Catalysis in Biomass Valorization

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomass Catalysis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 May 2022) | Viewed by 17011

Special Issue Editors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Utilization of biomass for the production of energy and value-added chemicals became, in the previous decade, a very active area of research, leading to a number of industrial breakthroughs in the development of future biorefineries.

The role of catalysis in the implementation of sustainable technologies for the conversion of non-edible biomass into biofuels and chemicals is vital.

We invite contributions related to the use of catalysis for the valorization of biomass of different types (lignocellulosic, algal biomass, vegetable oils, etc.) into fuels, platform chemicals, and other value products (e.g., catalysis in synthesis of pharmaceuticals from extractives). The scope of this Special Issue also covers the preparation and characterization of catalysts.

Papers on molecular insights in the processing of biomass with different catalysts (homogeneous, enzymatic, and heterogeneous) are strongly encouraged.

Moreover, contributions related to catalytic reaction and reactor engineering, industrial demonstrations, and technoeconomic analysis of catalytic processes for biomass valorization are welcome.

Dr. Irina Simakova
Prof. Dr. Dmitry Yu. Murzin
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • biorefinery
  • biomass valorization
  • gasification
  • pyrolysis
  • cellulose
  • hemicellulose
  • lignin
  • platform chemicals
  • extractives
  • catalysis
  • reaction engineering
  • technoeconomic analysis

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 152 KiB  
Editorial
Catalysis in Biomass Valorization—Preface to the Special Issue
by Irinal L. Simakova and Dmitry Yu. Murzin
Catalysts 2023, 13(12), 1478; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13121478 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 784
Abstract
Biomass valorization has been the focus of substantial efforts in the industry and academia, addressing the issues of global warming and depletion of fossil resources [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysis in Biomass Valorization)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

