Ceramics for Decarbonization of the Global Industry

A special issue of Ceramics (ISSN 2571-6131).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 16408

Special Issue Editors

Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science, The University of Texas at Dallas, 800 W Campbell Rd, Richardson, TX 75080, USA
Interests: additive manufacturing; advanced manufacturing; materials processing

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Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi (DMSN), Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Via Torino 155, 30172 Venezia Mestre, Italy
Interests: sustainable materials; wastes and by-products valorisation; solar themochemical water and CO2 splitting; renewable solar fuels; electrochromic materials for energy saving and smart windows; geopolymers; magnetic ceramics

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Guest Editor
Fraunhofer Institution for Materials Recycling and Resource Strategies IWKS, Department “Digitalization of Resources”, Germany & TU Darmstadt, Institute for Materials Science, Darmstadt, Germany
Interests: secondary raw materials; digitalization of resources; circular economy; materials synthesis; ceramics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409, USA
Interests: additive manufacturing; laser processing; multifunctional composites; transparent ceramics; ceramic composites; modeling; machining; processing-microstructure-property relationships
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova, Italy
Interests: cellular glasses and glass-ceramics; glass sintering; glass and glass-ceramic matrix composites; polymer-derived ceramics; silicate bioceramics; phosphate ceramics; additive manufacturing of ceramics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Advanced materials and advanced manufacturing play critical roles in global efforts for industrial decarbonization, which is believed to be necessary to reach net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Ceramics and ceramic composites are at the core of many technologies and approaches that are deemed essential toward achieving such goals. These include system-level energy efficiency, carbon capture, electrification, the green hydrogen economy, conversion of CO2 into renewable fuels, material-efficient design and waste reduction, manufacturing, and the circular economy (longevity, reusability, recyclability, valorization of wastes/byproducts). This Special Issue will focus on the critical role of ceramic materials, in a broad sense, including advanced processes, advanced manufacturing, advanced modeling, life cycle assessment, and device fabrication (such as fuel cells, electrolyzers, membranes for gas filtration, etc.) for the decarbonization of the global industry. Of interest are also new innovative technologies for energy-intensive ceramic industries (refractories, ceramic tiles, engineering ceramics, etc.).

The Special Issue will collect contributions on the widest range of decarbonization technologies in the field of ceramics. Decarbonization may be direct (e.g., for new technologies yielding ceramics with a much-reduced CO2 emissions compared to conventional technologies) or indirect (e.g., for new technologies yielding ceramics in realizing more efficient energy conversion). Suitable subtopics may be represented by (but not limited to):

  • Alternative inorganic binders and geopolymers;
  • Ceramics for CO2 sequestration and storage;
  • Cold sintering;
  • Reduction in firing temperatures through sintering aids and enhancement of firing efficiency by means of engineered processing;
  • Use of hydrogen (ideally green hydrogen) for the firing/sintering in the ceramic industry;
  • Ceramics for CO2 splitting and synthetic renewable fuels production;
  • Ceramics for water splitting and hydrogen generation;
  • Ceramics for improved combustion efficiency;
  • Ceramics for improved thermal insulation;
  • Electrochromic and thermochromic ceramics/oxides for improved thermal efficiency (e.g., smart windows);
  • Magnetic ceramics for magnetocaloric cooling/refrigeration for energy reduction;
  • Ceramics and geopolymers from industrial/agricultural/forestry wastes and byproducts;
  • Ceramics and circular economy approaches;
  • Full life cycle assessments of “green” ceramic materials vs. traditional approaches.

