Transparent Ceramics—a Theme Issue in Honor of Dr. Adrian Goldstein

A special issue of Ceramics (ISSN 2571-6131).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 5153

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Kazuo Inamori School of Engineering, New York State College of Ceramics, Alfred University, 2 Pine Street, Alfred, NY 14802-1296, USA
Interests: transparent ceramics for optical and photonic applications; synthesis and characterization of nanostructured materials for energy and biomedical applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is dedicated to the domain of transparent ceramics ( TCs); passive or active ones (owing to controlled doping—able to induce designed spectral behavior). It intends to treat topics such as the optimization of all aspects of TC fabrication-related engineering and the introduction of new processing techniques. There is also interest in studies devoted to performance level enhancement of current products (commercial and in prototype stage), relevant characterization techniques (concerning fabrication or performance estimation), and new applications. In many cases, the usefulness of a TC is owed to an adequate design of the dopants package and/or a suitable matching of it with the transparent host. Therefore, works dealing with theoretical and/or applied transition metal cations (TMC), rare-earth (RE) spectroscopy, optical, EPR, Raman, etc., are welcome. So are results regarding host characterization refinements—such as more accurate site symmetry determinations—relevant for dopant accommodation in the host lattice.

The issue also intends to honor Dr. Adrian Goldstein (former head of the Israel Ceramics and Silicates Institute) for his significant contribution to the development of the TC domain. Below, we offer a list of some of the topics studied by the researcher honored. For instance, together with Dr. Andreas Krell (former IKTS-Dresden senior researcher), Dr. Goldstein realized the fact that full ceramics sinterability is obtained more as a result of actions taken in the stage of green-body forming than during sintering. Thus, he demonstrated that an ordered array (obtained by slow gravitational or fast centrifugal deposition) of amorphous micron size cvasi-monodisperse—spherical micron silica particles arranged in a compact packing maintained over large specimen volumes—allows densification fast enough (obtained by MW heating) to generate transparent bulk specimens without crystallization. Arranging, in the same manner, suitable MgAl2O4 powder, highly transparent specimens were obtained via sintering (pressureless + HIP) at temperatures around 1300 oC, viz. many hundreds of degrees lower than is necessary to densify conventional green bodies. He also discovered that, in phosphate glasses, the addition of alkaline-earth metals, as opposed to alkaline ones, reduces the electron donor ability (basicity) of oxide ions. Based on this effect, Cu0-based phosphate stable glasses could be obtained without Sn addition and a striking stage. An interesting finding relates to the accommodation of d1 type cations in oxide glasses. Many such ions (Ti3+, VO2+, Nb4+, Mo5+ and W5+) have in common the tendency to form C4v complexes in oxide glass hosts; the tendency increases with an increase of the oxidation state. Dr. Adrian Goldstein was the first (1998) to obtain transparent spinel via MW sintering (followed by HIPing) and ZnAl2O4 spinel as a transparent ceramic. He identified the main parasitic, reducing incident EMR beams intensity when interacting with spinel or YAG. He determined the mechanisms (promoting or impeding densification) operating when LiF is added to spinel for full densification via hot pressing. Dr. Goldstein also participated in the development of saturable absorber type, Co2+ based Q-switches for Er3+ lasers. Regarding the interaction of transition metal dopants in glasses, he discovered a redox interaction between Cr3+ and Cu2+.

The list of his publications includes, among others, an invited paper on transparent ceramics (J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 2016) and eight invited lectures on the same topic. A more extensive review of the domain was offered in the book written by Dr. Adrian Goldstein:

Goldstein A., Krell A. and Burshtein Z. “Transparent Ceramics: Materials, Engineering and Applications”., J. Wiley and Sons, N.Y., 2020

Contributions, regarding the topics listed at the start of this document, are invited for this Special Issue “Transparent Ceramics—a Theme Issue in Honor of Dr. Adrian Goldstein”.

