The State-of-the-Art Gas Sensor

A special issue of Chemosensors (ISSN 2227-9040). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 December 2023) | Viewed by 14140

Special Issue Editors

College of Engineering and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
Interests: metal oxides; gas sensor; first-principles calculation; energy materials; spectroscopic gas sensors; optical gas sensors
College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China
Interests: metal oxides; gas sensor; first-principles calculation; energy materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory (INL), 4710-436 Braga, Portugal
Interests: metal oxides; gas sensor; first-principles calculation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanostructured gas sensors play an important role in many aspects of science, technology, industry, or daily life. The accurate, sensitive, and reliable identification of various characteristic gases at a low concentration is mandatory in some areas, such as industrial and agricultural plants, automotive technologies, food sciences, environmental monitoring, or air quality security, to name a few. In the last few years, nanostructured chemical gas sensors have received the close attention of the gas sensor community around the world due to some unusually superior sensing performance. However, the research and development of nanostructured chemical gas sensor devices continue to be faced with numerous challenges in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, promptness of response, robustness, and many other aspects. The synthesis and fabrication of novel nanostructured sensing materials opens up new opportunities, while the fundamental understanding of underlying sensing processes continues to be improved. At the same time, knowledge about sensing mechanisms has greatly improved by using sound theoretical models, as well as spectroscopic technologies. This Special Issue of the journal Chemosensors intends to highlight the emerging technologies of nanostructured chemical gas sensors and their applications, as well as aiming to present the latest technologies and methodologies developed in this interdisciplinary field of science. The following topics are welcome to this Special Issue:

  • Synthesis, functionalization, and gas-sensing properties of metal oxide nanomaterials/gas sensors.
  • Synthesis, functionalization, and gas-sensing properties of carbon-related nanomaterials/gas sensors.
  • Synthesis, functionalization, and gas-sensing properties of organic-related nanomaterials/gas sensors.
  • New chemistry and new composite sensor materials.
  • Integration of gas-sensing nanomaterials onto transducers platforms.
  • Theoretical calculation and simulation on gas-sensing nanomaterials/sensors.
  • New applications of nanostructured gas sensors.
  • Spectroscopic gas sensors (near-infrared, mid-infrared, Raman scattering and terahertz spectroscopies, etc.).
  • Optical gas sensors, thermometric gas sensors, crystal microbalance gas sensors, cantilever gas sensors, field-effect gas sensors, etc.

Dr. Qu Zhou
Dr. Wen Zeng
Dr. Zhongchang Wang
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 3624 KiB  
Communication
Pd-Decorated ZnO Hexagonal Microdiscs for NH3 Sensor
by Yi Li, Boyu Zhang, Juan Li, Zaihua Duan, Yajie Yang, Zhen Yuan, Yadong Jiang and Huiling Tai
Chemosensors 2024, 12(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors12030043 - 05 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 909
Abstract
The NH3 sensor is of great significance in preventing NH3 leakage and ensuring life safety. In this work, the Pd-decorated ZnO hexagonal microdiscs are synthesized using hydrothermal and annealing processes, and the gas sensor is fabricated based on Pd-decorated ZnO hexagonal [...] Read more.
The NH3 sensor is of great significance in preventing NH3 leakage and ensuring life safety. In this work, the Pd-decorated ZnO hexagonal microdiscs are synthesized using hydrothermal and annealing processes, and the gas sensor is fabricated based on Pd-decorated ZnO hexagonal microdiscs. The gas-sensing test results show that the Pd-ZnO gas sensor has a good response to NH3 gas. Specifically, it has a good linear response within 0.5–50 ppm NH3 at the optimal operating temperature of 230 °C. In addition, the Pd-ZnO gas sensor exhibits good repeatability, short response time (23.2 s) and good humidity resistance (10–90% relative humidity). This work provides a useful reference for developing an NH3 sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The State-of-the-Art Gas Sensor)
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19 pages, 5003 KiB  
Article
Surface-Catalyzed Zinc Oxide Nanorods and Interconnected Tetrapods as Efficient Methane Gas Sensing Platforms
by Abbey Knoepfel, Bed Poudel and Sanju Gupta
Chemosensors 2023, 11(9), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11090506 - 17 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1137
Abstract
Nanostructured metal oxide semiconductors have proven to be promising for the gas sensing domain. However, there are challenges associated with the fabrication of high-performance, low-to-room-temperature operation sensors for methane and other gases, including hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. The functional properties of [...] Read more.