Dr. Majid Minary
Dr. Robert Pullar
Prof. Dr. Emanuel Ionescu
Dr. Xiangyang Dong
Dr. Enrico Bernardo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Ceramics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 7946 KiB  
Article
Surface Modification of Silica Nanoparticles with Ethyl Oleate for the Purpose of Stabilizing Nanolubricants Used for Tribological Tests
by Álmos Dávid Tóth, Nóra Mike-Kaszás, Gábor Bartus, Hajnalka Hargitai and Ádám István Szabó
Ceramics 2023, 6(2), 980-993; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6020058 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1787
Abstract
Long-term sustainability and decreasing amount of fossil oil reserves require a partial or complete transformation of traditional lubricating oils. The use of silica nanoparticles as a lubricant additive has a huge tribological potential, which has already been discussed in numerous articles. Nanosized silica [...] Read more.
Long-term sustainability and decreasing amount of fossil oil reserves require a partial or complete transformation of traditional lubricating oils. The use of silica nanoparticles as a lubricant additive has a huge tribological potential, which has already been discussed in numerous articles. Nanosized silica shows excellent results in reducing friction and preventing wear, but they quickly aggregate and settle after homogenization in oils. For long-term stable dispersion of lubricating oils containing nanoceramics, the surface of the particles was modified with ethyl oleate. The surface modification, the ethyl oleate applied to the surface of the nanosilica, was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Group III based lubricating oil was prepared using the surface-modified nanosilica. The particle size of the nanoparticles in the lubricating oil dispersion was examined by dynamic light scattering. Oscillating tribometer measurements were performed with different concentrations (0.1; 0.2; 0.3 wt%) of nanolubricants. Based on the tribological results, the friction coefficient of the surface-modified nanosilica is more stable, its wear is 15% lower compared to the reference. There is no significant change in the magnitude of the friction coefficient. It can be concluded that the ethyl oleate surface modification method may be suitable for tribological investigations of the acting mechanisms of nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Decarbonization of the Global Industry)
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30 pages, 13104 KiB  
Article
Microstructure, Process Optimization, and Strength Response Modelling of Green-Aluminium-6061 Composite as Automobile Material
by Abayomi Adewale Akinwande, Olanrewaju Seun Adesina, Adeolu Adesoji Adediran, Oluwatosin Abiodun Balogun, David Mukuro, Oluwayomi Peter Balogun, Kong Fah Tee and M. Saravana Kumar
Ceramics 2023, 6(1), 386-415; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6010023 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1620
Abstract
The use of ashes derived from various waste sources as supplements to synthesized ceramic reinforcement in metal matrices has been established. However, studies involving a combination of particulates from three different sources are rare. In a bid to further knowledge in this aspect [...] Read more.
The use of ashes derived from various waste sources as supplements to synthesized ceramic reinforcement in metal matrices has been established. However, studies involving a combination of particulates from three different sources are rare. In a bid to further knowledge in this aspect of research and develop a green aluminium composite for automobile applications, the present investigation studied the implication of adding palm kernel shell ash (PKA), rice husk ash (RHA), and waste steel particles (STP) to the morphology and strength behaviour of Al-6061-T6 alloy. The experimental design was undertaken via the Box–Behnken design (BBD) of the response surface method. A 4% STP at a constant dose was mixed with PKA and RHA at varying proportions and stirring temperatures according to the BBD. The experimental outcome revealed that the responses were greatly influenced by microstructural evolution. From the surface plots, 2–4% RHA and PKA enhanced tensile and flexural strengths, while 4–6% led to a decline in strength. Meanwhile, 2–6% of the particles are favourable to the enhancement of tensile and compressive strengths and moduli. Temperatures between 700 and 800 °C favored response improvement, whereas temperatures between 800 and 900 °C were detrimental to responses. Developed regression models for the responses were validated to be good representations of the experimental outcomes. The optimum mix was obtained at 4.81% PKA, 5.41% RHA, and a stirring temperature of 803 °C. The validation experiment conducted portrayed reliable responses with <5% deviation from the predicted values, thereby certifying the models to be statistically fit for future predictions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Decarbonization of the Global Industry)
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13 pages, 2018 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Ceria- and Samaria-Based Powders and Solid Electrolytes as Promising Components of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
by Marina V. Kalinina, Daria A. Dyuskina, Maxim Y. Arsent’ev, Sergey V. Mjakin and Olga A. Shilova
Ceramics 2022, 5(4), 1102-1114; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics5040078 - 24 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1514
Abstract
Finely dispersed (CeO2)0.95(Sm2O3)0.05, (CeO2)0.90(Sm2O3)0.10 and (CeO2)0.80(Sm2O3)0.20 mesoporous powders with a specific pore volume of 0.080–0.092 [...] Read more.
Finely dispersed (CeO2)0.95(Sm2O3)0.05, (CeO2)0.90(Sm2O3)0.10 and (CeO2)0.80(Sm2O3)0.20 mesoporous powders with a specific pore volume of 0.080–0.092 cm3/g and a specific surface of 50–83 m2/g are synthesized by the co-precipitation of cerium and samarium hydroxides from the corresponding nitrate solutions. The prepared powders are used to obtain ceramic nanomaterials with a fluorite-like cubic crystal lattice with a coherent scattering region (CSR) of about 65–69 nm (1300 °C). The study of physicochemical and electrophysical properties of the prepared ceramics revealed the obtained materials featuring an open porosity of 2–6% and a predominantly ionic type of electric conductivity (ion transport numbers ti = 0.85–0.73 in the temperature range 300–700 °C). The conductivity in solid solutions proceeds via a vacancy mechanism with σ700 °C= 3.3·10−2 S/cm. The synthesized ceramic materials are shown to be promising as solid oxide electrolytes in medium temperature fuel cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Decarbonization of the Global Industry)
