Catalysis in Green Chemistry and Organic Synthesis

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344). This special issue belongs to the section "Catalysis in Organic and Polymer Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2022) | Viewed by 23220

Special Issue Editors

Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute, Università Magna Græcia, Viale Europa, Germaneto, 88100 Catanzaro, CZ, Italy
Interests: catalysis; green chemistry; organic synthesis; natural compounds; sustainable chemical processes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bontchev Str. Bl. 9, Sofia 1113, Bulgaria
Interests: transition metals; homogeneous catalysis; supported homogeneous catalysis; ligand design; bioactive platinum compounds
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
ICYTAC, CONICET and Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Departamento. Química Orgánica. Ciudad Universitaria, Bv. Juan Filloy s/n, 5000 Córdoba, Argentina
Interests: food chemistry; green chemistry; catalysis; green solvents

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A typical chemical process generates products and wastes from raw materials such as substrates, solvents, and reagents. The prevention of waste can be achieved if most of the reagents and the solvent are recyclable. In this context, catalysts play an important role in the development of new eco-sustainable synthetic processes aimed at reducing waste material thanks to processes of recovery and reuse of the same catalyst. Data presented in the literature over the last decade detail important achievements in the catalytic synthesis (heterogeneous and homogeneous) of organic compounds and their interesting contribution to the development of new eco-sustainable processes.

This Special Issue of Catalysts aims to present a collection of the most recent progress and advances in the field of heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysts based on green chemical reactions and sustainable industrial processes.

Prof. Dr. Monica Nardi
Dr. Svilen P. Simeonov
Dr. Herrera Cano Natividad Carolina
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • catalysis
  • organic synthesis
  • green chemistry
  • sustainability
  • environmental impact
  • solid acid/base catalysts

