10th Anniversary of Cells—Advances in Plant, Algae and Fungi Cell Biology

A special issue of Cells (ISSN 2073-4409). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant, Algae and Fungi Cell Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2021) | Viewed by 58313

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor


grade E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
К.А. Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology RAS, 35 Botanicheskaya St., 12 7276 Moscow, Russia
Interests: photosynthesis; plant physiology; environmental stress; abiotic stress; UV radiation; photoreceptor signalling; cyanobacteria; algal; ROS; nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ); chlorophyll fluorescence; salt stress; hydrogen energy; artificial photosynthesis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

2021 marks the 10th anniversary of the publication of Cells. We are delighted and proud to celebrate with a series of Special Issues and events. To date, the journal has published more than 4000 papers, and the journal website attracts more than 50,000 monthly page views. We would like to express our sincerest thanks to our readers, innumerable authors, anonymous peer reviewers, editors, and all the people working in some way for the journal who have made substantial contributions for years. Without your support, we would never have made it.

To mark this important milestone, a Special Issue entitled “10th Anniversary of Cells—Advances in Plant, Algae and Fungi Cell Biology” is being launched. This Special Issue will collect, research articles, and high-quality review papers in the research fields. We kindly encourage all research groups working in Plant, Algae and Fungi Cell Biology areas to make contributions to this Special Issue.

For the details of the Cells 2021 Best Paper Awards for Anniversary Special Issues please click here (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/cells/awards.pdf/0/pdf_32_2021_2_award.pdf).

text

Prof. Dr. Suleyman Allakhverdiev
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cells is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (15 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

4 pages, 222 KiB  
Editorial
10th Anniversary of Cells—Advances in Plant, Algae and Fungi Cell Biology
by Suleyman I. Allakhverdiev
Cells 2022, 11(23), 3759; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11233759 - 24 Nov 2022
Viewed by 825
Abstract
In 2021, the 10th anniversary of the publication of Cells occurred [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

25 pages, 5261 KiB  
Article
Comparative Genomics and Physiological Investigation of a New Arthrospira/Limnospira Strain O9.13F Isolated from an Alkaline, Winter Freezing, Siberian Lake
by Agnieszka E. Misztak, Malgorzata Waleron, Magda Furmaniak, Michal M. Waleron, Olga Bazhenova, Maurycy Daroch and Krzysztof F. Waleron
Cells 2021, 10(12), 3411; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10123411 - 03 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2311
Abstract
Cyanobacteria from the genus Arthrospira/Limnospira are considered haloalkalotolerant organisms with optimal growth temperatures around 35 °C. They are most abundant in soda lakes in tropical and subtropical regions. Here, we report the comprehensive genome-based characterisation and physiological investigation of the new strain O9.13F [...] Read more.
Cyanobacteria from the genus Arthrospira/Limnospira are considered haloalkalotolerant organisms with optimal growth temperatures around 35 °C. They are most abundant in soda lakes in tropical and subtropical regions. Here, we report the comprehensive genome-based characterisation and physiological investigation of the new strain O9.13F that was isolated in a temperate climate zone from the winter freezing Solenoye Lake in Western Siberia. Based on genomic analyses, the Siberian strain belongs to the Arthrospira/Limnospira genus. The described strain O9.13F showed the highest relative growth index upon cultivation at 20 °C, lower than the temperature 35 °C reported as optimal for the Arthrospira/Limnospira strains. We assessed the composition of fatty acids, proteins and photosynthetic pigments in the biomass of strain O9.13F grown at different temperatures, showing its potential suitability for cultivation in a temperate climate zone. We observed a decrease of gamma-linolenic acid favouring palmitic acid in the case of strain O9.13F compared to tropical strains. Comparative genomics showed no unique genes had been found for the Siberian strain related to its tolerance to low temperatures. In addition, this strain does not possess a different set of genes associated with the salinity stress response from those typically found in tropical strains. We confirmed the absence of plasmids and functional prophage sequences. The genome consists of a 4.94 Mbp with a GC% of 44.47% and 5355 encoded proteins. The Arthrospira/Limnospira strain O9.13F presented in this work is the first representative of a new clade III based on the 16S rRNA gene, for which a genomic sequence is available in public databases (PKGD00000000). Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 2866 KiB  
Article
The Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus viscosum Improves the Tolerance to Verticillium Wilt in Artichoke by Modulating the Antioxidant Defense Systems
by Alessandra Villani, Franca Tommasi and Costantino Paciolla
Cells 2021, 10(8), 1944; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10081944 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2266
Abstract
Verticillium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae, is the most severe disease that threatens artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) plants. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may represent a useful biological control strategy against this pathogen attack, replacing chemical compounds that, up [...] Read more.