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18 pages, 4779 KiB  
Article
Deterioration of Mortar Bars Using Binary and Ternary Mixtures Immersed in Sodium Sulfate Solutions
by Federico Aguayo and Mehrab Nodehi
Ceramics 2022, 5(4), 991-1008; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics5040071 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1759
Abstract
In this study, the performance of several binary and ternary mixtures containing high-calcium fly ash and other pozzolans, such as Class F fly ash and silica fume, were investigated for their sulfate resistance using different sodium sulfate solutions. The mortar bars were placed [...] Read more.
In this study, the performance of several binary and ternary mixtures containing high-calcium fly ash and other pozzolans, such as Class F fly ash and silica fume, were investigated for their sulfate resistance using different sodium sulfate solutions. The mortar bars were placed in a similar sulfate solution as per modified ASTM C 1012/1012M (33,800 ppm SO42−) with a less severe sulfate solution (6000 ppm SO42−) has been tested to resemble actual field performance for a duration of 18 months. The phase composition of the mortar samples was investigated using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Results show that the mortar bars placed in the moderate sulfate concentration experience less expansion and deterioration than the same bars placed in the higher sulfate concentration. Storage in sodium sulfate solutions resulted in the formation of ettringite and gypsum in both sulfate concentrations. Replacement of cement by high-calcium fly ash showed significantly higher amounts of ettringite formation, especially for the mortar bars stored in the higher sulfate concentration. SEM analysis revealed ettringite to be the primary cause of disruption and deterioration observed in the mortar bars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Decarbonization of the Global Industry)
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16 pages, 2856 KiB  
Article
Structure and Electrical Properties of Carbon-Rich Polymer Derived Silicon Carbonitride (SiCN)
by Oluwole Daniel Adigun, Emmanuel Ricohermoso III, Ayodele Abeeb Daniyan, Lasisi Ejibunu Umoru and Emanuel Ionescu
Ceramics 2022, 5(4), 690-705; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics5040050 - 03 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2305
Abstract
This article reports on the structure and electronic properties of carbon-rich polysilazane polymer-derived silicon carbonitride (C/SiCN) corresponding to pyrolysis temperatures between 1100 and 1600 °C in an argon atmosphere. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) [...] Read more.
This article reports on the structure and electronic properties of carbon-rich polysilazane polymer-derived silicon carbonitride (C/SiCN) corresponding to pyrolysis temperatures between 1100 and 1600 °C in an argon atmosphere. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Hall measurements were used to support the structural and electronic properties characterization of the prepared C/SiCN nanocomposites. A structural analysis using Raman spectroscopy showed the evolution of sp2 hybridized carbon phase that resulted from the growth in the lateral crystallite size (La), average continuous graphene length including tortuosity (Leq) and inter-defects distance (LD) with an increase in pyrolysis temperature. The prepared C/SiCN monoliths showed a record high room temperature (RT) electrical conductivity of 9.6 S/cm for the sample prepared at 1600 °C. The electronic properties of the nanocomposites determined using Hall measurement revealed an anomalous change in the predominant charge carriers from n-type in the samples pyrolyzed at 1100 °C to predominantly p-type in the samples prepared at 1400 and 1600 °C. According to this outcome, tailor-made carbon-rich SiCN polymer-derived ceramics could be developed to produce n-type and p-type semiconductors for development of the next generation of electronic systems for applications in extreme temperature environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Decarbonization of the Global Industry)
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12 pages, 3570 KiB  
Article
Manufacturing and Thermal Shock Characterization of Porous Yttria Stabilized Zirconia for Hydrogen Energy Systems
by M. Faisal Riyad, Mohammadreza Mahmoudi and Majid Minary-Jolandan
Ceramics 2022, 5(3), 472-483; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics5030036 - 22 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2665
Abstract
Porous yttriastabilized zirconia (YSZ), in a composite with NiO, is widely used as a cermet electrode in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). Given cycles of high temperature in these energy devices, mechanical integrity of the porous YSZ [...] Read more.
Porous yttriastabilized zirconia (YSZ), in a composite with NiO, is widely used as a cermet electrode in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). Given cycles of high temperature in these energy devices, mechanical integrity of the porous YSZ is critical. Pore morphology, as well as properties of the ceramic, ultimately affect the mechanical properties of the cermet electrode. Here, we fabricated porous YSZ sheets via freezing of an aqueous slurry on a cold thermoelectric plate and quantified their flexural properties, both for as-fabricated samples and samples subjected to thermal shock at 200 °C to 500 °C. Results of this work have implications for the hydrogen economy and global decarbonization efforts, in particular for the manufacturing of SOFCs and SOECs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Decarbonization of the Global Industry)
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Review

