Advanced Electrochemical Sensors or Biosensors Based on Nanomaterial

A special issue of Chemosensors (ISSN 2227-9040). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials for Chemical Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2024) | Viewed by 10691

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Industrial Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Politehnica University of Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania
Interests: development of advanced voltammetric and amperometric sensors; design of nanomaterials-based electrode materials; electrochemical detection and degradation of hazardous and emerging pollutants from water; advanced oxidation processes for water and wastewater treatment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Faculty of Industrial Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Politehnica University of Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania
Interests: water and wastewater treatment by electrochemical methods; electrochemical and electroanalytical techniques with applications in environmental pollution monitoring; new sensors development based on carbon nanostructures; emerging pollutants monitoring and removal from water

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Guest Editor
“Coriolan Drăgulescu” Institute of Chemistry, Romanian Academy, 24 Mihai Viteazu Bvd., 300223 Timisoara, Romania
Interests: nanoparticles and nanostructured carbon based electrochemical sensors development; advanced wastewater and water treatment tehniques; electrochemical sensor characterization and aplication

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The integration of nanomaterials in the development of electrochemical sensors and biosensors provides an enhancement of their electroanalytical performance, i.e., their sensitivity, selectivity and lowest limit of detection. Additionally, specific characteristics related to fast signals, stability, the life-time and miniaturization are improved. It is well-known that the electrode material plays a key role in sensing performance through a large variety of analytical procedures. Functional nanomaterials can produce a synergic effect among electrocatalytic activity, enhanced electroactive surface area and biocompatibility to accelerate the signal transduction for all or specific targeted analytes. Coupling different electrochemical methods with the design of a large variety of functional nanomaterials for the electrode composition, e.g., carbon nanomaterials (single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, fullerene, graphene, graphene quantum dots, carbon quantum dots), noble metal nanoparticles, metal oxide (rare earth oxides, perovskites) nanomaterials, magnetic nanomaterials, etc., broadens the practical application of electrochemical sensors and biosensors in the medical, food and environmental fields.

Research articles or reviews related, but not limited, to the design, synthesis and characterization of nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors and non-enzymatic or enzymatic biosensors and their application in medicine, food and the environment are welcomed.

The advanced characteristics of electrochemical sensors and biosensors through the integration of (a large variety of) nanomaterials fit within the scope of Chemosensors, including: electrochemical devices and sensors; catalytic sensors; materials for chemical sensing; nano- and micro-technologies; bioanalytical chemistry; quantitative analysis; and drug and medico-diagnostic testing.

Prof. Dr. Florica Manea
Dr. Aniela Pop
Dr. Sorina Motoc
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

