all. These phenomena are explained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Magnetic Sensors with Nanocomponents)
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15 pages, 2509 KiB  
Article
Tailoring Magnetic Properties and Magnetoimpedance Response in Nanocrystalline (Fe3Ni)81Nb7B12 Ribbons for Sensor Applications
by David González-Alonso, Lorena Gonzalez-Legarreta, Jozef Marcin, Peter Švec and Ivan Škorvánek
Chemosensors 2023, 11(2), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11020148 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1118
Abstract
Today, there is an increasing demand for progress in the magnetoimpedance (MI) response of cost-effective soft-magnetic materials for use in high-performance sensing devices. In view of this, we investigate here the field-annealing effects on soft-magnetic properties, magnetoimpedance response, and field sensitivity in the [...] Read more.
Today, there is an increasing demand for progress in the magnetoimpedance (MI) response of cost-effective soft-magnetic materials for use in high-performance sensing devices. In view of this, we investigate here the field-annealing effects on soft-magnetic properties, magnetoimpedance response, and field sensitivity in the nanocrystalline (Fe3Ni)81Nb7B12 alloy ribbons. We observe that within the low-frequency regime, between 2 and 5 MHz, the zero-field-annealed (ZFA) ribbons exhibit the highest magnetoimpedance values. By magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements, we show that this result stems from the formation of irregular transversally patched magnetic domains after annealing, which in turn explains the induced transverse anisotropy necessary to increase the GMI response. In addition, we discuss this increment in terms of skin effect. Moreover, we report that the highest sensitivity of ca. 189%/(kA/m)—15%/Oe—is achieved for the field-annealed samples whose magnetic field was applied transverse to the ribbon axis. These findings are of practical importance to develop and refine highly sensitive magnetic sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Magnetic Sensors with Nanocomponents)
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12 pages, 2760 KiB  
Article
Fe3O4-Nanoparticle-Modified Sensor for the Detection of Dopamine, Uric Acid and Ascorbic Acid
by Eduardo Gaya, Nieves Menendez, Eva Mazario and Pilar Herrasti
Chemosensors 2023, 11(2), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11020079 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1644
Abstract
A simple electrochemical sensor based on electrochemically synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles was constructed by an ink with the nanoparticles, isopropanol, NAFION and carbon Vulcan to detect dopamine, uric acid and ascorbic acid. The electrocatalytic activity of the nanoparticles for the oxidation [...] Read more.
A simple electrochemical sensor based on electrochemically synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles was constructed by an ink with the nanoparticles, isopropanol, NAFION and carbon Vulcan to detect dopamine, uric acid and ascorbic acid. The electrocatalytic activity of the nanoparticles for the oxidation of the analyte molecules was examined by means of cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry. The parameters controlling the performance of the sensor were optimized, such as the amount of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10 mg), amount of binder (5, 10, 15 µL) and carbon Vulcan in the ink (4, 6, 8 mg). The temperature was maintained at 25 °C and the pH was 7.5 with buffer phosphate. The optimal sensor conditions were 8 mg magnetite, 4 mg carbon Vulcan and 5 µL of NAFION@ 117. The calibration curves for the three analytes were determined separately, obtaining linear ranges of 10–100, 20–160 and 1050–2300 µM and limits of detection of 4.5, 14 and 95 µM for dopamine, uric acid and ascorbic acid, respectively. This electrochemical sensor has also shown significant sensitivity and selectivity without interference from the three analyte molecules presented simultaneously in solution. This sensor was applied for the detection of these molecules in real samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Magnetic Sensors with Nanocomponents)
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33 pages, 8133 KiB  
Article
Design and Calibration of Moisture Sensor Based on Electromagnetic Field Measurement for Irrigation Monitoring
by Daniel A. Basterrechea, Javier Rocher, Mar Parra, Lorena Parra, Jose F. Marin, Pedro V. Mauri and Jaime Lloret
Chemosensors 2021, 9(9), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9090251 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2451
Abstract
Soil moisture control is crucial to assess irrigation efficiency in green areas and agriculture. In this paper, we propose the design and calibration of a sensor based on inductive coils and electromagnetic fields. The proposed prototypes should meet a series of requirements such [...] Read more.
