Trends in Environmental Applications of Advanced Oxidation Processes

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Catalysis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 35394

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Separation Science, School of Engineering Science, Lappeenranta-Lahti University of Technology (LUT), Lappeenranta, Finland
Interests: AOPs; photo-Fenton; catalytic wet peroxide oxidation; photocatalysis; contaminants of emerging concern (CECs); toxicity bioassays; urban and industrial wastewater treatment

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Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Technologies, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, INMAR-Marine Research Institute, CEIMAR- International Campus of Excellence of the Sea, University of Cadiz, 11003 Cádiz, Spain
Interests: water disinfection by means of advanced oxidation processes; water treatment related with maritime industry (such as aquaculture and ballast water management) and related impacts on the oceans health; technological processes for cyanobacterial and cyanotoxin removal

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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland
Interests: catalysis; water and wastewater treatment; advanced oxidation processes (AOPs); photocatalysis; thin films; SODIS; pathogen inactivation
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are promising techniques, which can be used for various environmental applications. Currently, AOPs are receiving an extensive amount of interest from many researchers mainly due to their non-selective behavior and potential for pollutant oxidation, and lack of solid waste formation for the majority of them. However, there are some knowledge gaps in scientific literature, such as the efficiency and applicability of AOPs for real environmental water and/or wastewater matrices, effectiveness of AOPs for toxicity reduction, influence of environmental conditions and constituents on AOPs, cost of studied treatment methods, etc. This Special Issue invites original research papers as well as reviews focused on various environmental applications of AOPs, including but not limited to the following areas:

  • Application of AOPs for removal of organic pollutants (e.g., CECs) from water matrices of diverse origin;
  • AOPs for inactivation of microorganisms, e.g., viruses, bacteria, including those with antibiotic resistance, etc.;
  • Application of AOPs for toxicity reduction;
  • Life cycle assessment of AOPs;
  • Operational conditions and economic assessment.

Dr. Juan José Rueda-Márquez
Dr. Javier Moreno-Andrés
Dr. Irina Levchuk
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs)
  • Municipal wastewater
  • Industrial wastewater
  • Microorganism inactivation
  • Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs)
  • Toxicity removal
  • Life cycle assessment

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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20 pages, 3455 KiB  
Article
Peroxymonosulfate Activation by Different Synthesized CuFe-MOFs: Application for Dye, Drugs, and Pathogen Removal
by Antia Fdez-Sanromán, Bárbara Lomba-Fernández, Marta Pazos, Emilio Rosales and Angeles Sanromán
Catalysts 2023, 13(5), 820; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13050820 - 29 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1491
Abstract
In this study, three CuFe-MOFs were successfully synthesized by a solvothermal process by changing the ratio of solvents, salts, or temperature. These MOFs named CuFe(BDC-NH2)R, CuFe(BDC-NH2)S, and CuFe(BDC-NH2)D showed rod-shaped, spindle-like, and [...] Read more.
In this study, three CuFe-MOFs were successfully synthesized by a solvothermal process by changing the ratio of solvents, salts, or temperature. These MOFs named CuFe(BDC-NH2)R, CuFe(BDC-NH2)S, and CuFe(BDC-NH2)D showed rod-shaped, spindle-like, and diamond-like structures, respectively. The CuFe(BDC-NH2)D and CuFe(BDC-NH2)S were found to exhibit an improved PMS activation for Rhodamine B removal attaining levels around 92%. Their effective removal capability was investigated as a function of the pH, catalyst dosage, and the effect of the application of UV radiation. The best degradation system was photo-assisted activation of PMS when CuFe(BDC-NH2)D and CuFe(BDC-NH2)S were used. Under these conditions, the degradation of a mixture of antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drugs (sulfamethoxazole and antipyrine) was evaluated with the results revealing the total degradation of both drugs after 1 h. A higher antibacterial activity was attained with the system CuFe(BDC-NH2)R/PMS due to the high copper content with respect to the others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Environmental Applications of Advanced Oxidation Processes)
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15 pages, 10361 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Mn-Doped Co3O4 Catalysts by an Eco-Friendly Solid-State Method for Catalytic Combustion of Low-Concentration Methane
by Linshuang Xue, Chenyi Yuan, Shipeng Wu, Zhen Huang, Zhen Yan, Stéphane Streiff, Hualong Xu and Wei Shen
Catalysts 2023, 13(3), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13030529 - 05 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1853
Abstract
Coalbed methane is a significant source of methane in the atmosphere, which is a potent greenhouse gas with a considerable contribution to global warming, thus it is of great importance to remove methane in coalbed gas before the emission. Exploring the economical non-noble [...] Read more.
