Biomass—a Renewable Resource for Carbon Materials

A special issue of C (ISSN 2311-5629). This special issue belongs to the section "Carbon Materials and Carbon Allotropes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (23 February 2023) | Viewed by 20946

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Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The Maharaja Sayajirao, University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 001, Gujarat, India
Interests: carbon dioxide absorption
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

During the last decade (2010–2020), there has been a prolific growth in research in the field of “Carbon materials from biomass”. A Web of Science search with the keywords “biomass” and “carbon materials” has shown a steady rise in the number of research publications in this field.

This trend is expected to grow owing to the depletion of fossil-based resources that served as feedstock for activated carbon materials thus far. Lignocellulosic biomass, including forest, agricultural and marine waste, are a substitute for fossil-based resources for carbon material production. Carbon materials with astounding properties and sometimes even superior to those of commercial activated carbon materials derived from fossil-based resources can be produced form biomass.

As the demand for high surface area, heteroatom functionalized micro and mesoporous activated carbon materials is growing due to their application in the fields of environment, energy, agriculture, sensing, catalysts, industry, defence and health sectors, there is an urgent need to focus on exploring the biomass feedstock as a sustainable feedstock for carbon materials production. Likewise, innovation is expected in the atomic level characterization of these materials to gain new insight into their property, structure and application. It is therefore an earnest appeal to the research fraternity in the field of “Carbon materials from biomass” to contribute their research papers actively for publication in the Special Issue, namely, “Biomass- A Renewable Resource for Carbon Materials” in the journal CJournal of Carbon Research.

Dr. Indra Neel Pulidindi
Dr. Pankaj Sharma
Prof. Dr. Aharon Gedanken
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • carbon materials from biomass
  • activated carbon materials from biomass
  • physical, chemical and electrochemical methods of activation
  • methods of preparation of activated carbon materials from biomass
  • nanoachitecture of carbon materials from biomass
  • tuning of textural properties of carbon materials from biomass
  • tuning of structural and morphological properties of carbon materials from biomass
  • application in biofuels production
  • application in electrode material production for electrochemical device (battery, supercapacitor, fuel cells)
  • application as adsorbents for CO2
  • application as adsorbents for toxic heavy metals
  • carbon composites
  • graphene analogues from biomass
  • heteroatom (N, S, O) functionalized carbon materials from biomass

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Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 1556 KiB  
Article
Biomass-Derived N-Doped Activated Carbon from Eucalyptus Leaves as an Efficient Supercapacitor Electrode Material
by Dinesh Bejjanki, Praveen Banothu, Vijay Bhooshan Kumar and Puttapati Sampath Kumar
C 2023, 9(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/c9010024 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2578
Abstract
Biomass-derived activated carbon is one of the promising electrode materials in supercapacitor applications. In this work bio-waste (oil extracted from eucalyptus leaves) was used as a carbon precursor to synthesize carbon material with ZnCl2 as a chemical activating agent and activated carbon [...] Read more.
Biomass-derived activated carbon is one of the promising electrode materials in supercapacitor applications. In this work bio-waste (oil extracted from eucalyptus leaves) was used as a carbon precursor to synthesize carbon material with ZnCl2 as a chemical activating agent and activated carbon was synthesized at various temperatures ranging from 400 to 800 °C. The activated carbon at 700 °C showed a surface area of 1027 m2 g−1 and a specific capacitance of 196 F g−1. In order to enhance the performance, activated carbon was doped with nitrogen-rich urea at a temperature of 700 °C. The obtained activated carbon and N-doped activated carbon was characterized by phase and crystal structural using (XRD and Raman), morphological using (SEM), and compositional analysis using (FTIR). The electrochemical measurements of carbon samples were evaluated using an electrochemical instrument and NAC-700 °C exhibited a specific capacitance of 258 F g−1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s−1 with a surface area of 1042 m2 g−1. Thus, surface area and functionalizing the groups with nitrogen showed better performance and it can be used as an electrode material for supercapacitor cell applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass—a Renewable Resource for Carbon Materials)
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26 pages, 7614 KiB  
Article
Valorization of Exhausted Olive Pomace for the Production of a Fuel for Direct Carbon Fuel Cell
by Najla Grioui, Amal Elleuch, Kamel Halouani and Yongdan Li
C 2023, 9(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/c9010022 - 14 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1423
Abstract
In this study, exhausted olive pomace (EOP) biochar prepared by carbonization at 400 °C is investigated as a fuel in a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) with an electrolyte-supported configuration. The feasibility of using the EOP biochar in the DCFC is confirmed, showing [...] Read more.
