Special Issue "Nanoparticles in the Catalysis"

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344). This special issue belongs to the section "Catalytic Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2023 | Viewed by 10091

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Vitali A. Grinberg
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospekt 31, Building 4, 119071 Moscow, Russia
Interests: nanoscale catalysts; fuel cells; redox chemistry; solar energy materials; thin films for nanotechnology and photoelectrocatalytic degradation of pollutants
Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospekt 31, Building 4, 119071 Moscow, Russia
Interests: nanoscale catalysts; fuel cells; electrocatalysts; flow batteries; electroanalytical chemistry; thin films and nanotechnology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The present Special Issue aims to combine a group of articles devoted to one of the most important areas in the field of catalysis, namely, catalysis by nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are the most common form of modern catalytic materials. Nanoparticles of very different chemical compositions and shapes (grains, rods, wires), supported by various carriers or unsupported, find their applications in organic synthesis, the photodegradation and chemical degradation of pollutants, the capture of carbon dioxide emissions, in the electrodes of fuel cells, and in other electrochemical power sources. The Special Issue will especially target synthetic catalysts, i.e., catalysts which are devised for the synthesis of organic compounds. Some specific reactions where nanoparticle catalysts are used include epoxidation, selective oxidation, selective reduction, hydrogenation, oxygen reduction, alcohol oxidation, and coupling reactions. Particular attention will be paid to the development of new, promising ways to synthesize active, stable, and selective nanocomposite catalysts. Articles devoted to applications of nanoparticle catalysts in various fields are welcome.

Dr. Vitali A. Grinberg
Dr. Alexander D. Modestov
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • nanoparticles
  • organic synthesis
  • catalysts for photodegradation
  • chemical degradation of pollutants
  • fuel cells
  • capture of carbon dioxide
  • oxygen reduction
  • alcohol oxidation

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Article
Synthesis of Co,Ce Oxide Nanoparticles Using an Aerosol Method and Their Deposition on Different Structured Substrates for Catalytic Removal of Diesel Particulate Matter
Catalysts 2023, 13(4), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13040660 - 28 Mar 2023
Viewed by 599
Abstract
The synthesis of Co and Ce oxide nanoparticles using precipitation of precursor salt solutions in the form of microdroplets generated with a nebulizer proved to be an efficient, fast and inexpensive method. Different morphologies of single oxides particles were obtained. Ceria nanoparticles were [...] Read more.
The synthesis of Co and Ce oxide nanoparticles using precipitation of precursor salt solutions in the form of microdroplets generated with a nebulizer proved to be an efficient, fast and inexpensive method. Different morphologies of single oxides particles were obtained. Ceria nanoparticles were almost cube-shaped of 8 nm average size, forming 1.3–1.5 μm aggregates, whereas cobalt oxide appeared as rounded-edged particles of 37 nm average size, mainly forming nanorods 50–500 nm. Co3O4 and CeO2 nanoparticles were used to generate structured catalysts from both metallic (stainless steel wire mesh monoliths) and ceramic (cordierite honeycombs) substrates. Ceria Nyacol was used as a binder to favor the anchoring of catalytic particles thus enhancing the adhesion of the coating. The resulting structured catalysts were tested for the combustion of diesel soot with the aim of being used in the regeneration of particulate filters (DPFs). The performance of these structured catalysts was similar to or even better than that exhibited by the catalysts prepared using commercial nanoparticles. Among the catalysts tested, the structured systems using ceramic substrates were more efficient, showing lower values of the maximum combustion rate temperatures (TM = 410 °C). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in the Catalysis)
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Article
The PtM/C (M = Co, Ni, Cu, Ru) Electrocatalysts: Their Synthesis, Structure, Activity in the Oxygen Reduction and Methanol Oxidation Reactions, and Durability
Catalysts 2023, 13(2), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13020243 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 796
Abstract
PtM/C (M = Co, Ni, Cu, Ru) catalysts were prepared by wet-synthesis methods. The composition and structure of the synthesized materials were estimated by TXRF, XRD, TEM, HAADF-STEM, EDX, and TGA/DSC methods. According to the CV and LSV methods, the PtCu/C material is [...] Read more.