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 2724 KiB  
Article
1,3-Butadiene Production Using Ash-Based Catalyst
Catalysts 2023, 13(2), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13020258 - 22 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1246
Abstract
The production of 1,3-butadiene from ethanol was carried out using ash as a catalyst in combination with Zr and Mg. The catalytic experiments were carried out at 350–400 °C with a different weight hourly space velocity (WHSV). The catalysts that were used were [...] Read more.
The production of 1,3-butadiene from ethanol was carried out using ash as a catalyst in combination with Zr and Mg. The catalytic experiments were carried out at 350–400 °C with a different weight hourly space velocity (WHSV). The catalysts that were used were combined as follows: Ash, Ash:MgO (weight ratio 1:1), Ash:MgO (1:2), Ash:MgO (1:3), and Ash: MgO/ZrO2 (1:1:1). The characterization of the catalyst was carried out using BET, SEM, XRD, TGA, and XPS, respectively. The yield of 1,3-butadiene using bare ash was 65% at 400 °C and 2.5 h−1 of WHSV. Using the Ash:MgO (1:2) catalyst led to an ethanol conversion rate of 79 % at 350 °C; the yield and selectivity of 1,3-butadiene were 48% and 87.8 %, respectively. Using the Ash:MgO(1:3) catalyst led to a 1,3-butadiene yield of 25% and a selectivity of 82% at 350 °C. The Ash:MgO(1:2) catalyst had a 1,3-butadiene yield of 50% and selectivity of 83%, and the Ash:MgO(1:1) had a 1,3-butadiene yield of 30% and selectivity of 80%, while the Ash:MgO/ZrO2 (1:1:1) catalyst had a 1,3-butadiene yield of 50% and selectivity of 90.8% at 2.5 h−1 of WHSV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysis in Green Chemistry and Organic Synthesis)
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26 pages, 12759 KiB  
Article
Novel Highly Efficient Green and Reusable Cu(II)/Chitosan-Based Catalysts for the Sonogashira, Buchwald, Aldol, and Dipolar Cycloaddition Reactions
Catalysts 2023, 13(1), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13010203 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1979
Abstract
In this study, new Cu(II)/chitosan-based systems were designed via (i) the treatment of chitosan with sodium sulfate (1a) or sodium acetate (1b); (ii) the coating of 1a or 2a with a sodium hyaluronate layer (2a and 2b, [...] Read more.
In this study, new Cu(II)/chitosan-based systems were designed via (i) the treatment of chitosan with sodium sulfate (1a) or sodium acetate (1b); (ii) the coating of 1a or 2a with a sodium hyaluronate layer (2a and 2b, correspondingly); (iii) the treatment of a cholesterol–chitosan conjugate with sodium sulfate (3a) or sodium acetate (3b); and (iv) the succination of 1a and 1b to afford 4a and 4b or the succination of 2a and 2b to yield 5a and 5b. The catalytic properties of the elaborated systems in various organic transformations were evaluated. The use of copper sulfate as the source of Cu2+ ions results in the formation of nanoparticles, while the use of copper acetate leads to the generation of conventional coarse-grained powder. Cholesterol-containing systems have proven to be highly efficient catalysts for the cross-coupling reactions of different types (e.g., Sonogashira, Buchwald–Hartwig, and Chan–Lam types); succinated systems coated with a layer of hyaluronic acid are promising catalysts for the aldol reaction; systems containing inorganic copper(II) salt nanoparticles are capable of catalyzing the nitrile-oxide-to-nitrile 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The elaborated catalytic systems efficiently catalyze the aforementioned reactions in the greenest solvent available, i.e., water, and the processes could be conducted in air. The studied catalytic reactions proceed selectively, and the isolation of the product does not require column chromatography. The product is separated from the catalyst by simple filtration or centrifugation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysis in Green Chemistry and Organic Synthesis)
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20 pages, 4016 KiB  
Article
A Stable and Reusable Supported Copper Catalyst for the Selective Liquid-Phase Hydrogenation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural to 2,5-Bis(hydroxymethyl)furan
Catalysts 2022, 12(11), 1476; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12111476 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1479
Abstract
Synthesis of 2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan (BHMF) by selective 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) hydrogenation is ecofriendly and industrially important since HMF is obtained from renewable sources, and BHMF is a raw material used for production of biodegradable polymers. Four copper-based catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation (Cu/SiO [...] Read more.
Synthesis of 2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan (BHMF) by selective 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) hydrogenation is ecofriendly and industrially important since HMF is obtained from renewable sources, and BHMF is a raw material used for production of biodegradable polymers. Four copper-based catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation (Cu/SiO2-I, Cu/Al2O3-I), precipitation–deposition (Cu/SiO2-PD) and coprecipitation (CuMgAl), and then tested in the liquid-phase hydrogenation of HMF. Metallic phases with large copper particles were obtained by incipient wetness impregnation, while precipitation methods gave highly dispersed metal copper nanoparticles. The pattern found for the concentration and strength of surface acid sites was: CuMgAl > Cu/Al2O3-I > Cu/SiO2-PD > Cu/SiO2-I. The copper-based catalysts active in HMF hydrogenation are all highly selective to BHMF, but the intrinsic activity and stability depend on metallic copper dispersion and support nature. The catalyst stability becomes poorer in the cases that the metallic phase is formed by large copper particles or interacts with high-acidity supports. Therefore, the catalyst with the highest activity, BHMF yield and stability was Cu/SiO2-PD. Furthermore, it was found that Cu/SiO2-PD is reusable in the selective liquid-phase HMF hydrogenation after being submitted to a two-step thermal treatment: (1) calcination under air flow at 673 K; (2) reduction under H2 flow at 523 K. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysis in Green Chemistry and Organic Synthesis)
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12 pages, 13625 KiB  
Article
A Reusable FeCl3∙6H2O/Cationic 2,2′-Bipyridyl Catalytic System for Reduction of Nitroarenes in Water
Catalysts 2022, 12(8), 924; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12080924 - 21 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1594
Abstract
The association of a commercially-available iron (III) chloride hexahydrate (FeCl3∙6H2O) with cationic 2,2′-bipyridyl in water was proven to be an operationally simple and reusable catalytic system for the highly-selective reduction of nitroarenes to anilines. This procedure was conducted under [...] Read more.
The association of a commercially-available iron (III) chloride hexahydrate (FeCl3∙6H2O) with cationic 2,2′-bipyridyl in water was proven to be an operationally simple and reusable catalytic system for the highly-selective reduction of nitroarenes to anilines. This procedure was conducted under air using 1–2 mol% of catalyst in the presence of nitroarenes and 4 equiv of hydrazine monohydrate (H2NNH2∙H2O) in neat water at 100 °C for 12 h, and provided high to excellent yields of aniline derivatives. After separation of the aqueous catalytic system from the organic product, the residual aqueous solution could be applied for subsequent reuse, without any catalyst retreatment or regeneration, for several runs with only a slight decrease in activity, proving this process eco-friendly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysis in Green Chemistry and Organic Synthesis)
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11 pages, 1941 KiB  
Article
Copper Catalyzed Inverse Electron Demand [4+2] Cycloaddition for the Synthesis of Oxazines
Catalysts 2022, 12(5), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12050526 - 07 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1665
Abstract
A copper catalyzed tandem CuAAC/ring cleavage/[4+2] annulation reaction of terminal ynones, sulfonyl azides, and imines has been developed to synthesize the functionalized oxazines under mild conditions. Particularly, the intermediate N-sulfonyl acylketenimines undergo cycloaddition of an inverse electron demand Diels–Alder reaction with imines [...] Read more.
A copper catalyzed tandem CuAAC/ring cleavage/[4+2] annulation reaction of terminal ynones, sulfonyl azides, and imines has been developed to synthesize the functionalized oxazines under mild conditions. Particularly, the intermediate N-sulfonyl acylketenimines undergo cycloaddition of an inverse electron demand Diels–Alder reaction with imines and a series of 1,3-oxazine derivatives were obtained successfully in good yields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysis in Green Chemistry and Organic Synthesis)
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10 pages, 2588 KiB  
Article
Selective Synthesis of 2-(1,2,3-Triazoyl) Quinazolinones through Copper-Catalyzed Multicomponent Reaction
Catalysts 2021, 11(10), 1170; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11101170 - 27 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2148
Abstract
We describe here our results from the copper-catalyzed three component reaction of 2-azidobenzaldehyde, anthranilamide and terminal alkynes, using Et3N as base, and DMSO as solvent. Depending on the temperature and amount of Et3N used in the reactions, 1,2,3-triazolyl-quinazolinones or [...] Read more.
We describe here our results from the copper-catalyzed three component reaction of 2-azidobenzaldehyde, anthranilamide and terminal alkynes, using Et3N as base, and DMSO as solvent. Depending on the temperature and amount of Et3N used in the reactions, 1,2,3-triazolyl-quinazolinones or 1,2,3-triazolyl-dihydroquinazolinone could be obtained. When the reactions were performed at 100 °C using 2 equivalents of Et3N, 1,2,3-triazolyl-dihydroquinazolinone was formed in 82% yield, whereas reactions carried out at 120 °C using 1 equivalent of Et3N provided 1,2,3-triazolyl-quinazolinones in moderate-to-good yields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysis in Green Chemistry and Organic Synthesis)
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Review