In this study, exhausted olive pomace (EOP) biochar prepared by carbonization at 400 °C is investigated as a fuel in a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) with an electrolyte-supported configuration. The feasibility of using the EOP biochar in the DCFC is confirmed, showing a maximum power density of 10 mW·cm−2 at 700 °C. This limited DCFC performance is compared with other biochars prepared under similar conditions and interrelated with various biochar physico-chemical characteristics, as well as their impact on the DCFC’s chemical and electrochemical reaction mechanisms. A high ash content (21.55%) and a low volatile matter (40.62%) content of the EOP biochar are among the main causes of the DCFC’s limited output. Silica is the major impurity in the EOP biochar ash, which explains the limited cell performance as it causes low reactivity and limited electrical conductivity because of its non-crystal structure. The relatively poor DCFC performance when fueled by the EOP biochar can be overcome by further pre- and post-treatment of this renewable fuel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass—a Renewable Resource for Carbon Materials)
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12 pages, 2451 KiB  
Article
Active Carbon-Based Electrode Materials from Petroleum Waste for Supercapacitors
by Abdualilah Albaiz, Muhammad Alsaidan, Abdullah Alzahrani, Hassan Almoalim, Ali Rinaldi and Almaz S. Jalilov
C 2023, 9(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/c9010004 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2171
Abstract
A supercapacitor is an energy-storage device able to store and release energy at fast rates with an extended cycle life; thus, it is used in various electrical appliances. Carbon materials prepared above 800 °C of activation temperatures are generally employed as an electrode [...] Read more.
A supercapacitor is an energy-storage device able to store and release energy at fast rates with an extended cycle life; thus, it is used in various electrical appliances. Carbon materials prepared above 800 °C of activation temperatures are generally employed as an electrode material for supercapacitors. Herein, we report carbon materials prepared from a low-cost petroleum waste carbon precursor that was activated using KOH, MgO, and Ca(OH)2 only at 400 °C. Electrode materials using low-temperature activated carbons were prepared with commercial ink as a binder. The cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge–discharge were employed for the electrochemical performance of the electrodes, and studied in a 3-electrode system in 1 M solutions of potassium nitrate (KNO3) as electrolyte; in addition, the supercapacitive performance was identified in a potential window range of 0.0–1.0 V. The best-performance activated carbon derived from vacuum residue with a specific surface area of 1250.6 m2/g exhibited a specific capacitance of 91.91 F/g. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass—a Renewable Resource for Carbon Materials)
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13 pages, 651 KiB  
Article
Pre-Feasibility Study of a Multi-Product Biorefinery for the Production of Essential Oils and Biomethane
by Luís Carmo-Calado, Roberta Mota-Panizio, Ana Carolina Assis, Catarina Nobre, Octávio Alves, Gonçalo Lourinho and Paulo Brito
C 2023, 9(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/c9010002 - 24 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2279
Abstract
Rural areas can benefit from the development of biorefineries for the valorization of endogenous feedstocks. In this study, a pre-feasibility assessment of an integrated multi-product biorefinery to produce essential oils and biomethane is carried out considering current technical and economic conditions. The proposed [...] Read more.