Nanostructured metal oxide semiconductors have proven to be promising for the gas sensing domain. However, there are challenges associated with the fabrication of high-performance, low-to-room-temperature operation sensors for methane and other gases, including hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. The functional properties of these semiconducting oxides can be improved by altering the morphology, crystal size, shape, and topology. Zinc oxide (ZnO) is an attractive option for gas sensing, but the need for elevated operating temperatures has limited its practical use as a commercial gas sensor. In this work, we prepared ZnO nanorod (ZnO-NR) arrays and interconnected tetrapod ZnO (T-ZnO) network sensing platforms as chemiresistive methane sensors on silicon substrates with platinum interdigitated electrodes and systematically characterized their methane sensing response in addition to their structural and physical properties. We also conducted surface modification by photochemical-catalyzed palladium, Pd, and Pd-Ag alloy nanoparticles and compared the uniformly distributed Pd decoration versus arrayed dots. The sensing performance was assessed in terms of target gas response magnitude (RM) and response percentage (R) recorded by changes in electrical resistance upon exposure to varying methane concentration (100–10,000 ppm) under thermal (operating temperatures = 175, 200, 230 °C) and optical (UV A, 365 nm illumination) excitations alongside response/recovery times, and limit of detection quantification. Thin film sensing platforms based on T-ZnO exhibited the highest response at 200 °C (RM = 2.98; R = 66.4%) compared to ZnO-NR thin films at 230 °C (RM = 1.34; R = 25.5%), attributed to the interconnected network and effective bandgap and barrier height reduction of the T-ZnO. The Pd-Ag-catalyzed and Pd dot-catalyzed T-ZnO films had the fastest response and recovery rates at 200 °C and room temperature under UV excitation, due to the localized Pd nanoparticles dots resulting in nano Schottky barrier formation, as opposed to the films coated with uniformly distributed Pd nanoparticles. The experimental findings present morphological differences, identify various mechanistic aspects, and discern chemical pathways for methane sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The State-of-the-Art Gas Sensor)
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19 pages, 5795 KiB  
Article
Microplotter Printing of Hierarchically Organized NiCo2O4 Films for Ethanol Gas Sensing
by Tatiana L. Simonenko, Nikolay P. Simonenko, Artem S. Mokrushin, Philipp Yu. Gorobtsov, Anna A. Lizunova, Oleg Yu. Grafov, Elizaveta P. Simonenko and Nikolay T. Kuznetsov
Chemosensors 2023, 11(2), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11020138 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1514
Abstract
Using a combination of chemical coprecipitation and hydrothermal treatment of the resulting dispersed system, a hierarchically organized NiCo2O4 nanopowder was obtained, consisting of slightly elongated initial oxide nanoparticles self-organized into nanosheets about 10 nm thick, which in turn are combined [...] Read more.