Verticillium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae, is the most severe disease that threatens artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) plants. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may represent a useful biological control strategy against this pathogen attack, replacing chemical compounds that, up to now, have been not very effective. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the AMF Glomus viscosum Nicolson in enhancing the plant tolerance towards the pathogen V. dahliae. The role of the ascorbate-glutathione (ASC-GSH) cycle and other antioxidant systems involved in the complex network of the pathogen-fungi-plant interaction have been investigated. The results obtained showed that the AMF G. viscosum is able to enhance the defense antioxidant systems in artichoke plants affected by V. dahliae, alleviating the oxidative stress symptoms. AMF-inoculated plants exhibited significant increases in ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, a higher content of ascorbate (ASC) and glutathione (GSH), and a decrease in the levels of lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Hence, G. viscosum may represent an effective strategy for mitigating V. dahliae pathogenicity in artichokes, enhancing the plant defense systems, and improving the nutritional values and benefit to human health. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3572 KiB  
Article
Fungal Associates of Soft Scale Insects (Coccomorpha: Coccidae)
by Teresa Szklarzewicz, Katarzyna Michalik, Beata Grzywacz, Małgorzata Kalandyk-Kołodziejczyk and Anna Michalik
Cells 2021, 10(8), 1922; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10081922 - 29 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3006
Abstract
Ophiocordyceps fungi are commonly known as virulent, specialized entomopathogens; however, recent studies indicate that fungi belonging to the Ophiocordycypitaceae family may also reside in symbiotic interaction with their host insect. In this paper, we demonstrate that Ophiocordyceps fungi may be obligatory symbionts of [...] Read more.
Ophiocordyceps fungi are commonly known as virulent, specialized entomopathogens; however, recent studies indicate that fungi belonging to the Ophiocordycypitaceae family may also reside in symbiotic interaction with their host insect. In this paper, we demonstrate that Ophiocordyceps fungi may be obligatory symbionts of sap-sucking hemipterans. We investigated the symbiotic systems of eight Polish species of scale insects of Coccidae family: Parthenolecanium corni, Parthenolecanium fletcheri, Parthenolecanium pomeranicum, Psilococcus ruber, Sphaerolecanium prunasti, Eriopeltis festucae, Lecanopsis formicarum and Eulecanium tiliae. Our histological, ultrastructural and molecular analyses showed that all these species host fungal symbionts in the fat body cells. Analyses of ITS2 and Beta-tubulin gene sequences, as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization, confirmed that they should all be classified to the genus Ophiocordyceps. The essential role of the fungal symbionts observed in the biology of the soft scale insects examined was confirmed by their transovarial transmission between generations. In this paper, the consecutive stages of fungal symbiont transmission were analyzed under TEM for the first time. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 3632 KiB  
Article
Supra-Optimal Temperature: An Efficient Approach for Overaccumulation of Starch in the Green Alga Parachlorella kessleri
by Vilém Zachleder, Veronika Kselíková, Ivan N. Ivanov, Vitali Bialevich, Milada Vítová, Shuhei Ota, Tsuyoshi Takeshita, Shigeyuki Kawano and Kateřina Bišová
Cells 2021, 10(7), 1806; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10071806 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2446
Abstract
Green algae are fast-growing microorganisms that are considered promising for the production of starch and neutral lipids, and the chlorococcal green alga Parachlorella kessleri is a favorable model, as it can produce both starch and neutral lipids. P. kessleri commonly divides into more [...] Read more.
