Advances in Bilayer Graphene

A special issue of C (ISSN 2311-5629). This special issue belongs to the section "Carbon Materials and Carbon Allotropes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2024) | Viewed by 8337

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Condensed Matter Theory Group, Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, str. Okólna 2, 50-422 Wrocław, Poland
Interests: graphene and graphene-based materials; two-dimensional materials; optical properties and electronic transport in solid state materials; tunneling junctions; excitons and their condensation; non-equilibrium phenomena in solids

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Condensed Matter Theory Group, Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, str. Okólna 2, 50-422 Wrocław, Poland
Interests: graphene and graphene-based materials; excitons; excitonic condensation; quantum transport in solids; optical and electronic properties in solid state materials; spin-glasses

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is devoted to the collection of recent theoretical and experimental developments in the field of bilayer graphene. The material of bilayer graphene is unique due to the formation of a large bandgap (in its AB stacked form) such as in semiconductors, and new perspectives for its technological applications have opened. In this Special Issue in C, the Journal of Carbon Research, we invite authors to submit their recent works on the subject of bilayer graphene. We address this invitation to a wide range of researchers whose works concern bilayer graphene material and bilayer graphene-based compounds, heterostructures, and quantum dots. Research papers from all areas of physics are welcome in this Special Issue, including quantum information. Special attention will be paid to works which spread new insights into the technological applications of this material.

Dr. Vardan Apinyan
Prof. Dr. Tadeusz K. Kopeć
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. C is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bilayer graphene
  • 2D materials
  • excitons and other collective excitations
  • phonons
  • interaction with light
  • correlations and exotic phenomena
  • new theoretical and experimental methods
  • ab initio calculations
  • tunneling phenomena
  • tunneling junctions

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 9545 KiB  
Article
RHEED Study of the Epitaxial Growth of Silicon and Germanium on Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite
by Kirill A. Lozovoy, Vladimir V. Dirko, Olzhas I. Kukenov, Arseniy S. Sokolov, Konstantin V. Krukovskii, Mikhail S. Snegerev, Alexey V. Borisov, Yury V. Kistenev and Andrey P. Kokhanenko
C 2024, 10(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/c10020036 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 996
Abstract
Two-dimensional silicon (silicene) and germanium (germanene) have attracted special attention from researchers in recent years. At the same time, highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and graphene are some of the promising substrates for growing silicene and germanene. However, to date, the processes occurring [...] Read more.
Two-dimensional silicon (silicene) and germanium (germanene) have attracted special attention from researchers in recent years. At the same time, highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and graphene are some of the promising substrates for growing silicene and germanene. However, to date, the processes occurring during the epitaxial growth of silicon and germanium on the surface of such substrates have been poorly studied. In this work, the epitaxial growth of silicon and germanium is studied directly during the process of the molecular beam epitaxy deposition of material onto the HOPG surface by reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). In addition, the obtained samples are studied by Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A wide range of deposition temperatures from 100 to 800 °C is considered and temperature intervals are determined for various growth modes of silicon and germanium on HOPG. Conditions for amorphous and polycrystalline growth are distinguished. Diffraction spots corresponding to the lattice constants of silicene and germanene are identified that may indicate the presence of areas of graphene-like 2D phases during epitaxial deposition of silicon and germanium onto the surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bilayer Graphene)
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10 pages, 2468 KiB  
Article
Electronic and Magnetic Properties of FeCl3 Intercalated Bilayer Graphene
by Jiajun Dai, Shilpa Yadav and Beate Paulus
C 2023, 9(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/c9040095 - 3 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1461
Abstract
Graphene has gained significant attention since its discovery in 2004, and the modification of few-layer graphene provides a platform to tailor its physical and electronic properties. In this study, we employed unrestricted density functional theory (DFT) with the PBE+U functional to investigate the [...] Read more.
Graphene has gained significant attention since its discovery in 2004, and the modification of few-layer graphene provides a platform to tailor its physical and electronic properties. In this study, we employed unrestricted density functional theory (DFT) with the PBE+U functional to investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of FeCl3-intercalated bilayer graphene (BLG). Both in BLG and stage-2 intercalated graphite, a distinct localization of electrons on a specific Fe atom is evident, gaining approximately 0.245 electrons evaluated with Bader analysis, while the holes are delocalized within the graphene layers. This results in p-doped graphene, characterized by a shift of the Dirac cone by 0.74 eV for BLG and 0.70 eV for stage-2 intercalated graphite. Ferromagnetic ordering is observed within the plane of FeCl3-intercalated BLG, whereas the FeCl3 layers exhibit antiferromagnetic coupling in stage-2 intercalated graphite. The ferromagnetic nature and electronic structure of the FeCl3-intercalated BLG is retained under pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bilayer Graphene)
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17 pages, 2166 KiB  
Article
Magnetic Field-Controlled Electrical Conductivity in AA Bilayer Graphene
by Vardan Apinyan and Tadeusz Kopeć
C 2023, 9(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/c9020042 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1706
Abstract
We consider the effect of the external magnetic field on the in-plane conductivity in the AA-stacked bilayer graphene system in the strong excitonic condensate regime. We include the effects of the applied inter-layer electric field and the Coulomb interactions. The on-site and inter-layer [...] Read more.
We consider the effect of the external magnetic field on the in-plane conductivity in the AA-stacked bilayer graphene system in the strong excitonic condensate regime. We include the effects of the applied inter-layer electric field and the Coulomb interactions. The on-site and inter-layer Coulomb interactions were treated via the bilayer Hubbard model. Using the solutions for the physical parameters in the system, we calculate the in-plane conductivity of the bilayer graphene. By employing the Green-Kubo formalism for the polarization function in the system, we show that the conductivity in the AA bilayer system is fully controlled by the applied magnetic field. For the partial filling in the layers, the electrical conductivity is different for different spin orientations, and, at the high values of the magnetic field, only one component remains with the given spin orientation. Meanwhile, for the half-filling limit, there is no spin-splitting observed in the conductivity function. The theory evaluated here shows the new possibility for spin-controlled electronic transport in the excitonic bilayer graphene system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bilayer Graphene)
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Review