Soil moisture control is crucial to assess irrigation efficiency in green areas and agriculture. In this paper, we propose the design and calibration of a sensor based on inductive coils and electromagnetic fields. The proposed prototypes should meet a series of requirements such as low power consumption, low relative error, and a high voltage difference between the minimum and maximum moisture. We tested different prototypes based on two copper coils divided into two different sets (P1–P15 and NP1–NP4). The prototypes have different characteristics: variations in the number and distribution of spires, existence or absence of casing, and copper wires with a diameter of 0.4 or 0.6 mm. In the first set of experiments carried out in commercial soil, the results showed that the best prototypes were P5, P8, and P9. These prototypes were used in different types of soils, and P8 was selected for the subsequent tests. We carried the second set of experiments using soil from an agricultural field. Based on the data gathered, mathematical models for the calibration of prototypes were obtained and verified. In some cases, two equations were used for different moisture intervals in a single prototype. According to the verification results, NP2 is the best prototype for monitoring the moisture in agricultural lands. It presented a difference in induced voltage of 1.8 V, at 500 kHz, between wet and dry soil with a maximum voltage of 5.12 V. The verification of the calibration determined that the calibration using two mathematical models offers better results, with an average absolute error of 2.1% of moisture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Magnetic Sensors with Nanocomponents)
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19 pages, 5007 KiB  
Article
MEMS-Based Cantilever Sensor for Simultaneous Measurement of Mass and Magnetic Moment of Magnetic Particles
by Wilson Ombati Nyang’au, Tamara Kahmann, Thilo Viereck and Erwin Peiner
Chemosensors 2021, 9(8), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9080207 - 04 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2348
Abstract
This study presents a measurement approach suitable for the simultaneous determination of both the mass mp and magnetic moment µp of magnetic particles deposited on a micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) resonant cantilever balance, which is operated in parallel to an [...] Read more.
This study presents a measurement approach suitable for the simultaneous determination of both the mass mp and magnetic moment µp of magnetic particles deposited on a micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) resonant cantilever balance, which is operated in parallel to an external magnetic field-induced force gradient F′(z). Magnetic induction B(z) and its second spatial derivative δ2Bz2 is realized, beforehand, through the finite element method magnetics (FEMM) simulation with a pair of neodymium permanent magnets configured in a face-to-face arrangement. Typically, the magnets are mounted in a magnet holder assembly designed and fabricated in-house. The resulting F′ lowers the calibrated intrinsic stiffness k0 of the cantilever to k0-F′, which can, thus, be obtained from a measured resonance frequency shift of the cantilever. The magnetic moment µp per deposited particle is determined by dividing F′ by δ2Bz2 and the number of the attached monodisperse particles given by the mass-induced frequency shift of the cantilever. For the plain iron oxide particles (250 nm) and the magnetic polystyrene particles (2 µm), we yield µp of 0.8 to 1.5 fA m2 and 11 to 19 fA m2 compared to 2 fA m2 and 33 fA m2 nominal values, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Magnetic Sensors with Nanocomponents)
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Review

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26 pages, 6010 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Magnetic Nanoparticles-Assisted Microfluidic Bioanalysis
by Zihui Zhong, Jincan He, Gongke Li and Ling Xia
Chemosensors 2023, 11(3), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11030173 - 03 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1845
Abstract
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are attracting increasing attention in bioanalysis, due to their large surface area and excellent steerable properties. Meanwhile, the booming development of microfluidics is offering a faster, lower consumption, and more effective approach to bioanalysis. MNPs-assisted microfluidic bioanalysis enables enhanced analytical [...] Read more.