Green algae are fast-growing microorganisms that are considered promising for the production of starch and neutral lipids, and the chlorococcal green alga Parachlorella kessleri is a favorable model, as it can produce both starch and neutral lipids. P. kessleri commonly divides into more than two daughter cells by a specific mechanism—multiple fission. Here, we used synchronized cultures of the alga to study the effects of supra-optimal temperature. Synchronized cultures were grown at optimal (30 °C) and supra-optimal (40 °C) temperatures and incident light intensities of 110 and 500 μmol photons m−2 s−1. The time course of cell reproduction (DNA replication, cellular division), growth (total RNA, protein, cell dry matter, cell size), and synthesis of energy reserves (net starch, neutral lipid) was studied. At 40 °C, cell reproduction was arrested, but growth and accumulation of energy reserves continued; this led to the production of giant cells enriched in protein, starch, and neutral lipids. Furthermore, we examined whether the increased temperature could alleviate the effects of deuterated water on Parachlorella kessleri growth and division; results show that supra-optimal temperature can be used in algal biotechnology for the production of protein, (deuterated) starch, and neutral lipids. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3003 KiB  
Article
Cytokinin Modulates Cellular Trafficking and the Cytoskeleton, Enhancing Defense Responses
by Lorena Pizarro, Daniela Munoz, Iftah Marash, Rupali Gupta, Gautam Anand, Meirav Leibman-Markus and Maya Bar
Cells 2021, 10(7), 1634; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10071634 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2359
Abstract
The plant hormone cytokinin (CK) plays central roles in plant development and throughout plant life. The perception of CKs initiating their signaling cascade is mediated by histidine kinase receptors (AHKs). Traditionally thought to be perceived mostly at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) due to [...] Read more.
The plant hormone cytokinin (CK) plays central roles in plant development and throughout plant life. The perception of CKs initiating their signaling cascade is mediated by histidine kinase receptors (AHKs). Traditionally thought to be perceived mostly at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) due to receptor localization, CK was recently reported to be perceived at the plasma membrane (PM), with CK and its AHK receptors being trafficked between the PM and the ER. Some of the downstream mechanisms CK employs to regulate developmental processes are unknown. A seminal report in this field demonstrated that CK regulates auxin-mediated lateral root organogenesis by regulating the endocytic recycling of the auxin carrier PIN1, but since then, few works have addressed this issue. Modulation of the cellular cytoskeleton and trafficking could potentially be a mechanism executing responses downstream of CK signaling. We recently reported that CK affects the trafficking of the pattern recognition receptor LeEIX2, influencing the resultant defense output. We have also recently found that CK affects cellular trafficking and the actin cytoskeleton in fungi. In this work, we take an in-depth look at the effects of CK on cellular trafficking and on the actin cytoskeleton in plant cells. We find that CK influences the actin cytoskeleton and endomembrane compartments, both in the context of defense signaling—where CK acts to amplify the signal—as well as in steady state. We show that CK affects the distribution of FLS2, increasing its presence in the plasma membrane. Furthermore, CK enhances the cellular response to flg22, and flg22 sensing activates the CK response. Our results are in agreement with what we previously reported for fungi, suggesting a fundamental role for CK in regulating cellular integrity and trafficking as a mechanism for controlling and executing CK-mediated processes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 1423 KiB  
Article
Identification of Putative Virulence Genes by DNA Methylation Studies in the Cereal Pathogen Fusarium graminearum
by Francesco Tini, Giovanni Beccari, Gianpiero Marconi, Andrea Porceddu, Micheal Sulyok, Donald M. Gardiner, Emidio Albertini and Lorenzo Covarelli
Cells 2021, 10(5), 1192; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10051192 - 13 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2928
Abstract
DNA methylation mediates organisms’ adaptations to environmental changes in a wide range of species. We investigated if a such a strategy is also adopted by Fusarium graminearum in regulating virulence toward its natural hosts. A virulent strain of this fungus was consecutively sub-cultured [...] Read more.