Coalbed methane is a significant source of methane in the atmosphere, which is a potent greenhouse gas with a considerable contribution to global warming, thus it is of great importance to remove methane in coalbed gas before the emission. Exploring the economical non-noble metal catalysts for catalytic methane combustion (CMC) has been a wide concern to mitigate the greenhouse effect caused by the emitted low-concentration methane. Herein, a series of Mn-doped Co3O4 catalysts have been synthesized by the environmentally friendly solid-state method. As a result, the Mn0.05Co1 catalyst performed the best CMC activity (T90 = 370 °C) and good moisture tolerance (3 vol% steam). The introduction of an appropriate amount of manganese conduced Co3O4 lattice distortion and transformed Co3+ to Co2+, thus producing more active oxygen vacancies. Mn0.05Co1 exhibited better reducibility and oxygen mobility. In situ studies revealed that methane was adsorbed and oxidized much easier on Mn0.05Co1, which is the crucial reason for its superior catalytic performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Environmental Applications of Advanced Oxidation Processes)
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24 pages, 4487 KiB  
Article
Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction to CH4 and Dye Degradation Using Bismuth Oxychloride/Bismuth Oxyiodide/Graphitic Carbon Nitride (BiOmCln/BiOpIq/g-C3N4) Nanocomposite with Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity
by Yong-Ming Dai, Wu-Tsan Wu, Yu-Yun Lin, Hsiao-Li Wu, Szu-Han Chen, Jih-Mirn Jehng, Jia-Hao Lin, Fu-Yu Liu and Chiing-Chang Chen
Catalysts 2023, 13(3), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13030522 - 03 Mar 2023
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2035
Abstract
The use of visible-light-driven photocatalysts in wastewater treatment, photoreduction of CO2, green solar fuels, and solar cells has elicited substantial research attention. Bismuth oxyhalide and its derivatives are a group of visible-light photocatalysts that can diminish electron–hole recombination in layered structures [...] Read more.
The use of visible-light-driven photocatalysts in wastewater treatment, photoreduction of CO2, green solar fuels, and solar cells has elicited substantial research attention. Bismuth oxyhalide and its derivatives are a group of visible-light photocatalysts that can diminish electron–hole recombination in layered structures and boost photocatalytic activity. The energy bandgap of these photocatalysts lies in the range of visible light. A simple hydrothermal method was applied to fabricate a series of bismuth oxychloride/bismuth oxyiodide/grafted graphitic carbon nitride (BiOmCln/BiOpIq/g-C3N4) sheets with different contents of g-C3N4. The fabricated sheets were characterized through XRD, TEM, SEM-EDS, XPS, UV-vis DRS, PL, and BET. The conversion efficiency of CO2 reduction to CH4 of BiOmCln/BiOpIq of 4.09 μmol g−1 can be increased to 39.43 μmol g−1 by compositing with g-C3N4. It had an approximately 9.64 times improvement. The photodegradation rate constant for crystal violet (CV) dye of BiOmCln/BiOpIq of k = 0.0684 can be increased to 0.2456 by compositing with g-C3N4. It had an approximately 3.6 times improvement. The electron paramagnetic resonance results and the quenching effects indicated that 1O2, •OH, h+, and •O2 were active species in the aforementioned photocatalytic degradation. Because of their heterojunction, the prepared ternary nanocomposites possessed the characteristics of a heterojunction of type II band alignment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Environmental Applications of Advanced Oxidation Processes)
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13 pages, 1946 KiB  
Article
Photocatalytic Removal of Thiamethoxam and Flonicamid Pesticides Present in Agro-Industrial Water Effluents
by Michalis K. Arfanis, George V. Theodorakopoulos, Christos Anagnostopoulos, Irene Georgaki, Evangelos Karanasios, George Em. Romanos, Emilia Markellou and Polycarpos Falaras
Catalysts 2023, 13(3), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13030516 - 03 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1392
Abstract
Pesticide residues, when present in agricultural wastewater, constitute a potential risk for the environment and human health. Hence, focused actions for their abatement are of high priority for both the industrial sectors and national authorities. This work evaluates the effectiveness of the photocatalytic [...] Read more.
