Extracellular Vesicles’ Role in Disease Progression, Diagnosis, and Therapy

A special issue of Cells (ISSN 2073-4409). This special issue belongs to the section "Cells of the Nervous System".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2022) | Viewed by 12908

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada
Interests: cancer; oncology; cell biology; oncogenes and tumour suppressors; microvesicles; exosomes; extracellular vesicles; angiogenesis; biomarkers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The field of extracellular vesicles (EVs) has captured the interest of many scientists in recent years. However, despite our growing knowledge about EVs, the roles they play in health and disease continue to keep us fascinated. The role of EVs as an intercellular communication mode expands every day with no exaggeration, and in a wide spectrum of diseases. EVs play a role in various diseases, such as thrombosis–haemostasis complication and cardiovascular diseases, cancers, kidney diseases, metabolic diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, lung diseases, and others. Additionally, we now know that bacteria shedding EVs that mimic the immunological response the bacteria provoke. Herein, we include EV subtypes such as microvesicles, microparticles, exosomes, oncosomes, ectosomes, etc.

The EV content of proteins, mRNAs, miRNAs, and DNA, and their existence in all body fluids makes them an ideal tool to look for biomarkers for various diseases. EVs are a very promising tool for future diagnostics, because they provide simple non-invasive procedures for disease diagnosis. Moreover, they may provide a simple tool to monitor disease progression in an almost real-time fashion. EVs will play a major role in the initiative of liquid biopsy. Further, the therapeutic potential of EVs is another interesting issue, which may surprise us in the near future.

This Special Issue aims to serve as your forum to enrich the field of EVs. You can contribute with your valuable work in any field mentioned in this short introduction. Let us shed some light on EV roles in various diseases and biological functions.

Dr. Khalid Al-Nedawi
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • extracellular vesicles
  • exosomes
  • microvesicles
  • biomarkers
  • disease progression
  • therapeutic potential

