Exclusive Review Papers in 'Stem Cells'

A topical collection in Cells (ISSN 2073-4409). This collection belongs to the section "Stem Cells".

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Editor


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Collection Editor
Institute for Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine, University Hospital Düsseldorf, Heinrich Heine University, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
Interests: pericytes; mesenchymal stem cells; stem cell niches; tissue maintenance and regeneration

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Under the section "Stem Cells ", a Topical Collection that aims to publish high-quality review articles within the field of stem cells will be set up. Stem cells form the basis for the emergence of complex, multicellular organisms and enable their maintenance, regeneration, and reproduction. Two central properties of stem cells are important for this: (I) their ability to self-renew and (II) their potential to differentiate into other cell types. To safeguard these properties, stem cells are protected by a microenvironment, the stem cell niche, which controls the quiescence, proliferation, and differentiation of stem cells. It is important to emphasize that the stem cell niches are affected by environmental influences such as excessive food supply, high oxygen tension, and elevated mechanical stress, but also by chronic inflammation and ageing. A loss of niche integrity leads to a reduction in the stem cell pool through undirected cell differentiation and thus endangers the long-term survival of the affected organism. The identification of the stem cell compartments of the body and a profound understanding of their respective niche are thus essential to understand organismal functions and to develop therapeutic procedures for patients to overcome the limited regenerative ability of chronically diseased organs and to prevent cancer progression.

Stem cells are central in regenerative medicine. Hematopoietic stem cells have long been used in the treatment of patients, but mesenchymal stem/stromal cells and the processes they mediate will also play a significant role in the future. In addition to these adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated by the reprogramming of somatic cells are a promising basis for disease modelling and personalized medicine. Despite great progress, there are still gaps in the understanding of molecular mechanisms for the effective, directed differentiation of stem cells as well as the maturation and maintenance of the cells and tissues they give rise to. A promising approach is the usage of organoids for stabilizing differentiated cells derived from stem cells. Today, we are only at the beginning of the broad use of stem cells in medicine, with more than just biological and technical questions that still to be answered. In parallel to the increase in knowledge in the field of stem cell research, there should also be an ethical discussion about the benefits and risks of stem cell use.

The Topical Collection “Stem cells” is intended to contribute to the compilation of current knowledge on stem cells and to make it available to a broad readership. Distinguished researchers from all over the world working in all disciplines of current stem cell research, starting from basic research through tissue engineering to the clinical use of stem cells and ethical aspects, are therefore invited to contribute to this review series. Potential contributors/invited authors are kindly requested to send a tentative title and a short abstract to our Editorial Office (cells@mdpi.com) for pre-evaluation. Please note that selected full papers will still be subjected to a thorough and rigorous peer review. All papers will be published on an ongoing basis with full open access. We are looking forward to receiving your interesting contributions.

Dr. Claus Kordes
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cells is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • stem cells
  • stem cell niche
  • pericytes
  • tissue engineering
  • regenerative medicine
  • reproduction
  • iPSC
  • stem cell differentiation
  • organoids
  • disease modelling
  • stem cell aging
  • research ethics
  • cancer stem cells

Published Papers (6 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2023, 2022

16 pages, 2514 KiB  
Review
Identity and Maturity of iPSC-Derived Oligodendrocytes in 2D and Organoid Systems
by Ella Zeldich and Sandeep Rajkumar
Cells 2024, 13(8), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080674 - 13 Apr 2024
Viewed by 912
Abstract
Oligodendrocytes originating in the brain and spinal cord as well as in the ventral and dorsal domains of the neural tube are transcriptomically and functionally distinct. These distinctions are also reflected in the ultrastructure of the produced myelin, and the susceptibility to myelin-related [...] Read more.
Oligodendrocytes originating in the brain and spinal cord as well as in the ventral and dorsal domains of the neural tube are transcriptomically and functionally distinct. These distinctions are also reflected in the ultrastructure of the produced myelin, and the susceptibility to myelin-related disorders, which highlights the significance of the choice of patterning protocols in the differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into oligodendrocytes. Thus, our first goal was to survey the different approaches applied to the generation of iPSC-derived oligodendrocytes in 2D culture and in organoids, as well as reflect on how these approaches pertain to the regional and spatial fate of the generated oligodendrocyte progenitors and myelinating oligodendrocytes. This knowledge is increasingly important to disease modeling and future therapeutic strategies. Our second goal was to recap the recent advances in the development of oligodendrocyte-enriched organoids, as we explore their relevance to a regional specification alongside their duration, complexity, and maturation stages of oligodendrocytes and myelin biology. Finally, we discuss the shortcomings of the existing protocols and potential future explorations. Full article
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Graphical abstract