Rural areas can benefit from the development of biorefineries for the valorization of endogenous feedstocks. In this study, a pre-feasibility assessment of an integrated multi-product biorefinery to produce essential oils and biomethane is carried out considering current technical and economic conditions. The proposed concept is based on the steam distillation of forestry biomass for the extraction of essential oils (2900 L/y) followed by biomethane production via syngas methanation using the spent biomass as feedstock (30.4 kg/h). In parallel, the anaerobic treatment of WWTP sludge (5.3 kg/h) is used to produce additional biomethane for mobile applications. The results show that the intended multi-product biorefinery delivers attractive benefits for investors as described by the calculated financial indicators: NPV of EUR 4342.6, IRR of 18.1%, and PB of 6 years. Overall, the pre-feasibility analysis performed in this study demonstrates that the proposed biorefinery concept is promising and warrants further investment consideration via cost and benefit analysis, ultimately promoting the implementation of multi-product biorefineries across Europe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass—a Renewable Resource for Carbon Materials)
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21 pages, 6207 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Effect of Intensive Agriculture and Sandy Soil Properties on Groundwater Contamination by Nitrate and Potential Improvement Using Olive Pomace Biomass Slag (OPBS)
by Otmane Sarti, Fouad El Mansouri, Emilia Otal, José Morillo, Abdelhamid Ouassini, Jamal Brigui and Mohamed Saidi
C 2023, 9(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/c9010001 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2322
Abstract
The relationship between agricultural activities, soil characteristics, and groundwater quality is critical, particularly in rural areas where groundwater directly supplies local people. In this paper, three agricultural sandy soils were sampled and analyzed for physicochemical parameters such as pH, water content, bulk density, [...] Read more.
The relationship between agricultural activities, soil characteristics, and groundwater quality is critical, particularly in rural areas where groundwater directly supplies local people. In this paper, three agricultural sandy soils were sampled and analyzed for physicochemical parameters such as pH, water content, bulk density, electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter (OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), and soil grain size distribution. Major and trace elements were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES) to determine their concentrations in the fine fraction (FF) of the soils. Afterward, the elemental composition of the soils was identified by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and quantified by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The surface soil characteristics were determined by the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method, whereas the thermal decomposition of the soils was carried out using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetric (TGA-DSC) measurements. The morphological characteristics were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Afterward, column-leaching experiments were conducted to investigate the soil’s retention capacity of nitrate (NO3). Parallelly, a chemical and physical study of olive pomace biomass slag (OPBS) residue was carried out in order to explore its potential use as a soil additive and improver in the R’mel area. The OPBS was characterized by physicochemical analysis, assessed for heavy metals toxicity, and characterized using (XRD, XRF, SEM, and BET) techniques. The results show that the R’mel soils were slightly acidic to alkaline in nature. The soils had a sandy texture with low clay and silt percentage (<5% of the total fraction), low OM content, and weak CEC. The column experiments demonstrated that the R’mel irrigated soils have a higher tendency to release large amounts of nitrate due to their texture and a higher degree of mineralization which allows water to drain quickly. The OPBS chemical characterization indicates a higher alkaline pH (12.1), higher water content (7.18%), and higher unburned carbon portion (19.97%). The trace elements were present in low concentrations in OPBS. Macronutrients in OPBS showed composition rich in Ca, K, and Mg which represent 10.59, 8.24, and 1.56%, respectively. Those nutrients were quite low in soil samples. Both XRD and XRF characterization have shown a quasi-dominance of SiO2 in soil samples revealing that quartz was the main crystalline phase dominating the R’mel soils. Oppositely, OPBS showed a reduced SiO2 percentage of 26,29% while K, Ca, and P were present in significant amounts. These results were confirmed by XRF analysis of OPBS reporting the presence of dolomite (CaMg, (CO3)2), fairchildite (K2Ca (CO3)2), and free lime (CaO). Finally, the comparison between the surface characteristic of OPBS and soils by BET and SEM indicated that OPBS has a higher surface area and pore volume compared to soils. In this context, this study suggests a potential utilization of OPBS in order to (1) increase soil fertility by the input of organic carbon and macronutrients in soil; (2) increase the water-holding capacity of soil; (3) increase soil CEC; (4) stabilize trace elements; (5) enhance the soil adsorption capacity and porosity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass—a Renewable Resource for Carbon Materials)
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15 pages, 686 KiB  
Article
Development of the Correlation Model between Biogas Yield and Types of Organic Mass and Analysis of Its Key Factors
by Tetiana Mirzoieva, Nazar Tkach, Vitalii Nitsenko, Nataliia Gerasymchuk, Olga Tomashevska and Oleksandr Nechyporenko
C 2022, 8(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/c8040073 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
Since European society is experiencing an aggravation of the issue of energy security, the production of renewable energy is becoming increasingly important. The advantages of biofuel—in particular, biogas—and the positive effects of the development of its production are summarized within the framework of [...] Read more.