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35 pages, 8307 KiB  
Review
A Review on the Green Synthesis of Benzimidazole Derivatives and Their Pharmacological Activities
Catalysts 2023, 13(2), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13020392 - 11 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5205
Abstract
Benzimidazoles and their derivatives play an extraordinarily significant role as therapeutic agents, e.g., antiulcer, analgesic, and anthelmintic drugs. The organic synthesis of benzimidazoles and derivatives to obtain active pharmacological compounds represents an important research area in organic chemistry. The use of non-environmental organic [...] Read more.
Benzimidazoles and their derivatives play an extraordinarily significant role as therapeutic agents, e.g., antiulcer, analgesic, and anthelmintic drugs. The organic synthesis of benzimidazoles and derivatives to obtain active pharmacological compounds represents an important research area in organic chemistry. The use of non-environmental organic compounds and application high energy synthetic methods, the production of waste, and the application of conventional toxic processes are a problem for the pharmaceutical industry and for these important drugs’ synthesis. The substituted benzimidazoles are summarized in this review to provide insight about their organic synthesis using ecofriendly methods, as well as their pharmacological activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysis in Green Chemistry and Organic Synthesis)
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38 pages, 5792 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances of Green Catalytic System I2/DMSO in C–C and C–Heteroatom Bonds Formation
Catalysts 2022, 12(8), 821; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12080821 - 26 Jul 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2711
Abstract
Developing a green, practical and efficient method for the formation of C–C and C–Heteroatom bonds is an important topic in modern organic synthetic chemistry. In recent years, the I2/DMSO catalytic system has attracted wide attention because of its green, high efficiency, [...] Read more.
Developing a green, practical and efficient method for the formation of C–C and C–Heteroatom bonds is an important topic in modern organic synthetic chemistry. In recent years, the I2/DMSO catalytic system has attracted wide attention because of its green, high efficiency, atomic economy, low cost, mild reaction conditions and it is environment-friendly, which is more in line with the requirements of sustainable chemistry. Heteroatom-containing compounds have shown lots of important applications in pharmaceutical synthesis, agrochemicals, material chemistry and organic dyes. At present, the I2/DMSO catalytic system has been successfully applied to the synthesis of various heteroatom-containing compounds. The C–C and C–Heteroatom bonds have been formed efficiently, which has been proved to be a green and mild catalytic system. In this review, the research achievements of the I2/DMSO catalytic system in the formation of C–C and C–Heteroatom bonds from 2015 to date are described, and the research area is prospected. This review attempts to reveal the general law of iodine catalysis and lay a foundation for the design of new reactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysis in Green Chemistry and Organic Synthesis)
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18 pages, 963 KiB  
Review
Synthesis of Propylene Carbonate by Urea Alcoholysis—Recent Advances
Catalysts 2022, 12(3), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12030309 - 09 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3922
Abstract
Organic carbonates are considered the chemicals of the future. In particular, propylene carbonate is widely used as a non-reactive solvent, plasticizer, fuel additive, and reagent, especially in the production of environmentally friendly polymers that are not harmful to human health. This paper reviews [...] Read more.
Organic carbonates are considered the chemicals of the future. In particular, propylene carbonate is widely used as a non-reactive solvent, plasticizer, fuel additive, and reagent, especially in the production of environmentally friendly polymers that are not harmful to human health. This paper reviews recent literature findings regarding the development of propylene carbonate synthetic methods starting from propane-1,2-diol and urea. The ammonia formed during the synthesis is recycled to obtain urea from carbon dioxide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysis in Green Chemistry and Organic Synthesis)
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