Using a combination of chemical coprecipitation and hydrothermal treatment of the resulting dispersed system, a hierarchically organized NiCo2O4 nanopowder was obtained, consisting of slightly elongated initial oxide nanoparticles self-organized into nanosheets about 10 nm thick, which in turn are combined into hierarchical cellular agglomerates of about 2 μm. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) allowed to confirm the formation of NiCo2O4 powder with the desired crystal structure via additional heat treatment of the intermediate product. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) was used to confirm the target metal ratio, and the uniform distribution of the elements (Ni, Co and O) was shown by mapping. The resulting nanopowder was employed to prepare functional inks suitable for microplotter printing of the NiCo2O4 film. It was found that an oxide film morphology is fully inherited from the hierarchically organized oxide nanopowder used. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the film thickness (15 μm) and determined the maximum height difference of 500 nm over an area of 25 μm2. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) showed that the surface potential was shifted to the depths of the oxide film, and the work function value of the material surface was 4.54 eV, which is significantly lower compared to those reported in the literature. The electronic state of the elements in the NiCo2O4 film under study was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Chemosensor measurements showed that the printed receptor layer exhibited selectivity and high signal reproducibility for ethanol detection. As the relative humidity increases from 0 to 75%, the response value is reduced; however, the sensor response profile and signal-to-noise ratio remain without significant changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The State-of-the-Art Gas Sensor)
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13 pages, 3548 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Sensing Performance of Electrospun Tin Dioxide Nanofibers Decorated with Cerium Dioxide Nanoparticles for the Detection of Liquefied Petroleum Gas
by Xichen Liu, Jianhua Zhang, Hao Zhang, Can Chen and Dongzhi Zhang
Chemosensors 2022, 10(12), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10120497 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1341
Abstract
Tin dioxide (SnO2) nanofibers and cerium dioxide (CeO2) nanoparticles were prepared by electrospinning and hydrothermal methods, respectively. The morphology and structure of the synthesized SnO2/CeO2 samples were characterized by a variety of methods. The gas-sensing properties [...] Read more.
Tin dioxide (SnO2) nanofibers and cerium dioxide (CeO2) nanoparticles were prepared by electrospinning and hydrothermal methods, respectively. The morphology and structure of the synthesized SnO2/CeO2 samples were characterized by a variety of methods. The gas-sensing properties of the SnO2/CeO2 sensor were investigated for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) detection at room temperature. Compared with pure SnO2 nanofibers, the SnO2/CeO2 composite sensor showed a much higher response and shorter response time for LPG sensing after doping with CeO2 nanoparticles. Furthermore, the SnO2/CeO2 composite sensor had better resistance to interference from humidity than the pure SnO2 sensor. The significantly enhanced sensing performance of the SnO2/CeO2 composite sensor for LPG can be attributed to the modification with CeO2 to increase oxygen vacancies and form a heterostructure with SnO2 nanofibers. Meanwhile, the LPG detection circuit was built to realize real-time concentration display and alarm for practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The State-of-the-Art Gas Sensor)
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13 pages, 4813 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Microstructure of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by PLD on Their Performance as Toxic Gas Sensors
by Didier Fasquelle, Stéphanie Députier, Valérie Bouquet and Maryline Guilloux-Viry
Chemosensors 2022, 10(7), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10070285 - 16 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1632
Abstract
In 2008, the modified European Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive prohibited the use of hazardous substances such as lead, cadmium, and mercury. As such, an urgent need for lead-free components emerged in Europe. In this frame, we have decided to study the [...] Read more.
In 2008, the modified European Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive prohibited the use of hazardous substances such as lead, cadmium, and mercury. As such, an urgent need for lead-free components emerged in Europe. In this frame, we have decided to study the microstructure influence of zinc oxide thin films on the detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Zinc oxide thin films were deposited by PLD on silicon substrates under different conditions to modify the microstructure. In order to compare our demonstrators to current commercial semiconductor gas sensors, measurements under H2S were also performed with sensors from Figaro and Winsen corporations. Gas sensors were therefore implemented by using commercial cases in view to test them with Simtronics gas detector DG477. The good sensitivity values measured at T = 400 °C under 100 ppm H2S, and response times as low as 30 s, definitely confirm that ZnO thin films could be developed for commercial sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The State-of-the-Art Gas Sensor)
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13 pages, 4965 KiB  
Article
Adsorption Properties of ZSM-5 Molecular Sieve for Perfluoroisobutyronitrile Mixtures and Its Fluorocarbon Decomposition Products
by Wei Liu, Xinjie Qiu, Xiaoxing Zhang, Shuangshuang Tian, Zian Yuan and Weihao Liu
Chemosensors 2022, 10(4), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10040121 - 24 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2245
Abstract
Perfluoroisobutyronitrile (C4F7N), an environment-friendly insulating gas, has excellent insulating properties and has the potential to be used in gas-insulated equipment when mixed with CO2. Selecting suitable adsorption materials to adsorb the decomposition products of the C4 [...] Read more.