0 pages, 2489 KiB  
Article
Ferrocene-Containing Gallic Acid-Derivative Modified Carbon-Nanotube Electrodes for the Fast Simultaneous and Selective Determination of Cytostatics from Aqueous Solutions
by Sorina Motoc (m. Ilies), Adelina Andelescu, Alexandru Visan, Anamaria Baciu, Elisabeta I. Szerb and Florica Manea
Chemosensors 2024, 12(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors12010015 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1319
Abstract
In this work, a ferrocene-containing gallic acid-derivative modified carbon-nanotube paste electrode (Gal-Fc-CNT), obtained through simple mechanical mixing, was studied for the fast simultaneous voltammetric determination of doxorubicin (DOX), capecitabine (CPB), and cyclophosphamide (CPP) as cytostatic indices based on their cumulative signals and the [...] Read more.
In this work, a ferrocene-containing gallic acid-derivative modified carbon-nanotube paste electrode (Gal-Fc-CNT), obtained through simple mechanical mixing, was studied for the fast simultaneous voltammetric determination of doxorubicin (DOX), capecitabine (CPB), and cyclophosphamide (CPP) as cytostatic indices based on their cumulative signals and the selective determination of DOX. The individual and simultaneous electrochemical behavior of DOX, CPB, and CPP, studied through cyclic voltammetry (CV) on the Gal-Fc-CNT paste electrode at various pHs and potential ranges, allowed for the development of a simple simultaneous determination method as a cytostatic index at a pH of 12 using square-wave voltammetry, which allowed for a better performance than reported electrodes for each individual cytostatic. A faster and selective detection of DOX, with a limit of detection of 75 ng·L−1, was achieved using square-wave voltammetry at a pH of 3. The good results obtained for the real tap water assessment indicated the applicability of the Gal-Fc-CNT paste electrode for practical applications (water samples). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electrochemical Sensors or Biosensors Based on Nanomaterial)
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12 pages, 1965 KiB  
Article
Laser-Scribed Pencil Lead Electrodes for Amperometric Quantification of Indapamide
by Thawan G. Oliveira, Irlan S. Lima, Wilson A. Ameku, Josué M. Gonçalves, Rodrigo S. Souza, Henrique E. Toma and Lúcio Angnes
Chemosensors 2023, 11(12), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11120574 - 05 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1484
Abstract
Laser engraving is a convenient, fast, one-step, and environmentally friendly technique used to produce more conductive surfaces by local pyrolysis. The laser’s thermal treatment can also remove non-conductive materials from the electrode surfaces and improve electrochemical performance. The improvement was assessed by electrochemical [...] Read more.
Laser engraving is a convenient, fast, one-step, and environmentally friendly technique used to produce more conductive surfaces by local pyrolysis. The laser’s thermal treatment can also remove non-conductive materials from the electrode surfaces and improve electrochemical performance. The improvement was assessed by electrochemical tools such as cyclic voltammograms and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy using [Fe(CN)6]3−/4− and dopamine as redox probes. The electrochemical results observed showed that a treated surface showed an improvement in electron transfer and less resistance to charge transfer. To optimize the electrode performance, it was necessary to search for the most favorable graphite mines and optimize the parameters of the laser machine (laser power, scan rate, and output distance). The resultant material was adequately characterized by Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), where an irregular surface composed of crystalline graphite particles was noticed. Furthermore, as a proof-of-concept, it was applied to detect indapamide (IND) in synthetic urine by flow injection analysis (FIA), a diuretic drug often used by athletes to alter urine composition to hide forbidden substance consumption in doping tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electrochemical Sensors or Biosensors Based on Nanomaterial)
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17 pages, 4276 KiB  
Article
Ultrafast Electrochemical Self-Doping of Anodic Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes for Enhanced Electroanalytical and Photocatalytic Performance
by Davide Spanu, Aicha Dhahri, Gilberto Binda, Damiano Monticelli, Marco Pinna and Sandro Recchia
Chemosensors 2023, 11(11), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11110560 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1417
Abstract
This study explores an ultrarapid electrochemical self-doping procedure applied to anodic titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube arrays in an alkaline solution to boost their performance for electroanalytical and photocatalytic applications. The electrochemical self-doping process (i.e., the creation of surface Ti3+ states [...] Read more.
