Catalytic Procedures for the Synthesis of Pharmaceutical Active Compounds in Deep Eutectic Solvents

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344). This special issue belongs to the section "Catalysis for Pharmaceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 5214

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University, Plaza De Ramon y Cajal, S/N University City, Madrid, Spain
Interests: enzymatic synthesis of drugs and bioactive compounds; sustainable processes; biocatalyst upgrading; pharmaceutical industry; organic chemistry; pharmaceutical chemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Departamento de Química Orgánica, Universidad de Sevilla, 41014 Sevilla, Spain
Interests: biocatalysis; catalytic reactions; sustainable chemistry; pharmaceutical synthesis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The solvent in which catalyzed reactions are performed constitutes the main proportion of the chemicals employed, with it being the reaction medium and employed in purification/extraction protocols. In recent years, the need for more sustainable processes while maintaining the efficiency and selectivity of the reactions, has made the search for novel green solvents an area of overwhelming interest. In line with this, Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs), liquid compounds formed by the combination of a hydrogen bond-donor with a hydrogen-bond acceptor at equimolecular quantities, have appeared as an interesting alternative to the classical solvents. DESs are generally obtained from renewable sources, are easy to prepare with complete atom efficiency, and are non-toxic and biodegradable, while presenting a wide range of physical-chemical properties. For these reasons, their application as reaction (co)solvents has grown in recent years. In this Special Issue, the latest developments for the preparation of pharmaceutical compounds in catalytic processes employing DESs will be shown.

Prof. Dr. Andres R. Alcantara
Prof. Dr. Gonzalo de Gonzalo
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • green chemistry
  • catalysis
  • pharmaceutical chemistry
  • deep eutectic solvents drugs/biomass-derived solvents

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Review

16 pages, 2706 KiB  
Review
Stereoselective Catalytic Synthesis of Bioactive Compounds in Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADESs): A Survey across the Catalytic Spectrum
by Elisabete P. Carreiro, Hans-Jürgen Federsel, Gesine J. Hermann and Anthony J. Burke
Catalysts 2024, 14(3), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal14030160 - 21 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1043
Abstract
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are a mixture of two or more components, and at a particular composition, they become liquids at room temperature. When the compounds that constitute the DESs are primary metabolites namely, amino acids, organic acids, sugars, or choline derivatives, the [...] Read more.
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are a mixture of two or more components, and at a particular composition, they become liquids at room temperature. When the compounds that constitute the DESs are primary metabolites namely, amino acids, organic acids, sugars, or choline derivatives, the DESs are called natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs). NADESs fully represent green chemistry principles. These solvents are highly welcome, as they are obtained from renewable resources, and gratifyingly are biodegradable and biocompatible. They are an alternative to room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). From the pharmaceutical industry’s point of view, they are highly desirable, but they unfortunately have been rarely used despite their enormous potential. In this review, we look at their impact on the asymmetric catalytic synthesis of key target molecules via metal-based catalysis, biocatalysis, and organocatalysis. In many cases, the NADESs that have been used are chiral and can even promote enantioselective reactions; this crucial and very exciting aspect is also discussed and analyzed. Full article
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16 pages, 3614 KiB  
Review
Deep Eutectic Solvents as Catalysts in the Synthesis of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients and Precursors
by Chiara Falcini and Gonzalo de Gonzalo
Catalysts 2024, 14(2), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal14020120 - 02 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1393
Abstract
Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) have appeared in recent years as an appealing alternative to classical organic solvents, due to their valuable environmental properties. In addition, these compounds, formed by the combination of one hydrogen bond donor with a hydrogen bond acceptor at a [...] Read more.
Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) have appeared in recent years as an appealing alternative to classical organic solvents, due to their valuable environmental properties. In addition, these compounds, formed by the combination of one hydrogen bond donor with a hydrogen bond acceptor at a defined stoichiometric ratio, present other valuable activities not only as a reaction medium. DESs can also be employed as catalysts through hydrogen-bond interactions in different chemical transformations, thus substituting hazardous reagents and solvents. The search for novel and more environmentally friendly catalysts is an area of interest of pharmaceutical chemists, and therefore, the efforts made in the application of DESs as catalysts in the synthesis of APIs or its precursors are described, focusing mainly on condensations, nucleophilic additions to carbonyl moieties, and multicomponent reactions. Full article
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29 pages, 9554 KiB  
Review
Biocatalysis for the Synthesis of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in Deep Eutectic Solvents: State-of-the-Art and Prospects
by Ningning Zhang, Pablo Domínguez de María and Selin Kara
Catalysts 2024, 14(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal14010084 - 19 Jan 2024
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2184
Abstract
Biocatalysis holds immense potential for pharmaceutical development as it enables synthetic routes to various chiral building blocks with unparalleled selectivity. Therein, solvent and water use account for a large contribution to the environmental impact of the reactions. In the spirit of Green Chemistry [...] Read more.
Biocatalysis holds immense potential for pharmaceutical development as it enables synthetic routes to various chiral building blocks with unparalleled selectivity. Therein, solvent and water use account for a large contribution to the environmental impact of the reactions. In the spirit of Green Chemistry, a transition from traditional highly diluted aqueous systems to intensified non-aqueous media to overcome limitations (e.g., water shortages, recalcitrant wastewater treatments, and low substrate loadings) has been observed. Benefiting from the spectacular advances in various enzyme stabilization techniques, a plethora of biotransformations in non-conventional media have been established. Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) emerge as a sort of (potentially) greener non-aqueous medium with increasing use in biocatalysis. This review discusses the state-of-the-art of biotransformations in DESs with a focus on biocatalytic pathways for the synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Representative examples of different enzyme classes are discussed, together with a critical vision of the limitations and discussing prospects of using DESs for biocatalysis. Full article
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