Pesticide residues, when present in agricultural wastewater, constitute a potential risk for the environment and human health. Hence, focused actions for their abatement are of high priority for both the industrial sectors and national authorities. This work evaluates the effectiveness of the photocatalytic process to decompose two frequently detected pesticides in the water effluents of the fruit industry: thiamethoxam-a neonicotinoid compound and flonicamid-a pyridine derivative. Their photocatalytic degradation and mineralization were evaluated in a lab-scale photocatalytic batch reactor under UV-A illumination with the commercial photocatalyst Evonik P25 TiO2 by employing different experimental conditions. The complete degradation of thiamethoxam was achieved after 90 min, when the medium was adjusted to natural or alkaline pH. Flonicamid was proven to be a more recalcitrant substance and the removal efficiency reached ~50% at the same conditions, although the degradation overpassed 75% in the acidic pH medium. Overall, the pesticides’ degradation follows the photocatalytic reduction pathways, where positive charged holes and hydroxyl radicals dominate as reactive species, with complete mineralization taking place after 4 h, regardless of the pH medium. Moreover, it was deduced that the pesticides’ degradation kinetics followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) model, and the apparent rate constant, the initial degradation rate, as well as the L-H model parameters, were determined for both pesticides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Environmental Applications of Advanced Oxidation Processes)
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25 pages, 4683 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Green Magnetite/Carbonized Coffee Composite from Natural Pyrite for Effective Decontamination of Congo Red Dye: Steric, Synergetic, Oxidation, and Ecotoxicity Studies
by Marwa H. Shemy, Sarah I. Othman, Haifa E. Alfassam, Maha A. Al-Waili, Haifa A. Alqhtani, Ahmed A. Allam and Mostafa R. Abukhadra
Catalysts 2023, 13(2), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13020264 - 24 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1798
Abstract
Green magnetite/carbonized spent coffee (MG/CFC) composite was synthesized from natural pyrite and characterized as an adsorbent and catalyst in photo-Fenton’s oxidation system of Congo red dye (C.R). The absorption behavior was illustrated based on the steric and energetic parameters of the advanced Monolayer [...] Read more.
Green magnetite/carbonized spent coffee (MG/CFC) composite was synthesized from natural pyrite and characterized as an adsorbent and catalyst in photo-Fenton’s oxidation system of Congo red dye (C.R). The absorption behavior was illustrated based on the steric and energetic parameters of the advanced Monolayer equilibrium model of one energetic site (R2 > 0.99). The structure exhibits 855 mg/g as effective site density which induces its C.R saturation adsorption capacity to 436.1 mg/g. The change in the number of absorbed C.R per site with temperature (n = 1.53 (293) to 0.51 (313 K)) suggests changes in the mechanism from multimolecular (up to 2 molecules per site) to multianchorage (one molecule per more than one site) processes. The energetic studies (ΔE = 6.2–8.2 kJ/mol) validate the physical uptake of C.R by MG/CFC which might be included van der Waals forces, electrostatic attractions, and hydrogen bonding. As a catalyst, MG/CFC exhibits significant activity during the photo-Fenton’s oxidation of C.R under visible light. The complete oxidation of C.R was detected after 105 min (5 mg/L), 120 min (10 mg/L), 135 min (15 mg/L), 180 min (20 mg/L), and 240 min (25 mg/L) using MG/CFC at 0.2 g/L dosage and 0.1 mL of H2O2. Increasing the dosage up to 0.5 g/L reduce the complete oxidation interval of C.R (5 mg/L) down to 30 min while the complete mineralization was detected after 120 min. The acute and chronic toxicities of the treated samples demonstrate significant safe products of no toxic effects on aquatic organisms as compared to the parent C.R solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Environmental Applications of Advanced Oxidation Processes)
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18 pages, 1657 KiB  
Article
Full-Scale O3/Micro-Nano Bubbles System Based Advanced Oxidation as Alternative Tertiary Treatment in WWTP Effluents
by Laura Ponce-Robles, Aránzazu Pagán-Muñoz, Andrés Jesús Lara-Guillén, Beatriz Masdemont-Hernández, Teresa Munuera-Pérez, Pedro Antonio Nortes-Tortosa and Juan José Alarcón-Cabañero
Catalysts 2023, 13(1), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13010188 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2275
Abstract
Wastewater treatment plant effluents can be an important source of contamination in agricultural reuse practices, as pharmaceuticals are poorly degraded by conventional treatments and can enter crops, thereby becoming a toxicological risk. Therefore, advanced tertiary treatments are required. Ozone (O3) is [...] Read more.