PtM/C (M = Co, Ni, Cu, Ru) catalysts were prepared by wet-synthesis methods. The composition and structure of the synthesized materials were estimated by TXRF, XRD, TEM, HAADF-STEM, EDX, and TGA/DSC methods. According to the CV and LSV methods, the PtCu/C material is characterized by the highest activity in the ORR compared to the other materials studied. The PtRu/C catalysts also exhibit the highest activity in the MOR. Studying the durability of the obtained bimetallic catalysts using accelerated stress testing has allowed for the detection of the most promising materials, whose characteristics would be superior to those of the commercial Pt/C analog. This study has shown that wet-synthesis methods allow obtaining bimetallic catalysts characterized by higher activity and enhanced durability. This research also indicates that special attention should be given to the possibility of scaling these synthesis techniques, which makes the aforementioned catalysts promising for commercial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in the Catalysis)
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Article
Xanthan Gum-Mediated Silver Nanoparticles for Ultrasensitive Electrochemical Detection of Hg2+ Ions from Water
Catalysts 2023, 13(1), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13010208 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1074
Abstract
An environmentally safe, efficient, and economical microwave-assisted technique was selected for the production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). To prepare uniformly disseminated AgNPs, xanthan gum (XG) was utilized as both a reducing and capping agent. UV–Vis spectroscopy was used to characterize the formed XG-AgNPs, [...] Read more.
An environmentally safe, efficient, and economical microwave-assisted technique was selected for the production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). To prepare uniformly disseminated AgNPs, xanthan gum (XG) was utilized as both a reducing and capping agent. UV–Vis spectroscopy was used to characterize the formed XG-AgNPs, with the absorption band regulated at 414 nm under optimized parameters. Atomic force microscopy was used to reveal the size and shape of XG-AgNPs. The interactions between the XG capping agent and AgNPs observed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The XG-AgNPs were placed in between glassy carbon electrode and Nafion® surfaces and then deployed as sensors for voltammetric evaluation of mercury ions (Hg2+) using square-wave voltammetry as an analytical mode. Required Nafion® quantities, electrode behavior, electrolyte characteristics, pH, initial potentials, accumulation potentials, and accumulation durations were all comprehensively investigated. In addition, an electrochemical mechanism for the oxidation of Hg2+ was postulated. With an exceptional limit of detection of 0.18 ppb and an R2 value of 0.981, the sensors’ measured linear response range was 0.0007–0.002 µM Hg2+. Hg2+ evaluations were ultimately unaffected by the presence of many coexisting metal ions (Cd2+, Pb2+, Cr2O4, Co2+,Cu2+, CuSO4). Spiked water samples were tested using the described approach, with Hg2+ recoveries ranging from 97% to 100%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in the Catalysis)
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Article
Visible-Light-Driven CO2 Reduction into Methanol Utilizing Sol-Gel-Prepared CeO2-Coupled Bi2O3 Nanocomposite Heterojunctions
Catalysts 2022, 12(11), 1479; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12111479 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 969
Abstract
Carbon dioxide (CO2) photoreduction into renewable fuels over semiconductor photocatalysts has emerged as a green and sustainable alternative for energy production. Consequently, tremendous efforts are being performed to develop robust and sustainable photocatalysts. Therefore, visible-light active nanocomposite photocatalysts composed of 5.0–20.0 [...] Read more.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) photoreduction into renewable fuels over semiconductor photocatalysts has emerged as a green and sustainable alternative for energy production. Consequently, tremendous efforts are being performed to develop robust and sustainable photocatalysts. Therefore, visible-light active nanocomposite photocatalysts composed of 5.0–20.0 wt.% bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) and cerium oxide (CeO2) were synthesized by a sol-gel-based process. The prepared nanocomposites were evaluated for the promoted photocatalytic reduction of CO2 into methanol (CH3OH). Various characterizations of the obtained photocatalysts exposed an outstanding development of crystalline structure, morphology, and surface texture due to the presence of Bi2O3. Moreover, the absorbance of light in the visible regime was improved with enhanced charge separation, as revealed by the exploration of optical response, photoluminescence, and photocurrent measurements. The overall bandgap calculations revealed a reduction to 2.75 eV for 15% Bi2O3/CeO2 compared to 2.93 eV for pure CeO2. Moreover, the adjusted 2.8 g L−1 dose of 15% Bi2O3/CeO2 selectively produced 1300 μmol g−1 CH3OH after 9 h of visible light irradiation. This photocatalyst also exhibits bearable reusability five times. The improved progression of 15% Bi2O3/CeO2 is denoted by significant charge separation as well as enhanced mobility. This study suggests the application of metal oxide-based heterojunctions for renewable fuel production under visible light. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in the Catalysis)
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Article
Highly Active Ag-Cu Nanocrystal Catalyst-Coated Brewer’s Spent Grain Biochar for the Mineralization of Methyl Orange and Methylene Blue Dye Mixture
Catalysts 2022, 12(11), 1475; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12111475 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1269
Abstract
The aim of the present work is to valorise the brewing industry’s waste, i.e., brewer’s spent grain (BSG), into functional biocarbon for environmental catalysis applications. In this context, cost-effective and environmentally friendly biochar support coated with in-situ-generated Ag-Cu nanocrystals, was developed via the [...] Read more.