This study explores an ultrarapid electrochemical self-doping procedure applied to anodic titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube arrays in an alkaline solution to boost their performance for electroanalytical and photocatalytic applications. The electrochemical self-doping process (i.e., the creation of surface Ti3+ states by applying a negative potential) is recently emerging as a simpler and cleaner way to improve the electronic properties of TiO2 compared to traditional chemical and high-temperature doping strategies. Here, self-doping was carried out through varying voltages and treatment times to identify the most performing materials without compromising their structural stability. Interestingly, cyclic voltammetry characterization revealed that undoped TiO2 shows negligible activity, whereas all self-doped materials demonstrate their suitability as electrode materials: an outstandingly short 10 s self-doping treatment leads to the highest electrochemical activity. The electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide was assessed as well, demonstrating a good sensitivity and a linear detection range of 3–200 µM. Additionally, the self-doped TiO2 nanotubes exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to the untreated substrate: the degradation potential of methylene blue under UV light exposure increased by 25% in comparison to undoped materials. Overall, this study highlights the potential of ultrafast electrochemical self-doping to unleash and improve TiO2 nanotubes performances for electroanalytical and photocatalytic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electrochemical Sensors or Biosensors Based on Nanomaterial)
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16 pages, 2981 KiB  
Article
Facile Fabrication of a Selective Poly(caffeic acid)@MWCNT-Ni(OH)2 Hybrid Nanomaterial and Its Application as a Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensor
by Maria Kuznowicz, Tomasz Rębiś, Artur Jędrzak, Grzegorz Nowaczyk and Teofil Jesionowski
Chemosensors 2023, 11(8), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11080452 - 13 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1225
Abstract
A novel catechol-based PCA@MWCNT-Ni(OH)2 hybrid material was prepared and used to construct a non-enzymatic glucose biosensor. In this synthesis, MWCNTs were covered with a poly(caffeic acid) coating and then subjected to a straightforward electrochemical process to decorate the hybrid material with Ni(OH) [...] Read more.
A novel catechol-based PCA@MWCNT-Ni(OH)2 hybrid material was prepared and used to construct a non-enzymatic glucose biosensor. In this synthesis, MWCNTs were covered with a poly(caffeic acid) coating and then subjected to a straightforward electrochemical process to decorate the hybrid material with Ni(OH)2 particles. The physicochemical properties and morphology of the nanomaterial were characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Amperometry and cyclic voltammetric studies demonstrated the enhanced redox properties of a GC/PCA@MWCNT-Ni(OH)2 electrode and its electrocatalytic activity in glucose detection, with a low detection limit (0.29 μM), a selectivity of 232.7 μA mM−1 cm−2, and a linear range of 0.05–10 mM, with good stability (5 months) and reproducibility (n = 8). The non-enzymatic sensor was also used for glucose determination in human serum and human blood, with recovery values ranging from 93.3% to 98.2%. In view of the properties demonstrated, the described GC/PCA@MWCNT-Ni(OH)2 sensor represents a facile synthesis method of obtaining the hybrid nanomaterial and a low-cost approach to electrochemical glucose measurement in real samples (human serum, human blood). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electrochemical Sensors or Biosensors Based on Nanomaterial)
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15 pages, 6612 KiB  
Article
A Sensitive and Selective Non-Enzymatic Dopamine Sensor Based on Nanostructured Co3O4–Fe2O3 Heterojunctions
by Madiha Khan, Khouloud Abid, Angelo Ferlazzo, Viviana Bressi, Claudia Espro, Mozaffar Hussain, Antonino Foti, Pietro Giuseppe Gucciardi and Giovanni Neri
Chemosensors 2023, 11(7), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11070379 - 06 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1083
Abstract
In the present work, a study was carried out with the aim of enhancing the performance of electrochemical biosensors based on Co3O4:Fe2O3 heterojunctions. Specifically, the redox behavior of screen–printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) modified with Co3 [...] Read more.
In the present work, a study was carried out with the aim of enhancing the performance of electrochemical biosensors based on Co3O4:Fe2O3 heterojunctions. Specifically, the redox behavior of screen–printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) modified with Co3O4:Fe2O3 (0.5 wt%:x wt%) nanocomposites, where x ranged from 0.1 to 0.5 wt%, was examined in detail. The hybrid nanocomposites were synthesized using the sol-gel auto-combustion method. Several characterization methods were performed to investigate the morphology, microstructure, and surface area of the pure Co3O4, pure Fe2O3, and the synthesized Co3O4:Fe2O3 nanocomposites. Using cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests, the electrochemical behavior of the modified electrodes toward the dopamine (DA) molecules was investigated. The modified Co3O4:Fe2O3, (0.5 wt%, x = 0.4 wt%)/SPCE resulted in a sensor with the best electrochemical performance toward DA. A high linear relationship between DA concentrations and the faradic current variation (ipa (μA) = 0.0736 + 0.1031 CDA (μA) and R2 = 0.99) was found in the range of 10–100 μM. The sensitivity value was computed to be 0.604 µA µM−1cm−2 and the limit of detection (LOD) 0.24 µM. Based on the characterization and electrochemical results, it can be suggested that the formation of Co3O4:Fe2O3 heterostructures provides a large specific surface area, an increased number of electroactive sites at the metal oxide interface and a p–n heterojunction, thus ensuring a remarkable enhancement in the electrochemical response towards DA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electrochemical Sensors or Biosensors Based on Nanomaterial)