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19 pages, 1259 KiB  
Review
Formidable Challenges in Additive Manufacturing of Solid Oxide Electrolyzers (SOECs) and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) for Electrolytic Hydrogen Economy toward Global Decarbonization
by Majid Minary-Jolandan
Ceramics 2022, 5(4), 761-779; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics5040055 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3306
Abstract
Solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the leading high-temperature devices to realize the global “Hydrogen Economy”. These devices are inherently multi-material (ceramic and cermets). They have multi-scale, multilayer configurations (a few microns to hundreds of microns) and [...] Read more.
Solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the leading high-temperature devices to realize the global “Hydrogen Economy”. These devices are inherently multi-material (ceramic and cermets). They have multi-scale, multilayer configurations (a few microns to hundreds of microns) and different morphology (porosity and densification) requirements for each layer. Adjacent layers should exhibit chemical and thermal compatibility and high-temperature mechanical stability. Added to that is the need to stack many cells to produce reasonable power. The most critical barriers to widespread global adoption of these devices have been their high cost and issues with their reliability and durability. Given their complex structure and stringent requirements, additive manufacturing (AM) has been proposed as a possible technological path to enable the low-cost production of durable devices to achieve economies of scale. However, currently, there is no single AM technology capable of 3D printing these devices at the complete cell level or, even more difficult, at the stack level. This article provides an overview of challenges that must be overcome for AM to be a viable path for the manufacturing of SOECs and SOFCs. A list of recommendations is provided to facilitate such efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Decarbonization of the Global Industry)
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