Wastewater treatment plant effluents can be an important source of contamination in agricultural reuse practices, as pharmaceuticals are poorly degraded by conventional treatments and can enter crops, thereby becoming a toxicological risk. Therefore, advanced tertiary treatments are required. Ozone (O3) is a promising alternative due to its capacity to degrade pharmaceutical compounds, together with its disinfecting power. However, mass transfer from the gas to the liquid phase can be a limiting step. A novel alternative for increased ozone efficiency is the combination of micro-nano bubbles (MNBs). However, this is still a fairly unknown method, and there are also many uncertainties regarding their implementation in large-scale systems. In this work, a combined O3/MNBs full-scale system was installed in a WWTP to evaluate the removal efficiency of 12 pharmaceuticals, including COVID-19-related compounds. The results clearly showed that the use of MNBs had a significantly positive contribution to the effects of ozone, reducing energy costs with respect to conventional O3 processes. Workflow and ozone production were key factors for optimizing the system, with the highest efficiencies achieved at 2000 L/h and 15.9 gO3/h, resulting in high agronomic water quality effluents. A first estimation of the transformation products generated was described, jointly with the energy costs required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Environmental Applications of Advanced Oxidation Processes)
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18 pages, 4270 KiB  
Article
Detection and Degradation Studies of Nile Blue Sulphate Using Electrochemical and UV-Vis Spectroscopic Techniques
by Muhammad Nadir Saleem, Afzal Shah, Naimat Ullah, Jan Nisar and Faiza Jan Iftikhar
Catalysts 2023, 13(1), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13010141 - 07 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2285
Abstract
An efficient and reliable electrochemical sensing platform based on COOH-fMWCNTs modified GCE (COOH-fMWCNTs/GCE) was designed for the detection of nanomolar concentration of Nile Blue Sulphate (NBS). In comparison to the bare GCE, the electrochemical sensing scaffold considerably enhanced the [...] Read more.
An efficient and reliable electrochemical sensing platform based on COOH-fMWCNTs modified GCE (COOH-fMWCNTs/GCE) was designed for the detection of nanomolar concentration of Nile Blue Sulphate (NBS). In comparison to the bare GCE, the electrochemical sensing scaffold considerably enhanced the peak current response of NBS dye as confirmed from the results of voltammetric investigations. The electrochemical approach of detecting NBS in the droplet of its solution dried over the surface of modified electrode validated, the role of modifier in enhancing the sensing response. Under optimized conditions, the designed electrochemical platform demonstrated a wide linearity range (0.03–10 μM) for NBS, with LOD of 1.21 nM. Moreover, COOH-fMWCNTs/GCE was found reproducible and stable as confirmed by repeatability and inter-day durability tests. The selectivity of the designed sensing matrix was ensured by anti-interference tests. The photocatalytic degradation of NBS dye was carried out by using TiO2 nanoparticles as photocatalyst in the presence of H2O2. UV-visible spectroscopic studies revealed 95% photocatalytic degradation of NBS following a pseudo-first-order kinetics with a rate constant of 0.028 min−1. These findings were supported electrochemically by monitoring the photocatalytically degraded dye at the designed sensing platform. The color variation and final decolorization of the selected dye in water served as a visual indicator of the degradation process. To conclude, the designed sensing platform immobilized with COOH-fMWCNTs imparted improved selectivity and sensitivity to detect and to, monitor the photocatalytic degradation of NBS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Environmental Applications of Advanced Oxidation Processes)
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13 pages, 2789 KiB  
Article
Photocatalytic and Sonocatalytic Degradation of EDTA and Rhodamine B over Ti0 and Ti@TiO2 Nanoparticles
by Sara El Hakim, Tony Chave and Sergey I. Nikitenko
Catalysts 2021, 11(8), 928; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11080928 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2430
Abstract
Herein, we report a comparative study of photocatalytic (Xe-lamp) and sonocatalytic (345 kHz power ultrasound) degradation of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and Rhodamine B (RhB) in the presence of Ti0 and Ti@TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles (NPs). Ti@TiO2 NPs have been obtained by [...] Read more.