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33 pages, 4123 KiB  
Review
Recent Advancements in Applications of Graphene to Attain Next-Level Solar Cells
by Sonal Santosh Bagade, Shashidhar Patel, M. M. Malik and Piyush K. Patel
C 2023, 9(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/c9030070 - 19 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3051
Abstract
This paper presents an intensive review covering all the versatile applications of graphene and its derivatives in solar photovoltaic technology. To understand the internal working mechanism for the attainment of highly efficient graphene-based solar cells, graphene’s parameters of control, namely its number of [...] Read more.
This paper presents an intensive review covering all the versatile applications of graphene and its derivatives in solar photovoltaic technology. To understand the internal working mechanism for the attainment of highly efficient graphene-based solar cells, graphene’s parameters of control, namely its number of layers and doping concentration are thoroughly discussed. The popular graphene synthesis techniques are studied. A detailed review of various possible applications of utilizing graphene’s attractive properties in solar cell technology is conducted. This paper clearly mentions its applications as an efficient transparent conducting electrode, photoactive layer and Schottky junction formation. The paper also covers advancements in the 10 different types of solar cell technologies caused by the incorporation of graphene and its derivatives in solar cell architecture. Graphene-based solar cells are observed to outperform those solar cells with the same configuration but lacking the presence of graphene in them. Various roles that graphene efficiently performs in the individual type of solar cell technology are also explored. Moreover, bi-layer (and sometimes, tri-layer) graphene is shown to have the potential to fairly uplift the solar cell performance appreciably as well as impart maximum stability to solar cells as compared to multi-layered graphene. The current challenges concerning graphene-based solar cells along with the various strategies adopted to resolve the issues are also mentioned. Hence, graphene and its derivatives are demonstrated to provide a viable path towards light-weight, flexible, cost-friendly, eco-friendly, stable and highly efficient solar cell technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bilayer Graphene)
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