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18 pages, 11190 KiB  
Article
Disposable Sensor with Copper-Loaded Carbon Nanospheres for the Simultaneous Determination of Dopamine and Melatonin
by Sivaguru Jayaraman, Thenmozhi Rajarathinam and Seung-Cheol Chang
Chemosensors 2023, 11(4), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11040254 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1237
Abstract
A novel electrochemical sensor based on Cu-loaded carbon nanospheres (Cu–CNSs) was designed and fabricated. Initially, the CNSs were synthesized using a natural or inexpensive carbon source (dark brown sugar), and Cu was loaded to enhance the electrocatalytic properties of the material. Subsequently, the [...] Read more.
A novel electrochemical sensor based on Cu-loaded carbon nanospheres (Cu–CNSs) was designed and fabricated. Initially, the CNSs were synthesized using a natural or inexpensive carbon source (dark brown sugar), and Cu was loaded to enhance the electrocatalytic properties of the material. Subsequently, the synthesized Cu–CNSs were modified onto a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE), termed Cu–CNS/SPCE, to simultaneously detect the biomarkers dopamine (DA) and melatonin (MT) through differential pulse voltammetry. The surface characterization of the Cu–CNSs confirmed the formation of carbon spheres and Cu nanoparticles covering the spheres. Electrochemical studies showed that the Cu–CNS/SPCE had a high selectivity and sensitivity toward DA and MT, with a significant peak separation of 0.502 V. The two linear ranges of DA were 0.125–20 μM and 20–100 μM and the linear range of MT was 1.0–100 μM, with corresponding detection limits of 0.34 μM and 0.33 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. The quantification limits for DA and MT were 2.19 and 1.09 μM (S/N = 10), respectively. The sensor performance is attributed to the high conductivity and large, electrochemically active surface area of the Cu–CNS. In human serum samples, the Cu–CNS/SPCE exhibited good selectivity and satisfactory reproducibility for the simultaneous determination of DA and MT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electrochemical Sensors or Biosensors Based on Nanomaterial)
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19 pages, 3908 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Characterization of a Multiporous SnO2 Nanofibers-Supported Au Nanoparticles-Based Amperometric Sensor for the Nonenzymatic Detection of H2O2
by Md. Ashraful Kader, Nina Suhaity Azmi, A. K. M. Kafi, Md. Sanower Hossain, Mohd Faizulnazrie Bin Masri, Aizi Nor Mazila Ramli and Ching Siang Tan
Chemosensors 2023, 11(2), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11020130 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2001
Abstract
The challenges of a heme protein and enzyme-based H2O2 sensor was subdued by developing a highly sensitive and practically functional amperometric gold nanoparticles (Au NPs)/SnO2 nanofibers (SnO2 NFs) composite sensor. The composite was prepared by mixing multiporous SnO [...] Read more.
The challenges of a heme protein and enzyme-based H2O2 sensor was subdued by developing a highly sensitive and practically functional amperometric gold nanoparticles (Au NPs)/SnO2 nanofibers (SnO2 NFs) composite sensor. The composite was prepared by mixing multiporous SnO2 NFs (diameter: 120–190 nm) with Au NPs (size: 3–5 nm). The synthesized Au NPs/SnO2 NFs composite was subsequently coated on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and displayed a well-defined reduction peak during a cyclic voltammetry (CV) analysis. The SnO2 NFs prevented the aggregation of Au NPs through its multiporous structure and enhanced the catalytic response by 1.6-fold. The SnO2 NFs-supported GCE/Au NPs/SnO2 NFs composite sensor demonstrated a very good catalytic activity during the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) that displayed rapid amperometric behavior within 6.5 s. This sensor allowed for highly sensitive and selective detection. The sensitivity was 14.157 µA/mM, the linear detection range was from 49.98 µM to 3937.21 µM (R2 = 0.99577), and the lower limit of detection was 6.67 µM. Furthermore, the developed sensor exhibited acceptable reproducibility, repeatability, and stability over 41 days. In addition, the Au NPs/SnO2 NFs composite sensor was tested for its ability to detect H2O2 in tap water, apple juice, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli. Therefore, this sensor would be useful due to its accuracy and sensitivity in detecting contaminants (H2O2) in commercial products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electrochemical Sensors or Biosensors Based on Nanomaterial)
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