29 pages, 7923 KiB  
Article
Screening of Cellulolytic Bacteria from Various Ecosystems and Their Cellulases Production under Multi-Stress Conditions
by Amel Balla, Allaoua Silini, Hafsa Cherif-Silini, Ali Chenari Bouket, Amel Boudechicha, Lenka Luptakova, Faizah N. Alenezi and Lassaad Belbahri
Catalysts 2022, 12(7), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12070769 - 11 Jul 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4330
Abstract
Cellulose represents the most abundant component of plant biomass on earth; it is degraded by cellulases, specific enzymes produced by microorganisms. However, cellulases of bacterial origin attract more interest due to their natural diversity and ability to inhabit a variety of niches, allowing [...] Read more.
Cellulose represents the most abundant component of plant biomass on earth; it is degraded by cellulases, specific enzymes produced by microorganisms. However, cellulases of bacterial origin attract more interest due to their natural diversity and ability to inhabit a variety of niches, allowing the selection of cellulolytic strains resistant to environmental stresses. The screening of the cellulolytic activity of 398 bacteria isolated from various ecosystems in Algeria (cave, ruins, chott, thermal station, and rhizosphere of arid and semi-arid regions) was performed by the appearance of a hydrolysis zone on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) medium. The cellulase activity on CMC (1%) broth allowed to select 26 strains among which 12 had the best activity (0.3 U/mL to 2.2 U/mL). Optimization of physicochemical parameters (salinity: 0–1 M NaCl; pH: 3, 4, 7, 9, and 11; temperature: 30, 45, and 50 °C; PEG8000: 0 and 30%) involved in growth and cellulose production showed that the majority of strains were mesophilic, neutrophilic, or alkali- tolerant and tolerant to 30% of PEG8000. The cellulase activity and stability under different stress allowed to retain five strains, which the most efficient. Based on the 16S-rRNA sequencing results, they belonged to the genus Bacillus. The physicochemical properties of cellulases (crude extract) showed a CMCase active over a wide range of pH (4 to 11), optimal at 50 °C and 60 °C. The inhibiting salinity effect on the activity was not detected and was negligible on the enzymatic stability. The residual CMCase activity remained between 40 and 70% in a temperature range between 40 and 70 °C, was stable over a wide range of saline concentrations (0–2000 mM), and was weakly affected at 30% of PEG8000. The crude enzyme extract was able to hydrolyze both soluble and insoluble cellulosic substrates. The evaluation of the hydrolysis capacity of lignocellulosic waste revealed the ability of tested strains to degrade wheat bran, barley bran, and corncob. In addition, the enzyme showed significant multi-stress resistance on solid and liquid media. By these characteristics, these cellulolytic bacteria could be attractive to be used in various industrial and biotechnology applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysis in Biomass Valorization)
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21 pages, 17347 KiB  
Article
Bio-DEE Synthesis and Dehydrogenation Coupling of Bio-Ethanol to Bio-Butanol over Multicomponent Mixed Metal Oxide Catalysts
by Izabela S. Pieta, Alicja Michalik, Elka Kraleva, Dusan Mrdenovic, Alicja Sek, Ewa Wahaczyk, Agnieszka Lewalska-Graczyk, Mikolaj Krysa, Anna Sroka-Bartnicka, Piotr Pieta, Robert Nowakowski, Agata Lew and Ewa M. Serwicka
Catalysts 2021, 11(6), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11060660 - 22 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3029
Abstract
Within the Waste2Fuel project, innovative, high-performance, and cost-effective fuel production methods from municipal solid wastes (MSWs) are sought for application as energy carriers or direct drop-in fuels/chemicals in the near-future low-carbon power generation systems and internal combustion engines. Among the studied energy vectors, [...] Read more.
Within the Waste2Fuel project, innovative, high-performance, and cost-effective fuel production methods from municipal solid wastes (MSWs) are sought for application as energy carriers or direct drop-in fuels/chemicals in the near-future low-carbon power generation systems and internal combustion engines. Among the studied energy vectors, C1-C2 alcohols and ethers are mainly addressed. This study presents a potential bio-derived ethanol oxidative coupling in the gas phase in multicomponent systems derived from hydrotalcite-containing precursors. The reaction of alcohol coupling to ethers has great importance due to their uses in different fields. The samples have been synthesized by the co-precipitation method via layered double hydroxide (LDH) material synthesis, with a controlled pH, where the M(II)/M(III) ≈ 0.35. The chemical composition and topology of the sample surface play essential roles in catalyst activity and product distribution. The multiple redox couples Ni2+/Ni3+, Cr2+/Cr3+, Mn2+/Mn3+, and the oxygen-vacant sites were considered as the main active sites. The introduction of Cr (Cr3+/Cr4+) and Mn (Mn3+/Mn4+) into the crystal lattice could enhance the number of oxygen vacancies and affect the acid/base properties of derived mixed oxides, which are considered as crucial parameters for process selectivity towards bio-DEE and bio-butanol, preventing long CH chain formation and coke deposition at the same time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysis in Biomass Valorization)
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20 pages, 3664 KiB  
Article
Dehydration of Biomass-Derived Butanediols over Rare Earth Zirconate Catalysts
by Asami Matsuda, Yoshitaka Matsumura, Kazuki Nakazono, Fumiya Sato, Ryoji Takahashi, Yasuhiro Yamada and Satoshi Sato
Catalysts 2020, 10(12), 1392; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10121392 - 29 Nov 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2532