DNA methylation mediates organisms’ adaptations to environmental changes in a wide range of species. We investigated if a such a strategy is also adopted by Fusarium graminearum in regulating virulence toward its natural hosts. A virulent strain of this fungus was consecutively sub-cultured for 50 times (once a week) on potato dextrose agar. To assess the effect of subculturing on virulence, wheat seedlings and heads (cv. A416) were inoculated with subcultures (SC) 1, 23, and 50. SC50 was also used to re-infect (three times) wheat heads (SC50×3) to restore virulence. In vitro conidia production, colonies growth and secondary metabolites production were also determined for SC1, SC23, SC50, and SC50×3. Seedling stem base and head assays revealed a virulence decline of all subcultures, whereas virulence was restored in SC50×3. The same trend was observed in conidia production. The DNA isolated from SC50 and SC50×3 was subject to a methylation content-sensitive enzyme and double-digest, restriction-site-associated DNA technique (ddRAD-MCSeEd). DNA methylation analysis indicated 1024 genes, whose methylation levels changed in response to the inoculation on a healthy host after subculturing. Several of these genes are already known to be involved in virulence by functional analysis. These results demonstrate that the physiological shifts following sub-culturing have an impact on genomic DNA methylation levels and suggest that the ddRAD-MCSeEd approach can be an important tool for detecting genes potentially related to fungal virulence. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 2837 KiB  
Article
Starch Production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii through Supraoptimal Temperature in a Pilot-Scale Photobioreactor
by Ivan N. Ivanov, Vilém Zachleder, Milada Vítová, Maria J. Barbosa and Kateřina Bišová
Cells 2021, 10(5), 1084; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10051084 - 01 May 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2950
Abstract
An increase in temperature can have a profound effect on the cell cycle and cell division in green algae, whereas growth and the synthesis of energy storage compounds are less influenced. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, laboratory experiments have shown that exposure to a supraoptimal [...] Read more.
An increase in temperature can have a profound effect on the cell cycle and cell division in green algae, whereas growth and the synthesis of energy storage compounds are less influenced. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, laboratory experiments have shown that exposure to a supraoptimal temperature (39 °C) causes a complete block of nuclear and cellular division accompanied by an increased accumulation of starch. In this work we explore the potential of supraoptimal temperature as a method to promote starch production in C. reinhardtii in a pilot-scale photobioreactor. The method was successfully applied and resulted in an almost 3-fold increase in the starch content of C. reinhardtii dry matter. Moreover, a maximum starch content at the supraoptimal temperature was reached within 1–2 days, compared with 5 days for the control culture at the optimal temperature (30 °C). Therefore, supraoptimal temperature treatment promotes rapid starch accumulation and suggests a viable alternative to other starch-inducing methods, such as nutrient depletion. Nevertheless, technical challenges, such as bioreactor design and light availability within the culture, still need to be dealt with. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 7917 KiB  
Article
Overexpression of an Agave Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Improves Plant Growth and Stress Tolerance
by Degao Liu, Rongbin Hu, Jin Zhang, Hao-Bo Guo, Hua Cheng, Linling Li, Anne M. Borland, Hong Qin, Jin-Gui Chen, Wellington Muchero, Gerald A. Tuskan and Xiaohan Yang
Cells 2021, 10(3), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10030582 - 06 Mar 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 5831
Abstract
It has been challenging to simultaneously improve photosynthesis and stress tolerance in plants. Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a CO2-concentrating mechanism that facilitates plant adaptation to water-limited environments. We hypothesized that the ectopic expression of a CAM-specific phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase [...] Read more.