2023

Jump to: 2024, 2022

30 pages, 1799 KiB  
Review
From Youthful Vigor to Aging Decline: Unravelling the Intrinsic and Extrinsic Determinants of Hippocampal Neural Stem Cell Aging
by Patricia Jiménez Peinado and Anja Urbach
Cells 2023, 12(16), 2086; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12162086 - 17 Aug 2023
Viewed by 2187
Abstract
Since Joseph Altman published his pioneering work demonstrating neurogenesis in the hippocampus of adult rats, the number of publications in this field increased exponentially. Today, we know that the adult hippocampus harbors a pool of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) that are the [...] Read more.
Since Joseph Altman published his pioneering work demonstrating neurogenesis in the hippocampus of adult rats, the number of publications in this field increased exponentially. Today, we know that the adult hippocampus harbors a pool of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) that are the source of life-long neurogenesis and plasticity. The functions of these NSCs are regulated by extrinsic cues arising from neighboring cells and the systemic environment. However, this tight regulation is subject to imbalance with age, resulting in a decline in adult NSCs and neurogenesis, which contributes to the progressive deterioration of hippocampus-related cognitive functions. Despite extensive investigation, the mechanisms underlying this age-related decline in neurogenesis are only incompletely understood, but appear to include an increase in NSC quiescence, changes in differentiation patterns, and NSC exhaustion. In this review, we summarize recent work that has improved our knowledge of hippocampal NSC aging, focusing on NSC-intrinsic mechanisms as well as cellular and molecular changes in the niche and systemic environment that might be involved in the age-related decline in NSC functions. Additionally, we identify future directions that may advance our understanding of NSC aging and the concomitant loss of hippocampal neurogenesis and plasticity. Full article
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19 pages, 1787 KiB  
Review
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Heterogeneity and Therapeutical Applications
by Meryem Ouzin and Gesine Kogler
Cells 2023, 12(16), 2039; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12162039 - 10 Aug 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1210
Abstract
Mesenchymal stromal cells nowadays emerge as a major player in the field of regenerative medicine and translational research. They constitute, with their derived products, the most frequently used cell type in different therapies. However, their heterogeneity, including different subpopulations, the anatomic source of [...] Read more.
Mesenchymal stromal cells nowadays emerge as a major player in the field of regenerative medicine and translational research. They constitute, with their derived products, the most frequently used cell type in different therapies. However, their heterogeneity, including different subpopulations, the anatomic source of isolation, and high donor-to-donor variability, constitutes a major controversial issue that affects their use in clinical applications. Furthermore, the intrinsic and extrinsic molecular mechanisms underlying their self-renewal and fate specification are still not completely elucidated. This review dissects the different heterogeneity aspects of the tissue source associated with a distinct developmental origin that need to be considered when generating homogenous products before their usage for clinical applications. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2024, 2023

11 pages, 1284 KiB  
Review
Gene Amplification in Tumor Cells: Developed De Novo or Adopted from Stem Cells
by Ulrike Fischer and Eckart Meese
Cells 2023, 12(1), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12010148 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2072
Abstract
Gene amplifications have been known for several decades as physiological processes in amphibian and flies, e.g., during eggshell development in Drosophila and as part of pathological processes in humans, specifically in tumors and drug-resistant cells. The long-held belief that a physiological gene amplification [...] Read more.
Gene amplifications have been known for several decades as physiological processes in amphibian and flies, e.g., during eggshell development in Drosophila and as part of pathological processes in humans, specifically in tumors and drug-resistant cells. The long-held belief that a physiological gene amplification does not occur in humans was, however, fundamental questioned by findings that showed gene amplification in human stem cells. We hypothesis that the physiological and the pathological, i.e., tumor associated processes of gene amplification share at their beginning the same underlying mechanism. Re-replication was reported both in the context of tumor related genome instability and during restricted time windows in Drosophila development causing the known developmental gene amplification in Drosophila. There is also growing evidence that gene amplification and re-replication were present in human stem cells. It appears likely that stem cells utilize a re-replication mechanism that has been developed early in evolution as a powerful tool to increase gene copy numbers very efficiently. Here, we show that, several decades ago, there was already evidence of gene amplification in non-tumor mammalian cells, but that was not recognized at the time and interpreted accordingly. We give an overview on gene amplifications during normal mammalian development, the possible mechanism that enable gene amplification and hypothesize how tumors adopted this capability for gene amplification. Full article
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22 pages, 2043 KiB  
Review
The Long Telling Story of “Endothelial Progenitor Cells”: Where Are We at Now?
by Maria Cristina Vinci, Ermes Carulli, Erica Rurali, Raffaella Rinaldi, Giulia Damiano, Angela Raucci, Giulio Pompilio and Stefano Genovese
Cells 2023, 12(1), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12010112 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2158
Abstract
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs): The name embodies years of research and clinical expectations, but where are we now? Do these cells really represent the El Dorado of regenerative medicine? Here, past and recent literature about this eclectic, still unknown and therefore fascinating cell [...] Read more.
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs): The name embodies years of research and clinical expectations, but where are we now? Do these cells really represent the El Dorado of regenerative medicine? Here, past and recent literature about this eclectic, still unknown and therefore fascinating cell population will be discussed. This review will take the reader through a temporal journey that, from the first discovery, will pass through years of research devoted to attempts at their definition and understanding their biology in health and disease, ending with the most recent evidence about their pathobiological role in cardiovascular disease and their recent applications in regenerative medicine. Full article
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16 pages, 1016 KiB  
Review
Metabolism in Cancer Stem Cells: Targets for Clinical Treatment
by Gui-Min Wen, Xiao-Yan Xu and Pu Xia
Cells 2022, 11(23), 3790; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11233790 - 26 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2691
Abstract
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have high tumorigenicity, high metastasis and high resistance to treatment. They are the key factors for the growth, metastasis and drug resistance of malignant tumors, and are also the important reason for the occurrence and recurrence of tumors. Metabolic [...] Read more.
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have high tumorigenicity, high metastasis and high resistance to treatment. They are the key factors for the growth, metastasis and drug resistance of malignant tumors, and are also the important reason for the occurrence and recurrence of tumors. Metabolic reprogramming refers to the metabolic changes that occur when tumor cells provide sufficient energy and nutrients for themselves. Metabolic reprogramming plays an important role in regulating the growth and activity of cancer cells and cancer stem cells. In addition, the immune cells or stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) will change due to the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells. Summarizing the characteristics and molecular mechanisms of metabolic reprogramming of cancer stem cells will provide new ideas for the comprehensive treatment of malignant tumors. In this review, we summarized the changes of the main metabolic pathways in cancer cells and cancer stem cells. Full article
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