Herein, we report a comparative study of photocatalytic (Xe-lamp) and sonocatalytic (345 kHz power ultrasound) degradation of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and Rhodamine B (RhB) in the presence of Ti0 and Ti@TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles (NPs). Ti@TiO2 NPs have been obtained by sonohydrothermal treatment (20 kHz, 200 °C) of commercially available Ti0 NPs in pure water. The obtained material is composed of quasi-spherical Ti0 particles (30–150 nm) coated by 5–15 nm crystals of anatase. In contrast to pristine TiO2, the Ti@TiO2 NPs exhibit the extend photo response from UV to NIR light region due to the light absorption by nonplasmonic Ti core. EDTA can be oxidized effectively by photocatalysis in the presence of Ti@TiO2 NPs. By contrast, air passivated Ti0 nanoparticles was found to be inactive in the photocatalytic process for both EDTA and RhB. Photocatalytic degradation of EDTA over Ti@TiO2 NPs exhibits strong photothermal effect, which has been attributed to the higher yield of oxidizing radicals produced by light at higher bulk temperature. The efficiency of RhB photocatalytic degradation depends strongly on RhB concentration. At [RhB] ≥ 1 × 10−3 M, its photocatalytic degradation is not feasible due to a strong self-absorption. At lower concentrations, RhB photocatalytic degradation is observed, but at lower efficiency compared to EDTA. We found that the efficient sonochemical degradation of RhB does not require the presence of any catalysts. For both processes, EDTA and RhB, sonochemical and photocatalytic processes are more effective in the presence of Ar/O2 gas mixture compared to pure Ar. The obtained results suggest that the choice of the optimal technology for organic pollutants degradation can be determined by their optical and complexing properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Environmental Applications of Advanced Oxidation Processes)
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15 pages, 14739 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of Iron-Based Photo-Driven Processes by the Presence of Catechol Moieties
by Javier Moreno-Andrés, Iván Vallés, Paula García-Negueroles, Lucas Santos-Juanes and Antonio Arques
Catalysts 2021, 11(3), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11030372 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2185
Abstract
Photo-induced Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) using H2O2 or S2O82− as radical precursors were assessed for the abatement of six different contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). In order to increase the efficiency of these AOPs at a [...] Read more.
Photo-induced Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) using H2O2 or S2O82− as radical precursors were assessed for the abatement of six different contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). In order to increase the efficiency of these AOPs at a wider pH range, the catechol organic functional compound was studied as a potential assistant in photo-driven iron-based processes. Different salinity regimes were also studied (in terms of Cl concentration), namely low salt water (1 g·L−1) or a salt–water (30 g·L−1) matrix. Results obtained revealed that the presence of catechol could efficiently assist the photo-Fenton system and partly promote the photo-induced S2O82− system, which was highly dependent on salinity. Regarding the behavior of individual CECs, the photo-Fenton reaction was able to enhance the degradation of all six CECs, meanwhile the S2O82−-based process showed a moderate enhancement for acetaminophen, amoxicillin or clofibric acid. Finally, a response-surface methodology was employed to determine the effect of pH and catechol concentration on the different photo-driven processes. Catechol was removed during the degradation process. According to the results obtained, the presence of catechol in organic macromolecules can bring some advantages in water treatment for either freshwater (wastewater) or seawater (maritime or aquaculture industry). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Environmental Applications of Advanced Oxidation Processes)
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Review

Jump to: Research

32 pages, 15346 KiB  
Review
Recent Combinations of Electrospinning with Photocatalytic Technology for Treating Polluted Water
by He Lv, Yanan Liu, Yubin Bai, Hongpu Shi, Wen Zhou, Yaoning Chen, Yang Liu and Deng-Guang Yu
Catalysts 2023, 13(4), 758; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13040758 - 15 Apr 2023
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 2216
Abstract
Dyes, antibiotics, heavy metal ions, and bacteria are important sources of water pollution. How to solve these issues has become a problem in the fields of science and technology. People have developed a variety of technologies to treat pollutants in water. Photocatalytic technology [...] Read more.