It has been challenging to simultaneously improve photosynthesis and stress tolerance in plants. Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a CO2-concentrating mechanism that facilitates plant adaptation to water-limited environments. We hypothesized that the ectopic expression of a CAM-specific phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), an enzyme that catalyzes primary CO2 fixation in CAM plants, would enhance both photosynthesis and abiotic stress tolerance. To test this hypothesis, we engineered a CAM-specific PEPC gene (named AaPEPC1) from Agave americana into tobacco. In comparison with wild-type and empty vector controls, transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing AaPEPC1 showed a higher photosynthetic rate and biomass production under normal conditions, along with significant carbon metabolism changes in malate accumulation, the carbon isotope ratio δ13C, and the expression of multiple orthologs of CAM-related genes. Furthermore, AaPEPC1 overexpression enhanced proline biosynthesis, and improved salt and drought tolerance in the transgenic plants. Under salt and drought stress conditions, the dry weight of transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing AaPEPC1 was increased by up to 81.8% and 37.2%, respectively, in comparison with wild-type plants. Our findings open a new door to the simultaneous improvement of photosynthesis and stress tolerance in plants. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 17080 KiB  
Article
Overproduction of Human Zip (SLC39) Zinc Transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Biophysical Characterization
by Eva Ramos Becares, Per Amstrup Pedersen, Pontus Gourdon and Kamil Gotfryd
Cells 2021, 10(2), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10020213 - 21 Jan 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2922
Abstract
Zinc constitutes the second most abundant transition metal in the human body, and it is implicated in numerous cellular processes, including cell division, DNA and protein synthesis as well as for the catalytic activity of many enzymes. Two major membrane protein families facilitate [...] Read more.
Zinc constitutes the second most abundant transition metal in the human body, and it is implicated in numerous cellular processes, including cell division, DNA and protein synthesis as well as for the catalytic activity of many enzymes. Two major membrane protein families facilitate zinc homeostasis in the animal kingdom, i.e., Zrt/Irt-like proteins (ZIPs aka solute carrier 39, SLC39, family) and Zn transporters (ZnTs), essentially conducting zinc flux in the opposite directions. Human ZIPs (hZIPs) regulate import of extracellular zinc to the cytosol, being critical in preventing overaccumulation of this potentially toxic metal, and crucial for diverse physiological and pathological processes, including development of neurodegenerative disorders and several cancers. To date, our understanding of structure–function relationships governing hZIP-mediated zinc transport mechanism is scarce, mainly due to the notorious difficulty in overproduction of these proteins for biophysical characterization. Here we describe employment of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based platform for heterologous expression of hZIPs. We demonstrate that yeast is able to produce four full-length hZIP members belonging to three different subfamilies. One target (hZIP1) is purified in the high quantity and homogeneity required for the downstream biochemical analysis. Our work demonstrates the potential of the described production system for future structural and functional studies of hZIP transporters. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

24 pages, 5455 KiB  
Review
Legume Lectins with Different Specificities as Potential Glycan Probes for Pathogenic Enveloped Viruses
by Annick Barre, Els J. M. Van Damme, Bernard Klonjkowski, Mathias Simplicien, Jan Sudor, Hervé Benoist and Pierre Rougé
Cells 2022, 11(3), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11030339 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3202
Abstract
Pathogenic enveloped viruses are covered with a glycan shield that provides a dual function: the glycan structures contribute to virus protection as well as host cell recognition. The three classical types of N-glycans, in particular complex glycans, high-mannose glycans, and hybrid glycans, [...] Read more.