Prof. Dr. Yiquan Wu
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 4804 KiB  
Article
Beyond Scanning Electron Microscopy: Comprehensive Pore Analysis in Transparent Ceramics Using Optical Microscopy
by Francesco Picelli, Jan Hostaša, Andreana Piancastelli, Valentina Biasini, Cesare Melandri and Laura Esposito
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 401-410; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics7010025 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 787
Abstract
Developing an effective method of quantifying defects in the bulk of transparent ceramics is a challenging task that could facilitate their widespread use as a substitute for single crystals. Conventionally, SEM analysis is used to examine the microstructure but it is limited to [...] Read more.
Developing an effective method of quantifying defects in the bulk of transparent ceramics is a challenging task that could facilitate their widespread use as a substitute for single crystals. Conventionally, SEM analysis is used to examine the microstructure but it is limited to the material surface. On the other hand, optical transmittance assesses material quality, but does not provide information on the size and concentration of defects. In this study, we illustrate the use of a digital optical microscope for the non-destructive, precise, and rapid analysis of residual porosity in transparent ceramics. YAG-based ceramics doped with Yb have been selected for this study because they are used as laser gain media, an application that requires virtually defect-free components. Different production processes were used to produce YAG samples, and the digital optical microscope analysis was used to compare them. This analysis was shown to be effective and precise to measure the size and concentration of the residual pores. In addition, the comparison of samples obtained with different production processes showed that the size and distribution of the residual porosity is affected by the drying step of the powders before shaping by pressing, as well as by the sintering aids used to ease the densification. It also showed that the transmittance is influenced by both the total volume and the concentration of the pores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transparent Ceramics—a Theme Issue in Honor of Dr. Adrian Goldstein)
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14 pages, 6981 KiB  
Article
Optical and Spectroscopic Properties of Ho:Lu2O3 Transparent Ceramics Elaborated by Spark Plasma Sintering
by Lucas Viers, Simon Guené-Girard, Gilles Dalla-Barba, Véronique Jubéra, Éric Cormier, Rémy Boulesteix and Alexandre Maître
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 208-221; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics7010013 - 08 Feb 2024
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Abstract
In this work, transparent ceramics were manufactured from nanopowders synthesized by aqueous coprecipitation followed by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) to ensure rapid and full densification. The photoluminescence of Ho:Lu2O3 transparent ceramics was studied in the Visible and IR domains as [...] Read more.
In this work, transparent ceramics were manufactured from nanopowders synthesized by aqueous coprecipitation followed by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) to ensure rapid and full densification. The photoluminescence of Ho:Lu2O3 transparent ceramics was studied in the Visible and IR domains as a function of Ho3+ dopant level from 0.5 at.% to 10 at.%. A cross-relaxation mechanism was identified and favors the 2 μm emission. All of the obtained results indicate that the optical properties are very similar between Lu2−xHoxO3 transparent ceramics and single crystals. Thus, the SPS technique appears to be a very promising method to manufacture such ceramics, which could be used as amplifier media for high-energy solid-state lasers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transparent Ceramics—a Theme Issue in Honor of Dr. Adrian Goldstein)
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14 pages, 10423 KiB  
Article
Glass Composition for Coating and Bonding of Polycrystalline Spinel Ceramic Substrates
by Jacob Hormadaly
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 101-114; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics7010008 - 25 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1302
Abstract
Design considerations of the lead-based glass composition was broadened beyond the two known criteria of matched index of refraction and thermal coefficient of expansion to include previous studies of thick film materials. Five criteria for the glass-design composition were used: matched index of [...] Read more.
Design considerations of the lead-based glass composition was broadened beyond the two known criteria of matched index of refraction and thermal coefficient of expansion to include previous studies of thick film materials. Five criteria for the glass-design composition were used: matched index of refraction and thermal coefficient of expansion, components (MgO and Al2O3) to slow down dissolution of spinel (MgAl2O4) into the glass, non-crystallizing glass in a broad temperature range and glass with good chemical durability. Synthesis and characterization of glass, glass paste preparation and its application to spinel substrates to form coating and bonding and optical characterizations in the UV, VIS and IR of coated, uncoated, and bonded spinel substrates of two commercial sources are described. Enhancement of transmittance exceeding the theoretical value of polished spinel was found for the first time when glass coating was applied to a ground face of semi-polished spinel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transparent Ceramics—a Theme Issue in Honor of Dr. Adrian Goldstein)
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19 pages, 84491 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Behavior of Transparent Spinel Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering
by Khadidja Hoggas, Salim Benaissa, Abdelbaki Cherouana, Sofiane Bouheroum, Abdenacer Assali, Mohamed Hamidouche and Gilbert Fantozzi
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 1191-1209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020072 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1480
Abstract
In this work, a transparent nanostructured ceramic magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) was fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) from commercial spinel nano-powders at different temperatures (1300, 1350 and 1400 °C). The sintered samples were thoroughly examined to assess their [...] Read more.
In this work, a transparent nanostructured ceramic magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) was fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) from commercial spinel nano-powders at different temperatures (1300, 1350 and 1400 °C). The sintered samples were thoroughly examined to assess their microstructural, optical, and mechanical properties. Various techniques such as SEM, AFM, spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere, instrumented Vickers indenter, Pin-on-Disk tribometer, scratch tester, and sandblasting device were employed to characterize the sintered samples. The results indicated the significant impact of the sintering temperature on the properties of the spinel samples. Particularly, the samples sintered at T = 1350 °C exhibited the highest Real In-line Transmission (RIT = 72% at 550 nm and 80% at 1000 nm). These samples demonstrated the highest hardness value (HV = 16.7 GPa) compared to those sintered at 1300 °C (HV = 15.6 GPa) and 1400 °C (HV = 15.1 GPa). The measured fracture toughness of the sintered samples increased substantially with increasing sintering temperature. Similarly, the tribological study revealed that the friction coefficient of the sintered spinel samples increased with the sintering temperature, and the spinel sintered at 1350 °C exhibited the lowest wear rate. Additionally, sandblasting and scratch tests confirmed the significant influence of the sintering temperature on the mechanical properties of the fabricated spinels. Overall, the spinel sintered at 1350 °C presented the best compromise in terms of all the evaluated properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transparent Ceramics—a Theme Issue in Honor of Dr. Adrian Goldstein)
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