Abstract
The aim of this work is to develop an effective catalyst for the conversion of butanediols, which is derivable from biomass, to valuable chemicals such as unsaturated alcohols. The dehydration of 1,4-, 1,3-, and 2,3-butanediol to form unsaturated alcohols such as 3-buten-1-ol, 2-buten-1-ol, [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to develop an effective catalyst for the conversion of butanediols, which is derivable from biomass, to valuable chemicals such as unsaturated alcohols. The dehydration of 1,4-, 1,3-, and 2,3-butanediol to form unsaturated alcohols such as 3-buten-1-ol, 2-buten-1-ol, and 3-buten-2-ol was studied in a vapor-phase flow reactor over sixteen rare earth zirconate catalysts at 325 °C. Rare earth zirconates with high crystallinity and high specific surface area were prepared in a hydrothermal treatment of co-precipitated hydroxide. Zirconates with heavy rare earth metals, especially Y2Zr2O7 with an oxygen-defected fluorite structure, showed high catalytic performance of selective dehydration of 1,4-butanediol to 3-buten-1-ol and also of 1,3-butanediol to form 3-buten-2-ol and 2-buten-1-ol, while the zirconate catalysts were less active in the dehydration of 2,3-butanediol. The calcination of Y2Zr2O7 significantly affected the catalytic activity of the dehydration of 1,4-butanediol: a calcination temperature of Y2Zr2O7 at 900 °C or higher was efficient for selective formation of unsaturated alcohols. Y2Zr2O7 with high crystallinity exhibits the highest productivity of 3-buten-1-ol from 1,4-butanediol at 325 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysis in Biomass Valorization)
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18 pages, 2963 KiB  
Article
Entrapping Immobilisation of Lipase on Biocomposite Hydrogels toward for Biodiesel Production from Waste Frying Acid Oil
by Papasanee Muanruksa, Praepilas Dujjanutat and Pakawadee Kaewkannetra
Catalysts 2020, 10(8), 834; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10080834 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2714
Abstract
A new application of biocomposite hydrogels named gelatin-alginate (GA) and pectin alginate (PA) enables the use of the hydrogels as carriers for lipase entrapment during biodiesel production. Waste frying acid oil (WFAO), a raw material, was converted to biodiesel via an esterification reaction [...] Read more.
A new application of biocomposite hydrogels named gelatin-alginate (GA) and pectin alginate (PA) enables the use of the hydrogels as carriers for lipase entrapment during biodiesel production. Waste frying acid oil (WFAO), a raw material, was converted to biodiesel via an esterification reaction catalysed by two different immobilised biocatalysts: gelatin-alginate lipase (GAL) and pectin-alginate lipase (PAL). The highest immobilisation yield of GAL and PAL beads was achieved at 97.61% and 98.30%, respectively. Both of them gave biodiesel yields in the range of 75–78.33%. Furthermore, capability and reusability of biocatalysts were improved such that they could be reused up to 7 cycles. Moreover, the predicted biodiesel properties met the European biodiesel standard (EN14214). Interestingly, entrapped lipase on composite hydrogels can be used as an alternative catalyst choice for replacing the chemical catalyst during the biodiesel production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysis in Biomass Valorization)
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12 pages, 1726 KiB  
Article
Microwave-Assisted Degradation of Biomass with the Use of Acid Catalysis
by Grzegorz Kłosowski, Dawid Mikulski and Natalia Lewandowska
Catalysts 2020, 10(6), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10060641 - 08 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2510
Abstract
The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of microwave pretreatment combined with acid catalysis in the decomposition of various types of biomass (pine and beech chips and hemp stems). It was clearly demonstrated that sulfuric acid was a catalyst enabling [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of microwave pretreatment combined with acid catalysis in the decomposition of various types of biomass (pine and beech chips and hemp stems). It was clearly demonstrated that sulfuric acid was a catalyst enabling the most effective decomposition of the tested plant biomass, guaranteeing the highest concentrations of simple sugars released. Acid catalysis with 1% v/v sulfuric acid combined with microwave radiation provided high glucose concentrations of 89.8 ± 3.4, 170.4 ± 2.4 and 164.6 ± 4.6 mg/g for pine chips, beech chips and hemp stems, respectively. In turn, the use of nitric acid promoted the degradation of hemicellulose, which resulted in high concentrations of galactose and xylose, i.e., 147.6 ± 0.6, 163.6 ± 0.4 and 134.9 ± 0.8 mg/g of pine chips, beech chips and hemp stems, respectively, while glucose levels remained relatively low. It was also demonstrated that the undesirable dehydration of sugars such as glucose and xylose is more pronounced in sulfuric acid than nitric acid processes. The use of H2SO4 and increased pressure generated 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and furfural at a concentration of ca. 12 and 6 mg/g, 10 and 45 mg/g and 14 and 30 mg/g, of pine chips, beech chips and hemp shoots, respectively. Our studies confirmed the usefulness of the combined use of microwaves and acid catalysis in the degradation of softwood, hardwood and non-wood plant biomass. It should be emphasized that obtaining high concentrations of released simple sugars (as potential substrates in biosynthesis), while maintaining low levels of toxic by-products (inhibitors), requires precise selection of process parameters such as pressure, exposition time and type of acid catalyst. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysis in Biomass Valorization)
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