Heterogeneous Catalysis for the Production of Biofuels and Biochemicals

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomass Catalysis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 9037

Special Issue Editor

College of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, China
Interests: biomass; pyrolysis; gasification; waste management; molten salts

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biomass, as a plant resource composed of organic carbon, is widely available, with high annual production, and has low contents of nitrogen and sulfur. The preparation of biofuels and biochemicals from biomass not only save limited fossil fuels but also play a positive role in reducing environmental pollution. From biomass, a variety of gaseous biofuels can be produced, such as hydrogen, methane, and syngas. Examples of aqueous biofuels are ethanol, bio-oil, bio-jet fuel, and bio-diesel. Currently, researchers have conducted extensive research in alternative chemicals, including furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural derived from cellulose, as well as phenol derived from lignin, and even biochar. These alternative fuels and chemical precursors have a wider range of applications in the fields of transportation, commercial industries, and consumer-based platform chemicals.

Heterogeneous catalysts refer to catalysts that are in a different phase state from the reactant in the reaction, which are usually not soluble in water and easy to recover and reuse. They have the advantage of being easily removed by filtration at the end of the reaction. The reaction product is often uncontaminated with a ligand or transition metals. Thus, they can be used in the next reaction. Catalyst regeneration could typically be required before reuse. Moreover, the cost of catalyst regeneration and recovery decreases the overall process of capital expenditure.

We invite authors to submit original research papers focused on the catalysis of biofuel and biochemical generation from biomass, as well as the synthesis and characterization of novel heterogeneous catalysts. Particular interest will be given to papers that explore the reaction mechanism of novel heterogenous catalysts in biofuels and biochemicals.

Dr. Yi Wei
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • heterogeneous catalyst for gaseous biofuel production (hydrogen, methane, and syngas)
  • heterogeneous catalyst for bio-oil production
  • heterogeneous catalyst for bio-jet fuel production
  • heterogeneous catalyst for bio-diesel production
  • catalysis of cellulose conversion to biochemicals (ethanol, furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, etc.)
  • catalysis of lignin conversion to biochemicals
  • heterogeneous catalyst for biochar production