Since European society is experiencing an aggravation of the issue of energy security, the production of renewable energy is becoming increasingly important. The advantages of biofuel—in particular, biogas—and the positive effects of the development of its production are summarized within the framework of the problem statement. It is emphasized that the production of biogas from various renewable raw materials causes economic, ecological, and social effects. The development of biogas production can be especially active in combination with the development of the agricultural sphere. In response to today’s demand, the authors in this research present a model of the correlation between the output of biogas from different types of organic mass and specify the factors affecting it. In particular, a multiple econometric model of the relationship between the output of biogas from different types of organic mass and the content of dry organic matter and the share of possible methane content in organic matter was built; the density of the connection between the factors and the resulting feature was evaluated; the tightness of the general relationship (influence) of independent variables on the dependent variable was checked using the coefficient of determination; and the reliability of the correlation characteristics was estimated using Fisher’s and Student’s tests. As a result, with the use of convincing evidence—in particular, taking into account the potential of the Ukrainian agricultural sector—the feasibility of further development of biogas production in combination with the development of agricultural production is substantiated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass—a Renewable Resource for Carbon Materials)
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10 pages, 1672 KiB  
Article
Study of Hybrid Modification with Humic Acids of Environmentally Safe Biodegradable Hydrogel Films Based on Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose
by Denis Miroshnichenko, Katerina Lebedeva, Anna Cherkashina, Vladimir Lebedev, Oleksandr Tsereniuk and Natalia Krygina
C 2022, 8(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/c8040071 - 03 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1474
Abstract
The possibility of increasing the complexity of the operational properties of environmentally safe biodegradable polymer hydrogel materials based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose due to modification by humic acids from lignite is considered. As a result of this research, environmentally safe hybrid hydrogel films with [...] Read more.
The possibility of increasing the complexity of the operational properties of environmentally safe biodegradable polymer hydrogel materials based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose due to modification by humic acids from lignite is considered. As a result of this research, environmentally safe hybrid hydrogel films with antibacterial properties were received. In the framework of physicochemical studies, it was determined by IR spectroscopy that hydroxypropyl methylcellulose modified with humic acids hybridmaterials are received by the mechanism of matrix synthesis, which is accompanied by hydroxypropyl methylcellulose crosslinking through multipoint interaction with the carboxyl group of humic acids. Regularities in terms of changes in water absorption, gelation time, and mold emergence time regarding the environmentally safe biodegradable polymer hydrogel materials based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose depending on the humic acid content were revealed. It was established that the optimal humic acid content in environmentally safe biodegradable hydrogel films with bactericidal properties based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose is 15% by mass. It was also established that the hybrid modification of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose with humic acids allows them to preserve their biodegradation properties while giving them antibacterial properties. The environmentally safe biodegradable hydrogel films with bactericidal properties based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and humic acids are superior in their operational characteristics to known similar biodegradable hydrogel films based on natural biopolymers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass—a Renewable Resource for Carbon Materials)
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15 pages, 1261 KiB  
Article
Assessing Soil Organic Carbon Stocks and Particle-Size Fractions across Cropping Systems in the Kiti Sub-Watershed in Central Benin
by Arcadius Martinien Agassin Ahogle, Felix Kouelo Alladassi, Tobi Moriaque Akplo, Hessou Anastase Azontonde and Pascal Houngnandan
C 2022, 8(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/c8040067 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2083
Abstract
Soil organic carbon storage in agricultural soil constitutes a crucial potential for sustainable agricultural productivity and climate change mitigation. This paper aimed at assessing soil organic carbon stock and its distribution in three particle size fractions across five cropping systems located in Kiti [...] Read more.