Perfluoroisobutyronitrile (C4F7N), an environment-friendly insulating gas, has excellent insulating properties and has the potential to be used in gas-insulated equipment when mixed with CO2. Selecting suitable adsorption materials to adsorb the decomposition products of the C4F7N mixture can ensure the safe and stable operation of the gas-insulated equipment and the personal safety of the operators in the electric power industry. The adsorption characteristics of the ZSM-5 molecular sieve on C4F7N and its five fluorocarbon decomposition products were investigated by adsorption experiments. The results show that the ZSM-5 molecular sieve has a certain adsorption effect on six fluorocarbon gases; the adsorption performance of C3F6 and C3F8 are the best, with an adsorption efficiency over 85%, while the concentration of CO2 and C4F7N is affected by the ZSM-5 molecular sieve. At the same time, the paper based on the Metropolis Monte Carlo simulation of Materials Studio software found that the ZSM-5 molecular sieve has the strongest adsorption effect on C4F7N molecules and the weakest adsorption effect on CO2 molecules. The stronger the polarity of the gas molecule, the more obvious the adsorption effect of molecular sieve structure on it. As a result, the ZSM-5 molecular sieve could be used in tail gas purification of insulated equipment, as well as to provide solutions for the development and production of protective equipment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The State-of-the-Art Gas Sensor)
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9 pages, 3050 KiB  
Article
Adsorption and Sensing Properties of Dissolved Gas in Oil on Cr-Doped InN Monolayer: A Density Functional Theory Study
by Guochao Qian, Jin Hu, Shan Wang, Weiju Dai and Qu Zhou
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10010030 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1976
Abstract
Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) is recognized as one of the most reliable methods in transformer fault diagnosis technology. In this paper, three characteristic gases of transformer oil (CO, C2H4, and CH4) were used in conjunction with a [...] Read more.
Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) is recognized as one of the most reliable methods in transformer fault diagnosis technology. In this paper, three characteristic gases of transformer oil (CO, C2H4, and CH4) were used in conjunction with a Cr-decorated InN monolayer according to first principle calculations. The adsorption performance of Cr–InN for these three gases were studied from several perspectives such as adsorption structures, adsorption energy, electron density, density of state, and band gap structure. The results revealed that the Cr–InN monolayer had good adsorption performance with CO and C2H4, while the band gap of the monolayer slightly changed after the adsorption of CO and C2H4. Additionally, the adsorption property of the Cr–InN monolayer on CH4 was acceptable and a significant response was simultaneously generated. This paper provides the first insights regarding the possibility of Cr-doped InN monolayers for the detection of gases dissolved in oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The State-of-the-Art Gas Sensor)
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13 pages, 2897 KiB  
Article
Au-Decorated WS2 Microflakes Based Sensors for Selective Ammonia Detection at Room Temperature
by Qiyilan Guang, Baoyu Huang and Xiaogan Li
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10010009 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2957
Abstract
Gold nanoparticles decorated WS2 microflakes (Au/WS2) have been synthesized by an in situ chemical reducing process. A chemiresistive-type sensor using as-synthesized Au/WS2 heterostructures as sensing materials shows an improved response to different concentrations of ammonia compared to pure WS [...] Read more.
Gold nanoparticles decorated WS2 microflakes (Au/WS2) have been synthesized by an in situ chemical reducing process. A chemiresistive-type sensor using as-synthesized Au/WS2 heterostructures as sensing materials shows an improved response to different concentrations of ammonia compared to pure WS2 at room temperature. As the concentrations of gold nanoparticles increased in heterostructures, response/recovery speeds of the sensors became faster although the sensitivity of the sensor was compromised compared to the sensitivity of the sensor with lower concentrations of Au. In addition, the Au/WS2-based sensor indicated excellent selectivity to formaldehyde, ethanol, benzene and acetone at room temperature. The improved performance of the sensors was attributed to the synergistic effect of electronic sensitization and chemical sensitization between WS2 and Au. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The State-of-the-Art Gas Sensor)
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