The aim of the present work is to valorise the brewing industry’s waste, i.e., brewer’s spent grain (BSG), into functional biocarbon for environmental catalysis applications. In this context, cost-effective and environmentally friendly biochar support coated with in-situ-generated Ag-Cu nanocrystals, was developed via the wet impregnation of BSG biomass powder with copper (II) nitrate trihydrate and silver nitrate aqueous solution prior to pyrolysis at moderate temperature (500 °C). Small-size homogenously distributed Ag-Cu nanocrystals (≤80 nm) on the surface of the biochar (Biochar@Ag-Cu) were observed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Elemental compositions were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The crystalline nature of the nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Information about the thermal stability of the materials and quality were obtained by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Raman, respectively. The potentiality of the Biochar@Ag-Cu catalyst in the field of pollutant removal is demonstrated by taking methyl orange and methylene blue as model dyes. A kinetics study was performed and analyzed by UV–vis spectroscopy. Its highly active catalytic nature is proved by the complete mineralization of the methyl orange dye (100%) through oxidative degradation. The reusability of the catalyst has shown 96% removal efficiency after 3 cycles. The linear plot of −Ln (CA/C0) vs. time (R2 = 0.9892) reveals that the mineralization of the methyl orange dye follows pseudo-first-order kinetics (k = 0.603 × 10−2 min−1). A methyl orange + methylene blue dye mixture degradation study has revealed the faster kinetics of the present catalyst towards methylene blue degradation. The current study suggests that BSG Biochar@Ag-Cu can be a potential candidate in contribution towards SDG 6. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in the Catalysis)
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Article
Activity and Structure of Nano-Sized Cobalt-Containing Systems for the Conversion of Lignin and Fuel Oil to Synthesis Gas and Hydrocarbons in a Microwave-Assisted Plasma Catalytic Process
Catalysts 2022, 12(11), 1315; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12111315 - 27 Oct 2022
Viewed by 777
Abstract
In this study, we present the results of lignin and fuel oil conversion to hydrogen, synthesis gas, and liquid hydrocarbons in the presence of nano-sized cobalt-containing systems in a microwave-assisted plasma catalytic process. The deposition of a small amount of cobalt on lignin [...] Read more.
In this study, we present the results of lignin and fuel oil conversion to hydrogen, synthesis gas, and liquid hydrocarbons in the presence of nano-sized cobalt-containing systems in a microwave-assisted plasma catalytic process. The deposition of a small amount of cobalt on lignin increases its microwave absorption capacity and provides plasma generation in the reaction zone. The role of Co-containing particles in the above catalytic reactions is probably to activate the carbon bonds of lignin, which substantially increases the microwave absorption capacity of the system as a whole. The subsequent use of the cobalt-containing residue of lignin conversion as a catalytic system and MWI-absorbing material results in active fuel oil pyrolysis in a plasma catalytic process to afford gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons. In the plasma catalytic pyrolysis, fuel oil conversion is probably accompanied by the conversion of the organic matter of the residue and agglomeration of cobalt oxide particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in the Catalysis)
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Article
Photoelectrocatalytic Properties of a Ti-Modified Nanocrystalline Hematite Film Photoanode
Catalysts 2022, 12(10), 1243; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12101243 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 860
Abstract
Photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of methanol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthol on thin-film nanocrystalline hematite electrodes fabricated by electrochemical deposition and promoted with spin-coated titanium has been studied. It is shown that the modification of hematite transforms it into material exhibiting high activity in the [...] Read more.
Photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of methanol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthol on thin-film nanocrystalline hematite electrodes fabricated by electrochemical deposition and promoted with spin-coated titanium has been studied. It is shown that the modification of hematite transforms it into material exhibiting high activity in the photoelectrochemical process of substrate oxidation upon illumination with light in the visible region of the spectrum. The highest activity is observed in the reaction of photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of glycerol. Results of intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) suggest that the effect is due to an increased rate of charge transfer in the process of photoelectro-oxidation and efficient suppression of the recombination of generated electron-hole pairs. Therefore, thin-film photoanodes based on modified hematite are promising for practical application in the photooxidation of glycerol, a by-product of biofuel production, as well as in the photoelectrochemical degradation of other organic pollutants, including those formed during the production of pharmaceuticals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in the Catalysis)
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Article
Deposition of Pt Nanoparticles by Ascorbic Acid on Composite Electrospun Polyacrylonitrile-Based Carbon Nanofiber for HT-PEM Fuel Cell Cathodes
Catalysts 2022, 12(8), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12080891 - 13 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1015
Abstract
The efficient use of renewable energy sources requires development of new electrocatalytic materials for electrochemical energy storage systems, particularly fuel cells. To increase durability of high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (HT-PEMFC), Pt/carbon black based catalysts should be replaced by more durable ones, [...] Read more.
The efficient use of renewable energy sources requires development of new electrocatalytic materials for electrochemical energy storage systems, particularly fuel cells. To increase durability of high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (HT-PEMFC), Pt/carbon black based catalysts should be replaced by more durable ones, for example Pt/carbon nanofibers (CNF). Here, we report for the first time the quantitative ascorbic acid assisted deposition of Pt onto electrospun polyacrylonitrile-based CNF composite materials. The effect of their subsequent post-treatment at various temperatures (250 and 500 °C) and media (vacuum or argon-hydrogen mixture) on the Pt/C catalyst morphology is investigated. All obtained samples are thoroughly studied by high resolution electron microscopy, and Pt electrochemically active specific surface area was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in the Catalysis)
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Article
L-asparagine Assisted Synthesis of Pt/CeO2 Nanospheres for Toluene Combustion
Catalysts 2022, 12(8), 887; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12080887 - 12 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 756
Abstract
Pt1/CeO2 nanospheres (Pt/CeO2-NS) were synthesized by the bath oiling method with L-asparagine as a necessary additive. Owing to the morphology control effect and coordination interaction of L-asparagine, CeO2 nanospheres can retain their nanosphere structure and show stronger [...] Read more.
Pt1/CeO2 nanospheres (Pt/CeO2-NS) were synthesized by the bath oiling method with L-asparagine as a necessary additive. Owing to the morphology control effect and coordination interaction of L-asparagine, CeO2 nanospheres can retain their nanosphere structure and show stronger electronic metal-support interaction with highly dispersed Pt. Moreover, the toluene catalytic combustion performance of Pt/CeO2-NS was investigated. The structure-performance relationship is analyzed according to the coordination state of Pt. The Pt/CeO2-NS catalyst exhibited superior catalytic activity than the commercial CeO2-supported Pt catalyst, which is attributed to its higher oxygen vacancy and Pt4+. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in the Catalysis)
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Review

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Review
Bio-Fabrication of Trimetallic Nanoparticles and Their Applications
Catalysts 2023, 13(2), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13020321 - 01 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1249
Abstract
Nanoparticles are materials whose size is less than 100 nm. Because of their distinctive physical and chemical characteristics, nanoparticles have drawn considerable interest in a variety of fields. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is a green and environmentally friendly technology, which requires fewer chemical reagents, [...] Read more.
Nanoparticles are materials whose size is less than 100 nm. Because of their distinctive physical and chemical characteristics, nanoparticles have drawn considerable interest in a variety of fields. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is a green and environmentally friendly technology, which requires fewer chemical reagents, precursors, and catalysts. There are various types of nanomaterials, out of which trimetallic nanoparticles are receiving considerable interest in recent years. Trimetallic nanoparticles possess unique catalytic, biomedical, antimicrobial, active food packaging, and sensing applications as compared to monometallic or bimetallic nanoparticles. Trimetallic nanoparticles are currently synthesized by various methods such as chemical reduction, microwave-assisted, thermal, precipitation, and so on. However, most of these chemical and physical methods are expensive and toxic to the environment. Biological synthesis is one of the promising methods, which includes the use of bacteria, plants, fungi, algae, waste biomass, etc., as reducing agents. Secondary metabolites present in the biological agents act as capping and reducing agents. Green trimetallic nanoparticles can be used for different applications such as anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, catalytic activity, etc. This review provides an overview of the synthesis of trimetallic nanoparticles using biological agents, and their applications in different areas such as anticancer, antimicrobial activity, drug delivery, catalytic activity, etc. Finally, current challenges, future prospects, and conclusions are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in the Catalysis)
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