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are attracting increasing attention in bioanalysis, due to their large surface area and excellent steerable properties. Meanwhile, the booming development of microfluidics is offering a faster, lower consumption, and more effective approach to bioanalysis. MNPs-assisted microfluidic bioanalysis enables enhanced analytical performance by introducing functionalized magnetic nanomaterial into microchip devices. This work reviews the advances of MNPs-assisted microfluidic bioanalysis in the recent decade. The preparation and modification methods of MNPs are summarized as having a bioanalysis capability in microchips. These MNPs can be used for sample pretreatment materials and/or biosensing tags. In sample pretreatment, MNPs enable effective magnetic separation, preconcentration, and mass transport. In detection, MNPs act as not only magnetic sensing tags but also as the support for optical sensors. Finally, the overviews and challenges in microfluidic bioanalysis with the assistance of MNPs are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Magnetic Sensors with Nanocomponents)
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23 pages, 4425 KiB  
Review
Current Progress of Magnetoresistance Sensors
by Songlin Yang and Jin Zhang
Chemosensors 2021, 9(8), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9080211 - 05 Aug 2021
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 6268
Abstract
Magnetoresistance (MR) is the variation of a material’s resistivity under the presence of external magnetic fields. Reading heads in hard disk drives (HDDs) are the most common applications of MR sensors. Since the discovery of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) in the 1980s and the [...] Read more.
Magnetoresistance (MR) is the variation of a material’s resistivity under the presence of external magnetic fields. Reading heads in hard disk drives (HDDs) are the most common applications of MR sensors. Since the discovery of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) in the 1980s and the application of GMR reading heads in the 1990s, the MR sensors lead to the rapid developments of the HDDs’ storage capacity. Nowadays, MR sensors are employed in magnetic storage, position sensing, current sensing, non-destructive monitoring, and biomedical sensing systems. MR sensors are used to transfer the variation of the target magnetic fields to other signals such as resistance change. This review illustrates the progress of developing nanoconstructed MR materials/structures. Meanwhile, it offers an overview of current trends regarding the applications of MR sensors. In addition, the challenges in designing/developing MR sensors with enhanced performance and cost-efficiency are discussed in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Magnetic Sensors with Nanocomponents)
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22 pages, 3156 KiB  
Review
Electronic Surveillance and Security Applications of Magnetic Microwires
by Valentina Zhukova, Paula Corte-Leon, Juan Maria Blanco, Mihail Ipatov, Julian Gonzalez and Arcady Zhukov
Chemosensors 2021, 9(5), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9050100 - 30 Apr 2021
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 2528
Abstract
Applications in security and electronic surveillance require a combination of excellent magnetic softness with good mechanical and anticorrosive properties and low dimensionality. We overviewed the feasibility of using glass-coated microwires for electronic article surveillance and security applications, as well as different routes of [...] Read more.
Applications in security and electronic surveillance require a combination of excellent magnetic softness with good mechanical and anticorrosive properties and low dimensionality. We overviewed the feasibility of using glass-coated microwires for electronic article surveillance and security applications, as well as different routes of tuning the magnetic properties of individual microwires or microwire arrays, making them quite attractive for electronic article surveillance and security applications. We provide the routes for tuning the hysteresis loops’ nonlinearity by the magnetostatic interaction between the microwires in the arrays of different types of amorphous microwires. The presence of neighboring microwire (either Fe- or Co-based) significantly affects the hysteresis loop of the whole microwires array. In a microwires array containing magnetically bistable microwires, we observed splitting of the initially rectangular hysteresis loop with a number of Barkhausen jumps correlated with the number of magnetically bistable microwires. Essentially, nonlinear and irregular hysteresis loops have been observed in mixed arrays containing Fe- and Co-rich microwires. The obtained nonlinearity in hysteresis loops allowed to increase the harmonics and tune their magnetic field dependencies. On the other hand, several routes allowing to tune the switching field by either postprocessing or modifying the magnetoelastic anisotropy have been reviewed. Nonlinear hysteresis loops have been also observed upon devitrification of amorphous microwires. Semihard magnetic microwires have been obtained by annealing of Fe–Pt–Si microwires. The observed unique combination of magnetic properties together with thin dimensions and excellent mechanical and anticorrosive properties provide excellent perspectives for the use of glass-coated microwires for security and electronic surveillance applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Magnetic Sensors with Nanocomponents)
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