Soil organic carbon storage in agricultural soil constitutes a crucial potential for sustainable agricultural productivity and climate change mitigation. This paper aimed at assessing soil organic carbon stock and its distribution in three particle size fractions across five cropping systems located in Kiti sub-watershed in Benin. Soil samples were collected using a grid sampling method on four soil depth layers: 0–10, 10–20, 20–30 and 30–40 cm in five cropping systems maize–cotton relay cropping (MCRC), yam–maize intercropping (YMI), teak plantation (TP), 5-year fallow (5YF) and above 10-year fallow (Ab10YF) from July to August 2017. Soil organic carbon stock (C stock) was estimated for the different soil layers and particle-size fractionation of soil organic matter was performed considering three fractions. The fractions coarse particulate organic matter (cPOM: 250–2000 µm), fine particulate organic matter (fPOM: 53–250 µm) and non-particulate organic matter (NOM: <53 µm) were separated from two soil depth layers: 0–10 and 10–20 cm. The results showed that fallow lands Ab10YF and 5YF exhibited the highest C stock, 22.20 and 17.74 Mg C·ha−1, while cultivated land under tillage MCRC depicted the lowest, C stock 11.48 Mg C·ha−1. The three organic carbon fractions showed a significant variation across the cropping systems with the NOM fraction holding the largest contribution to total soil organic carbon for all the cropping systems, ranging between 3.40 and 7.99 g/kg. The cPOM and fPOM were the most influenced by cropping systems with the highest concentration observed in Ab10YF and 5YF. The findings provide insights for upscaling farm management practices towards sustainable agricultural systems with substantial potential for carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass—a Renewable Resource for Carbon Materials)
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15 pages, 1079 KiB  
Article
Activated Carbon from Stipa tenacissima for the Adsorption of Atenolol
by Nesrine Madani, Imane Moulefera, Souad Boumad, Diego Cazorla-Amorós, Francisco José Varela Gandía, Ouiza Cherifi and Naima Bouchenafa-Saib
C 2022, 8(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/c8040066 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1577
Abstract
The Stipa tenacissima S. is an endemic species of the Western Mediterranean countries, which grows on the semi-arid grounds of North Africa and South Spain. This biomass offers an abundant, renewable, and low-cost precursor for the production of activated carbon (AC). In that [...] Read more.
The Stipa tenacissima S. is an endemic species of the Western Mediterranean countries, which grows on the semi-arid grounds of North Africa and South Spain. This biomass offers an abundant, renewable, and low-cost precursor for the production of activated carbon (AC). In that context, ACs were prepared by chemical activation of Stipa tenacissima leaves (STL) using phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The effects of activation temperature and impregnation ratio on the textural and chemical surface properties of the prepared activated carbons were investigated. Activation temperatures of 450 and 500 °C turned out to be the most suitable to produce activated carbons with well-developed porous textures. The best results in terms of developed surface area (1503 m2/g) and micropore volume (0.59 cm3/g) were observed for an STLs to phosphoric acid ratio of 1:2 and a carbonization temperature of 450 °C. The adsorption capacity of the optimal activated carbon was found to be 110 mg/g for the atenolol drug. The adsorption equilibrium was well explained by the pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir isotherm. This study showed that the chemical activation method using H3PO4 as an activating agent was suitable for developing STL-based activated carbon prepared for the removal of atenolol drug in an aqueous solution and compared with commercial activated carbon supplied by Darco. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass—a Renewable Resource for Carbon Materials)
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9 pages, 1530 KiB  
Article
Lauric Acid Treatments to Oxidized and Control Biochars and Their Effects on Rubber Composite Tensile Properties
by Steven C. Peterson and A. J. Thomas
C 2022, 8(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/c8040058 - 29 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1407
Abstract
Biochar is a renewable source of carbon that can partially replace carbon black as filler in rubber composites. Since the carbon content of biochar is less pure than carbon black, improvements and modifications must be made to biochar to make it a viable [...] Read more.
Biochar is a renewable source of carbon that can partially replace carbon black as filler in rubber composites. Since the carbon content of biochar is less pure than carbon black, improvements and modifications must be made to biochar to make it a viable co-filler. In this work, two methods to change the surface chemistry of biochar were employed: (1) gas treatment at 300 °C with either air or carbon dioxide, and (2) coating with lauric acid. Both methods are amenable to the current rubber processing industry. After biochar was treated with these methods, it was used as co-filler in rubber composite samples. Gas treatment with either air or carbon dioxide was found to increase stiffness in the final composites. Although lauric acid coating of biochar by itself did not have a significant effect on tensile properties, biochar that was first treated with carbon dioxide and then coated with lauric acid showed a 19% increase in tensile strength and a 48% increase in toughness. Gas treatment and lauric acid coating of biochar provide relatively simple processing techniques to improve the stiffness and tensile strength of biochar as rubber composite filler. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass—a Renewable Resource for Carbon Materials)
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