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 20926 KiB  
Article
Autocrine Activity of Extracellular Vesicles Induced by Icariin and Its Effectiveness in Glucocorticoid-Induced Injury of Bone Microvascular Endothelial Cells
by Qingyu Zhang, Tengqi Li, Zirong Li, Jike Lu, Xinjie Wu, Fuqiang Gao and Wei Sun
Cells 2022, 11(12), 1921; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11121921 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2115
Abstract
Glucocorticoids could induce injury and apoptosis of bone microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) in the femoral head, which is associated with the development of osteonecrosis and osteoporosis. Icariin is a prenylated flavonol glycoside isolated from Epimedium brevicornum, serving as the main active pharmaceutical constituent [...] Read more.
Glucocorticoids could induce injury and apoptosis of bone microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) in the femoral head, which is associated with the development of osteonecrosis and osteoporosis. Icariin is a prenylated flavonol glycoside isolated from Epimedium brevicornum, serving as the main active pharmaceutical constituent to treat bone loss. Currently, the impact of the autocrine activity of extracellular vesicles (EVs) induced by icariin on the glucocorticoid-induced injury of BMECs is still to be confirmed. In this study, EVs were isolated from BMECs treated with and without icariin by super-speed centrifugation. Although icariin treatment would not significantly change the size and total protein content of BMECs-derived EVs, expression of EVs-carried vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) was enhanced and numerous miRNAs involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis were upregulated (e.g., hsa-miR-1469 and hsa-miR-133a-5p) or downregulated (e.g., hsa-miR-10b-5p) (p < 0.05). A total of 29 differentially expressed inflammatory factors were detected between the EVs secreted by BMECs from the Icariin-treated group and the Model group. The EVs secreted by BMECs could improve cell viability, decrease cell apoptosis, and promote cell migration and angiogenesis under the intervention of glucocorticoids. Meanwhile, icariin intervention could reinforce these protective effects of BMECs-derived EVs. To sum up, the present study indicates that icariin acts as a promising candidate for treating glucocorticoid-induced injury of BMECs and bone diseases, partially through the autocrine activity of EVs. In vivo or animal studies are still required to better understand the function of BMECs-derived EVs. Full article
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14 pages, 2243 KiB  
Article
Low-Power Sonication Can Alter Extracellular Vesicle Size and Properties
by Zubair Ahmed Nizamudeen, Rachael Xerri, Christopher Parmenter, Kiran Suain, Robert Markus, Lisa Chakrabarti and Virginie Sottile
Cells 2021, 10(9), 2413; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10092413 - 14 Sep 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3350
Abstract
Low-power sonication is widely used to disaggregate extracellular vesicles (EVs) after isolation, however, the effects of sonication on EV samples beyond dispersion are unclear. The present study analysed the characteristics of EVs collected from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) after sonication, using a combination [...] Read more.
Low-power sonication is widely used to disaggregate extracellular vesicles (EVs) after isolation, however, the effects of sonication on EV samples beyond dispersion are unclear. The present study analysed the characteristics of EVs collected from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) after sonication, using a combination of transmission electron microscopy, direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, and flow cytometry techniques. Results showed that beyond the intended disaggregation effect, sonication using the lowest power setting available was enough to alter the size distribution, membrane integrity, and uptake of EVs in cultured cells. These results point to the need for a more systematic analysis of sonication procedures to improve reproducibility in EV-based cellular experiments. Full article
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14 pages, 2463 KiB  
Article
Protective Response in Experimental Paracoccidioidomycosis Elicited by Extracellular Vesicles Containing Antigens of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
by Ludmila Matos Baltazar, Gabriela Fior Ribeiro, Gustavo J. Freitas, Celso Martins Queiroz-Junior, Caio Tavares Fagundes, Carlos Chaves-Olórtegui, Mauro Martins Teixeira and Daniele G. Souza
Cells 2021, 10(7), 1813; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10071813 - 17 Jul 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2412
Abstract
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic disease caused by Paracoccidioides spp. PCM is endemic in Latin America and most cases are registered in Brazil. This mycosis affects mainly the lungs, but can also spread to other tissues and organs, including the liver. Several approaches [...] Read more.
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic disease caused by Paracoccidioides spp. PCM is endemic in Latin America and most cases are registered in Brazil. This mycosis affects mainly the lungs, but can also spread to other tissues and organs, including the liver. Several approaches have been investigated to improve treatment effectiveness and protection against the disease. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are good antigen delivery vehicles. The present work aims to investigate the use of EVs derived from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis as an immunization tool in a murine model of PCM. For this, male C57BL/6 were immunized with two doses of EVs plus adjuvant and then infected with P. brasiliensis. EV immunization induced IgM and IgG in vivo and cytokine production by splenocytes ex vivo. Further, immunization with EVs had a positive effect on mice infected with P. brasiliensis, as it induced activated T lymphocytes and NKT cell mobilization to the infected lungs, improved production of proinflammatory cytokines and the histopathological profile, and reduced fungal burden. Therefore, the present study shows a new role for P. brasiliensis EVs in the presence of adjuvant as modulators of the host immune system, suggesting their utility as immunizing agents. Full article
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Review

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22 pages, 2132 KiB  
Review
Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles as Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Microenvironment Targeted Delivery
by Lu Sang, Xiaoqin Guo, Haojun Fan, Jie Shi, Shike Hou and Qi Lv
Cells 2022, 11(15), 2322; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11152322 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3729
Abstract
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) affects an increasing number of people globally, yet treatment options remain limited. At present, conventional treatments depending on drug therapy do not show an ideal effect in reversing the lung damage or extending the lives of IPF patients. In [...] Read more.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) affects an increasing number of people globally, yet treatment options remain limited. At present, conventional treatments depending on drug therapy do not show an ideal effect in reversing the lung damage or extending the lives of IPF patients. In recent years, more and more attention has focused on extracellular vesicles (EVs) which show extraordinary therapeutic effects in inflammation, fibrosis disease, and tissue damage repair in many kinds of disease therapy. More importantly, EVs can be modified or used as a drug or cytokine delivery tool, targeting injury sites to enhance treatment efficiency. In light of this, the treatment strategy of mesenchymal stem cell-extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) targeting the pulmonary microenvironment for IPF provides a new idea for the treatment of IPF. In this review, we summarized the inflammation, immune dysregulation, and extracellular matrix microenvironment (ECM) disorders in the IPF microenvironment in order to reveal the treatment strategy of MSC-EVs targeting the pulmonary microenvironment for IPF. Full article
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