Pathogenic enveloped viruses are covered with a glycan shield that provides a dual function: the glycan structures contribute to virus protection as well as host cell recognition. The three classical types of N-glycans, in particular complex glycans, high-mannose glycans, and hybrid glycans, together with some O-glycans, participate in the glycan shield of the Ebola virus, influenza virus, human cytomegalovirus, herpes virus, human immunodeficiency virus, Lassa virus, and MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, which are responsible for respiratory syndromes. The glycans are linked to glycoproteins that occur as metastable prefusion glycoproteins on the surface of infectious virions such as gp120 of HIV, hemagglutinin of influenza, or spike proteins of beta-coronaviruses. Plant lectins with different carbohydrate-binding specificities and, especially, mannose-specific lectins from the Vicieae tribe, such as pea lectin and lentil lectin, can be used as glycan probes for targeting the glycan shield because of their specific interaction with the α1,6-fucosylated core Man3GlcNAc2, which predominantly occurs in complex and hybrid glycans. Other plant lectins with Neu5Ac specificity or GalNAc/T/Tn specificity can also serve as potential glycan probes for the often sialylated complex glycans and truncated O-glycans, respectively, which are abundantly distributed in the glycan shield of enveloped viruses. The biomedical and therapeutical potential of plant lectins as antiviral drugs is discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

23 pages, 30391 KiB  
Review
Deciphering the Role of Ion Channels in Early Defense Signaling against Herbivorous Insects
by Akanksha Gandhi, Rupesh Kariyat, Amaravadhi Harikishore, Marzieh Ayati, Anirban Bhunia and Nirakar Sahoo
Cells 2021, 10(9), 2219; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10092219 - 27 Aug 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3599
Abstract
Plants and insect herbivores are in a relentless battle to outwit each other. Plants have evolved various strategies to detect herbivores and mount an effective defense system against them. These defenses include physical and structural barriers such as spines, trichomes, cuticle, or chemical [...] Read more.
Plants and insect herbivores are in a relentless battle to outwit each other. Plants have evolved various strategies to detect herbivores and mount an effective defense system against them. These defenses include physical and structural barriers such as spines, trichomes, cuticle, or chemical compounds, including secondary metabolites such as phenolics and terpenes. Plants perceive herbivory by both mechanical and chemical means. Mechanical sensing can occur through the perception of insect biting, piercing, or chewing, while chemical signaling occurs through the perception of various herbivore-derived compounds such as oral secretions (OS) or regurgitant, insect excreta (frass), or oviposition fluids. Interestingly, ion channels or transporters are the first responders for the perception of these mechanical and chemical cues. These transmembrane pore proteins can play an important role in plant defense through the induction of early signaling components such as plasma transmembrane potential (Vm) fluctuation, intracellular calcium (Ca2+), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, followed by defense gene expression, and, ultimately, plant defense responses. In recent years, studies on early plant defense signaling in response to herbivory have been gaining momentum with the application of genetically encoded GFP-based sensors for real-time monitoring of early signaling events and genetic tools to manipulate ion channels involved in plant-herbivore interactions. In this review, we provide an update on recent developments and advances on early signaling events in plant-herbivore interactions, with an emphasis on the role of ion channels in early plant defense signaling. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 1382 KiB  
Review
Effects of Salinity Stress on Chloroplast Structure and Function
by Abdul Hameed, Muhammad Zaheer Ahmed, Tabassum Hussain, Irfan Aziz, Niaz Ahmad, Bilquees Gul and Brent L. Nielsen
Cells 2021, 10(8), 2023; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10082023 - 07 Aug 2021
Cited by 104 | Viewed by 8008
Abstract
Salinity is a growing problem affecting soils and agriculture in many parts of the world. The presence of salt in plant cells disrupts many basic metabolic processes, contributing to severe negative effects on plant development and growth. This review focuses on the effects [...] Read more.
