Chemical Sensors and Analytical Methods for Environmental Monitoring

A special issue of Chemosensors (ISSN 2227-9040). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 10673

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto de Ciencias, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla 72570, Mexico
2. Centro de Quìmica, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla 72570, Mexico
Interests: environmental biotechnology; micropollutants; emerging pollutants; sensors; biosensors

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Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
Interests: biosensors; analytical chemistry; bioelectrochemisty; nanomaterials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Environmental pollution is a matter of worldwide concern. Particularly, pollution by persistent compounds and/or pollutants is a topic that deserves special attention, due to the large amount of compounds detected in environmental compartments, some of which are known to have an effect on human and environmental health, while others are just being

discovered. The correct diagnosis of contamination requires analytical techniques and methods that are suitable for determining the presence and concentration of contaminants; this diagnosis must be rapid, accurate, precise, and robust, so that it is possible, on the basis of this diagnosis, to propose measures for the prevention and elimination of contaminants.

This Special Issue focuses on the design, synthesis, and application of sensors, in addition to the development of analytical methods for environmental monitoring. Sensors can make an important contribution to the diagnosis of the environmental status of different compartments in a fast, accurate, precise, and sensitive manner. These characteristics are very useful when monitoring must be carried out in real-time, allowing decisions to be made in order to propose corrective and preventive measures against pollution.

The objective of this Special Issue is to more effectively diagnose the presence and fate of anthropogenic pollutants in environmental and biological compartments, including water, soil, food, animals, and flora. This research theme will focus on the following main topics:

  • Development of sensors with potential for practical applications;
  • Diagnosis of the impact of environmental pollutants using these sensors.

Reviews, perspectives, communications and full-length original research articles that focus on the above topics are welcome.

Dr. Eduardo Torres
Dr. Ilaria Palchetti
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Chemosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 4992 KiB  
Article
Potentiometric Phosphate Ion Sensor Based on Electrochemically Modified All-Solid-State Copper Electrode for Phosphate Ions’ Detection in Real Water
by Yang He, Chenhua Han, Hao Du, Ying Ye and Chunhui Tao
Chemosensors 2024, 12(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors12040053 - 01 Apr 2024
Viewed by 559
Abstract
The importance of phosphates has sparked researchers’ considerable interest in the electrochemical detection of phosphates within aqueous solutions in recent years. In this study, we present a novel all-solid-state phosphate ion-selective electrode (ISE) that integrates copper, copper nanoparticles, and copper phosphate. By modifying [...] Read more.
The importance of phosphates has sparked researchers’ considerable interest in the electrochemical detection of phosphates within aqueous solutions in recent years. In this study, we present a novel all-solid-state phosphate ion-selective electrode (ISE) that integrates copper, copper nanoparticles, and copper phosphate. By modifying the copper substrate of the electrode with a copper nanoparticle film and creating a lamellar copper phosphate film through electrochemical treatment, we significantly enhanced the electrode’s electron transfer efficiency. This microstructure with large specific surface area markedly improved the electrode’s responsiveness to the targeted ions by accelerating the achievement of chemical equilibrium on the electrode surface, thereby boosting its sensitivity and stability. The newly developed electrode was capable of detecting phosphate ions in solutions with a pH range from 6 to 11 and performed optimally in neutral solutions at pH 7, following Nernst principle, with a detection limit of 1 × 106 M. The electrode exhibited a short response time of less than 10 s with significant reproducibility, stability, longevity—maintaining functionality for more than two months. It also displayed good selectivity as the electrochemical equilibrium was not influenced by up to 1 mM of potential competing species like HCO3, NO3, Cl and SO42. We compared the detection results of current phosphate ion sensor and conventional determination methods for phosphate content in natural lake and aquaculture water samples, with a detection discrepancy of about 10% (RSD). Considering all feasible performance characteristics combined with its low cost, simple manufacture and portability, the sensor provides a new possibility for rapid, reliable, and long-term real-time in situ detection of phosphates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors and Analytical Methods for Environmental Monitoring)
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14 pages, 2777 KiB  
Article
Investigation of WO3 and BiVO4 Photoanodes for Photoelectrochemical Sensing of Xylene, Toluene and Methanol
by Milda Petruleviciene, Irena Savickaja, Jurga Juodkazyte and Arunas Ramanavicius
Chemosensors 2023, 11(11), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11110552 - 01 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1541
Abstract
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a notable group of indoor air pollutants released by household products. These substances are commonly employed as solvents in industrial operations, and some of them are recognized or suspected to be cancer-causing or mutagenic agents. Due to their [...] Read more.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a notable group of indoor air pollutants released by household products. These substances are commonly employed as solvents in industrial operations, and some of them are recognized or suspected to be cancer-causing or mutagenic agents. Due to their high volatility, VOCs are typically present in surface waters at concentrations below a few micrograms per liter. However, in groundwater, their concentrations can reach levels up to thousands of times higher. This study analyses the applicability of the photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensing of VOCs in aqueous medium. Tungsten oxide and bismuth vanadate photoanodes were tested for PEC sensing of xylene, toluene, and methanol in sodium chloride and sodium sulfate electrolytes. The crystalline structure and morphology of coatings were analyzed using XRD and SEM analyses. Photoelectrochemical properties were evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results of the study show that aromatic compounds tend to block the surface of the photoelectrode and interfere with the PEC sensing of other substances. WO3 photoanode is found to be suitable for the PEC sensing of methanol under the mild conditions in aqueous electrolytes; however, electrode engineering and assay optimization are required to achieve better detection limits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors and Analytical Methods for Environmental Monitoring)
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13 pages, 1224 KiB  
Article
One-Step Chemiluminescent Assay for Hydrogen Peroxide Analysis in Water
by Ahlem Teniou, Ibrahim A. Madi, Riane Mouhoub, Jean Louis Marty and Amina Rhouati
Chemosensors 2023, 11(8), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11080455 - 14 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1231
Abstract
The detection of hydrogen peroxide is of great importance in the environmental field. For this, a homogeneous technique has been developed here for sensitive and rapid quantification of hydrogen peroxide. In this technique, hemoglobin was used as a bioreceptor, where heme groups acted [...] Read more.
The detection of hydrogen peroxide is of great importance in the environmental field. For this, a homogeneous technique has been developed here for sensitive and rapid quantification of hydrogen peroxide. In this technique, hemoglobin was used as a bioreceptor, where heme groups acted as electroactive centers to catalyze hydrogen peroxide reduction. The chemiluminescence reagent luminol is also a peroxidase substrate and can be oxidized by hemoglobin—thus generating a CL signal. The principle of the designed biosensor was based on the competition between hydrogen peroxide and luminol towards hemoglobin. Under optimized conditions, the chemiluminescent signal decreased with increasing hemoglobin concentrations within the linear range of 0.5 to 12 mM, with a correlation coefficient R2 of 0.99762. The limit of detection was calculated to be as low as 0.308 mM. The selectivity of the biosensor was successfully demonstrated against different interferents. The developed strategy provides a one step, simple, and low-cost bioanalytical method which can be applied for the monitoring of other peroxidase substrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors and Analytical Methods for Environmental Monitoring)
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15 pages, 5230 KiB  
Article
A Dinitrophenol-Based Colorimetric Chemosensor for Sequential Cu2+ and S2− Detection
by Hyejin Nam, Sungjin Moon, Dongkyun Gil and Cheal Kim
Chemosensors 2023, 11(2), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11020143 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1686
Abstract
A dinitrophenol-based colorimetric chemosensor sequentially sensing Cu2+ and S2−, HDHT ((E)-2-(2-(2-hydroxy-3,5-dinitrobenzylidene)hydrazineyl)-N,N,N-trimethyl-2-oxoethan-1-aminium), was designed and synthesized. The HDHT selectively detected Cu2+ through a color change of yellow to colorless. The calculated detection limit of the HDHT [...] Read more.
A dinitrophenol-based colorimetric chemosensor sequentially sensing Cu2+ and S2−, HDHT ((E)-2-(2-(2-hydroxy-3,5-dinitrobenzylidene)hydrazineyl)-N,N,N-trimethyl-2-oxoethan-1-aminium), was designed and synthesized. The HDHT selectively detected Cu2+ through a color change of yellow to colorless. The calculated detection limit of the HDHT for Cu2+ was 6.4 × 10−2 μM. In the interference test, the HDHT was not considerably inhibited by various metal ions in its detection of Cu2+. The chelation ratio of the HDHT to Cu2+ was determined as 1:1 by using a Job plot and ESI-MS experiment. In addition, the HDHT–Cu2+ complex showed that its color selectively returned to yellow only in the presence of S2−. The detection limit of the HDHT–Cu2+ complex for S2− was calculated to be 1.2 × 10−1 μM. In the inhibition experiment for S2−, the HDHT–Cu2+ complex did not significantly interfere with other anions. In the real water-sample test, the detection performance of the HDHT for Cu2+ and S2− was successfully examined. The detection features of HDHT for Cu2+ and the HDHT–Cu2+ for S2− were suggested by the Job plot, UV–Vis, ESI-MS, FT-IR spectroscopy, and DFT calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors and Analytical Methods for Environmental Monitoring)
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Review

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25 pages, 5418 KiB  
Review
Aptasensors for the Detection of Environmental Contaminants of High Concern in Water Bodies: A Systematic Review
by Eduardo Canek Reynoso, Patrick Severin Sfragano, Mario González-Perea, Ilaria Palchetti and Eduardo Torres
Chemosensors 2024, 12(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors12040059 - 09 Apr 2024
Viewed by 567
Abstract
With the advancement of technology and increasing industrial activity, anthropogenic contaminants are currently detected where there is no record of their presence or insufficient information about their toxicological impact. Consequently, there are not sufficiently robust local or global regulations, the ecotoxicological and human [...] Read more.
With the advancement of technology and increasing industrial activity, anthropogenic contaminants are currently detected where there is no record of their presence or insufficient information about their toxicological impact. Consequently, there are not sufficiently robust local or global regulations, the ecotoxicological and human health risks are critical, and they may not be routinely monitored despite being ubiquitous. The interest in studying environmental contaminants, including micropollutants and emerging contaminants, in complex environmental water samples has grown in the last decade. Due to the concentrations in which they are typically found in the environment and the rapid global dispersion, the detection procedures for these substances must be capable of measuring very low concentrations. Many efforts have been made to improve remediation procedures or develop novel analytical methods for their determination. Although there are several robust and reliable standard analytical techniques for their monitoring, pollutant contamination requires simple and inexpensive methods for massive, in situ monitoring campaigns. In this regard, biosensors have emerged as devices with high selectivity, sensitivity, easy operation, and short analysis times. Aptasensors are biosensors based on a nucleic acid recognition element (aptamer). Due to their synthetic nature, stability, and easy production, aptamers are frequently employed to develop bioassays. This work presents a systematic review of the trends in using aptasensors for detecting environmental contaminants present in environmental water samples, as well as the estimation of the potential technological contribution these devices might give to environmental monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors and Analytical Methods for Environmental Monitoring)
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25 pages, 6186 KiB  
Review
Electrospun Nanofibers as Chemosensors for Detecting Environmental Pollutants: A Review
by Yutong Du, Deng-Guang Yu and Tao Yi
Chemosensors 2023, 11(4), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11040208 - 25 Mar 2023
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3165
Abstract
Electrospun nanofibers have shown their advantages for applications in a wide variety of scientific fields thanks to their unique properties. Meanwhile, electrospinning is closely following the fast development of nano science and nanotechnology to move forward to smaller (pico-technology), more complicated nanostructures/nanodevices and [...] Read more.
Electrospun nanofibers have shown their advantages for applications in a wide variety of scientific fields thanks to their unique properties. Meanwhile, electrospinning is closely following the fast development of nano science and nanotechnology to move forward to smaller (pico-technology), more complicated nanostructures/nanodevices and more order (all kinds of nano arrays). Particularly, multiple-fluid electrospinning has the strong capability of creating nanostructures from a structural spinneret in a single-step and a straightforward “top-down” manner, holding great promise for creation on a large scale. This review is just to conclude the state-of-art studies on the related topics and also point out that the future directions of environmental detection require chemosensors, while the improvement of sensors requires new chemically synthesized functional substances, new nanostructured materials, application convenience, and functional integration or synergy. Based on the developments of electrospinning, more and more possibilities can be drawn out for detecting environmental pollutants with electrospun nanostructures as the strong support platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors and Analytical Methods for Environmental Monitoring)
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