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 3569 KiB  
Article
Isomerization of Hemicellulose Aldoses to Ketoses Catalyzed by Basic Anion Resins: Catalyst Screening and Stability Studies
by Miriam El Tawil-Lucas, Maia Montaña, Miguel Macias-Villasevil, Jovita Moreno and Jose Iglesias
Catalysts 2023, 13(9), 1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13091301 - 16 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1167
Abstract
Isomerization of aldoses to ketoses is an essential step in carbohydrate valorization routes in biorefineries to produce a wide variety of bioproducts. In this work, selective isomerization of aldoses into ketoses was investigated using different commercial Brønsted basic anion resins at low temperature [...] Read more.
Isomerization of aldoses to ketoses is an essential step in carbohydrate valorization routes in biorefineries to produce a wide variety of bioproducts. In this work, selective isomerization of aldoses into ketoses was investigated using different commercial Brønsted basic anion resins at low temperature conditions. Weak and strong basic resins were tested under different reaction conditions. Amberlite IRA-900 and Amberlyst A-26 (strong resins) and Amberlite IRA-67 and Amberlyst A-21 (weak resins) were tested to assess their catalytic properties. Strong basic resins provided high yields of fructose. IRA-900 was also tested in the isomerization of different sugar monosaccharides conventionally present in lignocellulosic biomass (xylose, arabinose, galactose, glucose and mannose) aiming to explore the performance of this material in hemicellulose-derived sugar mixtures. Very promising performance was observed for IRA-900, yielding fructose selectivity higher than 75% and fructose yield of 27% in the isomerization reaction. Notably, basic anionic resins were not suitable for reuse in different reaction cycles, although the use of organic cosolvents, specifically ethanol, improved the reusability of the tested resins. Full article
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15 pages, 3527 KiB  
Article
Isomerization Properties of Pt/SAPO-11 Catalysts for the Production of Bio-Aviation Kerosene
by Sangni Yang, Xuejun Liu, Xin Zhang, Wuji Sun, Qiqi Ma, Nianhua Song, Meizhen Lu and Jianming Hu
Catalysts 2023, 13(7), 1100; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13071100 - 14 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1397
Abstract
The hydroisomerization of n-alkanes is an important step in the production of high-quality bio-aviation kerosene. A SAPO-11 molecular sieve was synthesized using the hydrothermal synthesis method, and a 0.5 wt% Pt/SAPO-11 catalyst was prepared using the impregnation method. The crystal phase, pore [...] Read more.
The hydroisomerization of n-alkanes is an important step in the production of high-quality bio-aviation kerosene. A SAPO-11 molecular sieve was synthesized using the hydrothermal synthesis method, and a 0.5 wt% Pt/SAPO-11 catalyst was prepared using the impregnation method. The crystal phase, pore structure, acidity, and morphology of Pt/SAPO-11 were characterized via X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption, NH3 temperature-programmed desorption, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The hydroisomerization performance of the catalyst was evaluated with bio-n-hexadecane as the model compound. The results showed that temperature and space velocity had significant effects. Under the conditions of 340 °C, 1.5 MPa, WHSV = 1.0 h−1, V(H2): V(n-hexadecane) = 1000:1, the conversion of n-hexadecane and the selectivity of i-hexadecane were 81.8% and 86.5%, respectively. Full article
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23 pages, 4735 KiB  
Article
Gas-Phase Deoxygenation of Biomass Pyrolysis Tar Catalyzed by Rare Earth Metal Loaded Hβ Zeolite
by Ali A. Jazie, Juma Haydary, Suhad A. Abed and Jakub Husár
Catalysts 2023, 13(6), 1016; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13061016 - 17 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1114
Abstract
Biomass pyrolysis tar (BPT) with a higher heating value of 24.23 MJ/kg was used as raw feed for the catalytic gas-phase deoxygenation (GDO) process using Hβ zeolite loaded with different amounts of active elements (Ce, La, and Nd). Acetone molecule was chosen as [...] Read more.
Biomass pyrolysis tar (BPT) with a higher heating value of 24.23 MJ/kg was used as raw feed for the catalytic gas-phase deoxygenation (GDO) process using Hβ zeolite loaded with different amounts of active elements (Ce, La, and Nd). Acetone molecule was chosen as a model compound to test the activity of pure Hβ zeolite, 1 wt% Ce/Hβ zeolite, 5 wt% Ce/Hβ zeolite, 1 wt% La/Hβ zeolite, 5 wt% La/Hβ zeolite, 1 wt% Nd/Hβ zeolite, and 5 wt% Nd/Hβ zeolite at 400 °C and process time of 3 h. BPT characterization showed a wide range of oxygenated compounds with the main components including water: 0.71%, furfural: 5.85%, 4-ethylguaiacol: 2.14%, phenol: 13.63%, methylethyl ketone: 5.34%, cyclohexanone: 3.23%, isopropanol: 4.78%, ethanol: 3.67%, methanol: 3.13%, acetic acid: 41.06%, and acetone: 16.46%. BPT conversion using 1 wt% Ce/Hβ zeolite catalyst showed the highest values of degree of deoxygenation (DOD) (68%) and conversion (16% for phenol, 88% for acetic acid, and 38% for 4-ethlyguaiacol). Yields of water, liquid phase, and gas phase in the GDO reaction using 1%Ce/Hβ zeolite were 18.33%, 47.42%, and 34.25%, respectively. Alkyl-substituted phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons achieved the highest yields of 37.34% and 35.56%, respectively. The main interaction pathways for BPT-GDO are also proposed. Full article
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13 pages, 6154 KiB  
Article
Microwave-Assisted Catalytic Conversion of 5-HMF for Biofuel Additives by Molybdophosphoric Acid Encapsulated KCC-1
by Srinivasan Vinju Vasudevan, Jin Cai, Junming Xu, Hongjian Lin, Hongliang Wang and Quan Bu
Catalysts 2023, 13(6), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13060969 - 02 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1204
Abstract
In this work, the microwave-assisted reaction of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) into valuable ether and acylated production formation was investigated with the help of molybdophosphoric acid encapsulated dendritic fibrous silica (KCC-1) as a catalyst. XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, SEM, FT-IR, NH3-TPD, and TEM [...] Read more.
In this work, the microwave-assisted reaction of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) into valuable ether and acylated production formation was investigated with the help of molybdophosphoric acid encapsulated dendritic fibrous silica (KCC-1) as a catalyst. XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, SEM, FT-IR, NH3-TPD, and TEM were used to analyze the physicochemical and structural properties of the synthesized catalysts. The microwave etherification of 5-HMF with ethanol was tested using synthesized catalysts. The effects of the reaction temperature, reaction time, catalytic amount, and microwave power were investigated. The resulting MPA-KCC-1 and IMPA-KCC-1 catalysts demonstrated excellent activity for the etherification of 5-HMF with ethanol, producing 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural diethyl acetal (HMFDEA) and 5-(ethoxymethyl)furfural diethyl acetal (EMFDEA) products selectively. The significant advantages of the work are the selective production of EMFDEA at 82%, the catalyst can be easily removed via filtration, and the catalyst activity remains nearly intact even after five reaction cycles. Full article
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15 pages, 5874 KiB  
Article
Pyrolysis of Lignin in the Presence of Cerium Oxide Coupled with Molten Salts
by Yue Huang, Renhao Si and Yi Wei
Catalysts 2023, 13(5), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13050878 - 12 May 2023
Viewed by 3720
Abstract
Lignin is a crucial raw material for the synthesis of phenol due to its high oxygen concentration; however, the selectivity of phenol in pyrolysis products is low. This study chose cerium oxide as the coupling agent for molten salts, and the reaction’s process [...] Read more.
Lignin is a crucial raw material for the synthesis of phenol due to its high oxygen concentration; however, the selectivity of phenol in pyrolysis products is low. This study chose cerium oxide as the coupling agent for molten salts, and the reaction’s process conditions—including temperature and catalyst dosage—were examined. The influence of metal loading on the reaction and byproducts of catalytic pyrolysis was examined. The outcomes demonstrated that the best monophenol production was accomplished at 550 °C and an Fe loading of 15 wt.%, with 93.93 wt.% monophenols in the bio-oil. While methoxy was more easily broken and rearranged, producing more monophenols, the presence of the catalyst enhanced the oxidation of Cα-OH and the breaking of β-O-4 bonds, which is significant for the study of lignin pyrolysis. Full article
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