Dyes, antibiotics, heavy metal ions, and bacteria are important sources of water pollution. How to solve these issues has become a problem in the fields of science and technology. People have developed a variety of technologies to treat pollutants in water. Photocatalytic technology came into being. As a simple and environmentally friendly treatment technology, it has been widely studied by the scientific community. Traditional powder photocatalysts cause secondary pollution to the environment and are not conducive to recycling. Therefore, large specific surface area and reusable membrane photocatalysts built by electrospinning technology have become a favorite of today’s scientific community. Nanofiber membranes prepared by electrospinning technology have a variety of structures, which can meet the needs of different occasions. This review summarizes and discusses research progress in electrospinning technology, the relationship between the structure and treatment of electrospun fiber membranes, and their impacts on the photocatalytic performance of nanofiber membranes. The performance, challenges, and future development directions of nanofiber membranes with different structures, prepared by different kinds of electrospinning techniques using photocatalysis to treat different pollutants, are reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Environmental Applications of Advanced Oxidation Processes)
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29 pages, 1977 KiB  
Review
A Review on the Treatment of Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Using Advanced Oxidation Processes
by Wamda Faisal Elmobarak, Bassim H. Hameed, Fares Almomani and Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah
Catalysts 2021, 11(7), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11070782 - 27 Jun 2021
Cited by 52 | Viewed by 8067
Abstract
The petroleum industry is one of the most rapidly developing industries and is projected to grow faster in the coming years. The recent environmental activities and global requirements for cleaner methods are pushing the petroleum refining industries for the use of green techniques [...] Read more.
The petroleum industry is one of the most rapidly developing industries and is projected to grow faster in the coming years. The recent environmental activities and global requirements for cleaner methods are pushing the petroleum refining industries for the use of green techniques and industrial wastewater treatment. Petroleum industry wastewater contains a broad diversity of contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons, oil and grease, phenol, ammonia, sulfides, and other organic composites, etc. All of these compounds within discharged water from the petroleum industry exist in an extremely complicated form, which is unsafe for the environment. Conventional treatment systems treating refinery wastewater have shown major drawbacks including low efficiency, high capital and operating cost, and sensitivity to low biodegradability and toxicity. The advanced oxidation process (AOP) method is one of the methods applied for petroleum refinery wastewater treatment. The objective of this work is to review the current application of AOP technologies in the treatment of petroleum industry wastewater. The petroleum wastewater treatment using AOP methods includes Fenton and photo-Fenton, H2O2/UV, photocatalysis, ozonation, and biological processes. This review reports that the treatment efficiencies strongly depend on the chosen AOP type, the physical and chemical properties of target contaminants, and the operating conditions. It is reported that other mechanisms, as well as hydroxyl radical oxidation, might occur throughout the AOP treatment and donate to the decrease in target contaminants. Mainly, the recent advances in the AOP treatment of petroleum wastewater are discussed. Moreover, the review identifies scientific literature on knowledge gaps, and future research ways are provided to assess the effects of these technologies in the treatment of petroleum wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Environmental Applications of Advanced Oxidation Processes)
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26 pages, 1484 KiB  
Review
Toxicity Reduction of Industrial and Municipal Wastewater by Advanced Oxidation Processes (Photo-Fenton, UVC/H2O2, Electro-Fenton and Galvanic Fenton): A Review
by Juan José Rueda-Márquez, Irina Levchuk, Manuel Manzano and Mika Sillanpää
Catalysts 2020, 10(6), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10060612 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 48 | Viewed by 5496
Abstract
The application of Fenton-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as photo-Fenton or electro-Fenton for wastewater treatment have been extensively studied in recent decades due to its high efficiency for the decomposition of persistent organic pollutants. Usually Fenton-based AOPs are used for the degradation [...] Read more.
The application of Fenton-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as photo-Fenton or electro-Fenton for wastewater treatment have been extensively studied in recent decades due to its high efficiency for the decomposition of persistent organic pollutants. Usually Fenton-based AOPs are used for the degradation of targeted pollutant or group of pollutants, which often leads to the formation of toxic by-products possessing a potential environmental risk. In this work, we have collected and reviewed recent findings regarding the feasibility of Fenton-based AOPs (photo-Fenton, UVC/H2O2, electro-Fenton and galvanic Fenton) for the detoxification of real municipal and industrial wastewaters. More specifically, operational conditions, relevance and suitability of different bioassays for the toxicity assessment of various wastewater types, cost estimation, all of which compose current challenges for the application of these AOPs for real wastewater detoxification are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Environmental Applications of Advanced Oxidation Processes)
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