Cellular Regeneration Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

A special issue of Cells (ISSN 2073-4409). This special issue belongs to the section "Cells of the Nervous System".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 26 April 2024 | Viewed by 5010

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Neurological Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA
Interests: neural protection; neural degeneration and regeneration; glia response; neural circuitry modulation; traumatic brain injury

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

TBI is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, affecting more than 10 million people annually. Due to its complexity, TBI currently remains untreatable. Therefore, tremendous effort has been made to develop effective therapies. This Special Issue aims to demonstrate the new advancements in the development of regenerative therapies at the cellular level for TBI treatment. They include (but are not limited to) using genetically modified cells for axon, dendrite, and synapse regeneration; diminishing or repopulating specific types of cells for function recovery; delivering specific types of cells or cell products for the repair of neural circuits; compensating for lost cells or regenerating lost brain tissues via in vivo iPS reprogramming, and so on.

Dr. Xiang Gao
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • traumatic brain injury
  • regenerative therapy
  • neural regeneration
  • genetic modification
  • stem-cell therapy
  • cell transplantation
  • in vivo iPS reprogramming

Published Papers (2 papers)

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28 pages, 3129 KiB  
Article
Raman Spectroscopy Spectral Fingerprints of Biomarkers of Traumatic Brain Injury
by Georgia Harris, Clarissa A. Stickland, Matthias Lim and Pola Goldberg Oppenheimer
Cells 2023, 12(22), 2589; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12222589 - 08 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1711
Abstract
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects millions of people of all ages around the globe. TBI is notoriously hard to diagnose at the point of care, resulting in incorrect patient management, avoidable death and disability, long-term neurodegenerative complications, and increased costs. It is vital [...] Read more.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects millions of people of all ages around the globe. TBI is notoriously hard to diagnose at the point of care, resulting in incorrect patient management, avoidable death and disability, long-term neurodegenerative complications, and increased costs. It is vital to develop timely, alternative diagnostics for TBI to assist triage and clinical decision-making, complementary to current techniques such as neuroimaging and cognitive assessment. These could deliver rapid, quantitative TBI detection, by obtaining information on biochemical changes from patient’s biofluids. If available, this would reduce mis-triage, save healthcare providers costs (both over- and under-triage are expensive) and improve outcomes by guiding early management. Herein, we utilize Raman spectroscopy-based detection to profile a panel of 18 raw (human, animal, and synthetically derived) TBI-indicative biomarkers (N-acetyl-aspartic acid (NAA), Ganglioside, Glutathione (GSH), Neuron Specific Enolase (NSE), Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), Ubiquitin C-terminal Hydrolase L1 (UCHL1), Cholesterol, D-Serine, Sphingomyelin, Sulfatides, Cardiolipin, Interleukin-6 (IL-6), S100B, Galactocerebroside, Beta-D-(+)-Glucose, Myo-Inositol, Interleukin-18 (IL-18), Neurofilament Light Chain (NFL)) and their aqueous solution. The subsequently derived unique spectral reference library, exploiting four excitation lasers of 514, 633, 785, and 830 nm, will aid the development of rapid, non-destructive, and label-free spectroscopy-based neuro-diagnostic technologies. These biomolecules, released during cellular damage, provide additional means of diagnosing TBI and assessing the severity of injury. The spectroscopic temporal profiles of the studied biofluid neuro-markers are classed according to their acute, sub-acute, and chronic temporal injury phases and we have further generated detailed peak assignment tables for each brain-specific biomolecule within each injury phase. The intensity ratios of significant peaks, yielding the combined unique spectroscopic barcode for each brain-injury marker, are compared to assess variance between lasers, with the smallest variance found for UCHL1 (σ2 = 0.000164) and the highest for sulfatide (σ2 = 0.158). Overall, this work paves the way for defining and setting the most appropriate diagnostic time window for detection following brain injury. Further rapid and specific detection of these biomarkers, from easily accessible biofluids, would not only enable the triage of TBI, predict outcomes, indicate the progress of recovery, and save healthcare providers costs, but also cement the potential of Raman-based spectroscopy as a powerful tool for neurodiagnostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular Regeneration Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI))
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18 pages, 926 KiB  
Review
Traumatic Brain Injury Recovery with Photobiomodulation: Cellular Mechanisms, Clinical Evidence, and Future Potential
by Lew Lim
Cells 2024, 13(5), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13050385 - 23 Feb 2024
Viewed by 3018
Abstract
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) remains a significant global health challenge, lacking effective pharmacological treatments. This shortcoming is attributed to TBI’s heterogeneous and complex pathophysiology, which includes axonal damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and persistent neuroinflammation. The objective of this study is to analyze [...] Read more.
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) remains a significant global health challenge, lacking effective pharmacological treatments. This shortcoming is attributed to TBI’s heterogeneous and complex pathophysiology, which includes axonal damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and persistent neuroinflammation. The objective of this study is to analyze transcranial photobiomodulation (PBM), which employs specific red to near-infrared light wavelengths to modulate brain functions, as a promising therapy to address TBI’s complex pathophysiology in a single intervention. This study reviews the feasibility of this therapy, firstly by synthesizing PBM’s cellular mechanisms with each identified TBI’s pathophysiological aspect. The outcomes in human clinical studies are then reviewed. The findings support PBM’s potential for treating TBI, notwithstanding variations in parameters such as wavelength, power density, dose, light source positioning, and pulse frequencies. Emerging data indicate that each of these parameters plays a role in the outcomes. Additionally, new research into PBM’s effects on the electrical properties and polymerization dynamics of neuronal microstructures, like microtubules and tubulins, provides insights for future parameter optimization. In summary, transcranial PBM represents a multifaceted therapeutic intervention for TBI with vast potential which may be fulfilled by optimizing the parameters. Future research should investigate optimizing these parameters, which is possible by incorporating artificial intelligence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular Regeneration Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI))
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