Salinity is a growing problem affecting soils and agriculture in many parts of the world. The presence of salt in plant cells disrupts many basic metabolic processes, contributing to severe negative effects on plant development and growth. This review focuses on the effects of salinity on chloroplasts, including the structures and function of these organelles. Chloroplasts house various important biochemical reactions, including photosynthesis, most of which are considered essential for plant survival. Salinity can affect these reactions in a number of ways, for example, by changing the chloroplast size, number, lamellar organization, lipid and starch accumulation, and interfering with cross-membrane transportation. Research has shown that maintenance of the normal chloroplast physiology is necessary for the survival of the entire plant. Many plant species have evolved different mechanisms to withstand the harmful effects of salt-induced toxicity on their chloroplasts and its machinery. The differences depend on the plant species and growth stage and can be quite different between salt-sensitive (glycophyte) and salt-tolerant (halophyte) plants. Salt stress tolerance is a complex trait, and many aspects of salt tolerance in plants are not entirely clear yet. In this review, we discuss the different mechanisms of salt stress tolerance in plants with a special focus on chloroplast structure and its functions, including the underlying differences between glycophytes and halophytes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 7823 KiB  
Review
Updates on the Role of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) and ABSCISIC ACID-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING FACTORs (ABFs) in ABA Signaling in Different Developmental Stages in Plants
by Anna Collin, Agata Daszkowska-Golec and Iwona Szarejko
Cells 2021, 10(8), 1996; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10081996 - 05 Aug 2021
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 5686
Abstract
The core abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway consists of receptors, phosphatases, kinases and transcription factors, among them ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) and ABRE BINDING FACTORs/ABRE-BINDING PROTEINs (ABFs/AREBs), which belong to the BASIC LEUCINE ZIPPER (bZIP) family and control expression of stress-responsive genes. ABI5 [...] Read more.
The core abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway consists of receptors, phosphatases, kinases and transcription factors, among them ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) and ABRE BINDING FACTORs/ABRE-BINDING PROTEINs (ABFs/AREBs), which belong to the BASIC LEUCINE ZIPPER (bZIP) family and control expression of stress-responsive genes. ABI5 is mostly active in seeds and prevents germination and post-germinative growth under unfavorable conditions. The activity of ABI5 is controlled at transcriptional and protein levels, depending on numerous regulators, including components of other phytohormonal pathways. ABFs/AREBs act redundantly in regulating genes that control physiological processes in response to stress during vegetative growth. In this review, we focus on recent reports regarding ABI5 and ABFs/AREBs functions during abiotic stress responses, which seem to be partially overlapping and not restricted to one developmental stage in Arabidopsis and other species. Moreover, we point out that ABI5 and ABFs/AREBs play a crucial role in the core ABA pathway’s feedback regulation. In this review, we also discuss increased stress tolerance of transgenic plants overexpressing genes encoding ABA-dependent bZIPs. Taken together, we show that ABI5 and ABFs/AREBs are crucial ABA-dependent transcription factors regulating processes essential for plant adaptation to stress at different developmental stages. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 3863 KiB  
Review
Pentose Phosphate Pathway Reactions in Photosynthesizing Cells
by Thomas D. Sharkey
Cells 2021, 10(6), 1547; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10061547 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 8262
Abstract
The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is divided into an oxidative branch that makes pentose phosphates and a non-oxidative branch that consumes pentose phosphates, though the non-oxidative branch is considered reversible. A modified version of the non-oxidative branch is a critical component of the [...] Read more.
The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is divided into an oxidative branch that makes pentose phosphates and a non-oxidative branch that consumes pentose phosphates, though the non-oxidative branch is considered reversible. A modified version of the non-oxidative branch is a critical component of the Calvin–Benson cycle that converts CO2 into sugar. The reaction sequence in the Calvin–Benson cycle is from triose phosphates to pentose phosphates, the opposite of the typical direction of the non-oxidative PPP. The photosynthetic direction is favored by replacing the transaldolase step of the normal non-oxidative PPP with a second aldolase reaction plus sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase. This can be considered an anabolic version of the non-oxidative PPP and is found in a few situations other than photosynthesis. In addition to the strong association of the non-oxidative PPP with photosynthesis metabolism, there is recent evidence that the oxidative PPP reactions are also important in photosynthesizing cells. These reactions can form a shunt around the non-oxidative PPP section of the Calvin–Benson cycle, consuming three ATP per glucose 6-phosphate consumed. A constitutive operation of this shunt occurs in the cytosol and gives rise to an unusual labeling pattern of photosynthetic metabolites while an inducible shunt in the stroma may occur in response to stress. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop