Drug Resistance and Novel Therapies in Cancers

A topical collection in Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694). This collection belongs to the section "Cancer Drug Development".

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Editor


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Collection Editor
Signal Transduction Research Group, Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2H7, Canada
Interests: receptor tyrosine kinases; EGFR; signal transduction; cancer therapy; breast cancer treatment; targeted therapy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cancer is among the leading causes of mortality in developed countries. Despite advances in treatment in all settings, disease recurrence and progression remains a major obstacle to therapy. One of the main clinical issues is the development of drug resistance. Drug resistance exists in two forms: Acquired resistance, where the drug is initially efficient but becomes ineffective over time, while intrinsic resistance occurs when a drug is ineffective from the beginning of treatment. The hallmarks of drug resistance in cancers include sustained tumor cell proliferation, insensitive to growth suppressors, resisting cell death, and active invasion.

The early drugs used in cancer treatment are all of chemical origin, and as thus, drug resistance is also called chemoresistance in cancer. However, with the development of novel cancer treatment agents, such as hormones, cytokines, antibodies, antisense oligonucleotides and siRNAs, cancer drugs now could include any agent that is used to treat cancer patients. Therefore the term drug resistance in cancer could be used to cover resistance to any cancer treatment agents.

Through intensive studies, multiple mechanisms have been identified for the development of drug resistance. In general, drug resistance could arise due to decreased intracellular drug concentrations, alterations of drug targets, epigenetic modification, and activation of certain signaling cascades These mechanisms include drug inactivation, drug target alteration, drug efflux, DNA damage repair, cell death inhibition, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and epigenetic modifications.

Many strategies have been developed to combat drug resistance, either by combining the currently available therapies or by developing novel therapies. While new chemotherapeutic agents are still developed and chemotherapy is still standard-of-care in the treatment of most cancers, the focus has shift to the development and application of novel therapeutic agents for immunotherapy and targeted therapy due to the improved understanding of tumor biology and the hallmarks of cancers. Targeted therapies have frequently been used in combination with chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy in some cases.

Prof. Dr. Zhixiang Wang
Collection Editor

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Keywords

  • cancer
  • chemotherapy
  • novel therapy
  • drug resistance
  • multidrug resistance
  • intrinsic drug resistance
  • acquired drug resistance
  • metastasis
  • apoptosis
  • disease recurrence
  • targeted therapy
  • immunotherapy
  • hormones
  • cytokines
  • antibodies
  • antisense oligonucleotides
  • siRNAs

Published Papers (98 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018

15 pages, 1810 KiB  
Article
A Phase Ib Expansion Cohort Evaluating Aurora A Kinase Inhibitor Alisertib and Dual TORC1/2 Inhibitor Sapanisertib in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors
by S. Lindsey Davis, Wells A. Messersmith, W. Thomas Purcell, Elaine T. Lam, Bradley R. Corr, Alexis D. Leal, Christopher H. Lieu, Cindy L. O’Bryant, Stephen G. Smoots, Evan D. Dus, Kimberly R. Jordan, Natalie J. Serkova, Todd M. Pitts and Jennifer R. Diamond
Cancers 2024, 16(8), 1456; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16081456 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 261
Abstract
Background: This study further evaluated the safety and efficacy of the combination of alisertib and sapanisertib in an expansion cohort of patients, including a subset of patients with refractory pancreatic adenocarcinoma, with further evaluation of the pharmacodynamic characteristics of combination therapy. Methods: Twenty [...] Read more.
Background: This study further evaluated the safety and efficacy of the combination of alisertib and sapanisertib in an expansion cohort of patients, including a subset of patients with refractory pancreatic adenocarcinoma, with further evaluation of the pharmacodynamic characteristics of combination therapy. Methods: Twenty patients with refractory solid tumors and 11 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma were treated at the recommended phase 2 dose of alisertib and sapanisertib. Adverse events and disease response were assessed. Patients in the expansion cohort were treated with a 7-day lead-in of either alisertib or sapanisertib prior to combination therapy, with tumor tissue biopsy and serial functional imaging performed for correlative analysis. Results: Toxicity across treatment groups was overall similar to prior studies. One partial response to treatment was observed in a patient with ER positive breast cancer, and a patient with pancreatic cancer experienced prolonged stable disease. In an additional cohort of pancreatic cancer patients, treatment response was modest. Correlative analysis revealed variability in markers of apoptosis and immune cell infiltrate according to lead-in therapy and response. Conclusions: Dual targeting of Aurora A kinase and mTOR resulted in marginal clinical benefit in a population of patients with refractory solid tumors, including pancreatic adenocarcinoma, though individual patients experienced significant response to therapy. Correlatives indicate apoptotic response and tumor immune cell infiltrate may affect clinical outcomes. Full article
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2023

Jump to: 2024, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018

2 pages, 592 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Krayem et al. The Benefit of Reactivating p53 under MAPK Inhibition on the Efficacy of Radiotherapy in Melanoma. Cancers 2019, 11, 1093
by Mohammad Krayem, Malak Sabbah, Ahmad Najem, An Wouters, Filip Lardon, Stephane Simon, François Sales, Fabrice Journe, Ahmad Awada, Ghanem E. Ghanem and Dirk Van Gestel
Cancers 2023, 15(24), 5860; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15245860 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 566
Abstract
In the original article [...] Full article
35 pages, 5977 KiB  
Review
Precision Medicine: Disease Subtyping and Tailored Treatment
by Richard C. Wang and Zhixiang Wang
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 3837; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15153837 - 28 Jul 2023
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3839
Abstract
The genomics-based concept of precision medicine began to emerge following the completion of the Human Genome Project. In contrast to evidence-based medicine, precision medicine will allow doctors and scientists to tailor the treatment of different subpopulations of patients who differ in their susceptibility [...] Read more.
The genomics-based concept of precision medicine began to emerge following the completion of the Human Genome Project. In contrast to evidence-based medicine, precision medicine will allow doctors and scientists to tailor the treatment of different subpopulations of patients who differ in their susceptibility to specific diseases or responsiveness to specific therapies. The current precision medicine model was proposed to precisely classify patients into subgroups sharing a common biological basis of diseases for more effective tailored treatment to achieve improved outcomes. Precision medicine has become a term that symbolizes the new age of medicine. In this review, we examine the history, development, and future perspective of precision medicine. We also discuss the concepts, principles, tools, and applications of precision medicine and related fields. In our view, for precision medicine to work, two essential objectives need to be achieved. First, diseases need to be classified into various subtypes. Second, targeted therapies must be available for each specific disease subtype. Therefore, we focused this review on the progress in meeting these two objectives. Full article
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19 pages, 2192 KiB  
Article
SAM-Competitive EZH2-Inhibitors Induce Platinum Resistance by EZH2-Independent Induction of ABC-Transporters
by Elisabeth Groß, Ralf-Axel Hilger, Franziska Lea Schümann, Marcus Bauer, Alyssa Bouska, Christian Rohde, Edith Willscher, Jana Lützkendorf, Lutz Peter Müller, Bayram Edemir, Thomas Mueller, Marco Herling, Mascha Binder, Claudia Wickenhauser, Javeed Iqbal, Guido Posern and Thomas Weber
Cancers 2023, 15(11), 3043; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15113043 - 03 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1629
Abstract
T-cell lymphomas are heterogeneous and rare lymphatic malignancies with unfavorable prognosis. Consequently, new therapeutic strategies are needed. The enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) is the catalytic subunit of the polycomb repressive complex 2 and responsible for lysine 27 trimethylation of histone 3. [...] Read more.
T-cell lymphomas are heterogeneous and rare lymphatic malignancies with unfavorable prognosis. Consequently, new therapeutic strategies are needed. The enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) is the catalytic subunit of the polycomb repressive complex 2 and responsible for lysine 27 trimethylation of histone 3. EZH2 is overexpressed in several tumor entities including T-cell neoplasms leading to epigenetic and consecutive oncogenic dysregulation. Thus, pharmacological EZH2 inhibition is a promising target and its clinical evaluation in T-cell lymphomas shows favorable results. We have investigated EZH2 expression in two cohorts of T-cell lymphomas by mRNA-profiling and immunohistochemistry, both revealing overexpression to have a negative impact on patients’ prognosis. Furthermore, we have evaluated EZH2 inhibition in a panel of leukemia and lymphoma cell lines with a focus on T-cell lymphomas characterized for canonical EZH2 signaling components. The cell lines were treated with the inhibitors GSK126 or EPZ6438 that inhibit EZH2 specifically by competitive binding at the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) binding site in combination with the common second-line chemotherapeutic oxaliplatin. The change in cytotoxic effects under pharmacological EZH2 inhibition was evaluated revealing a drastic increase in oxaliplatin resistance after 72 h and longer periods of combinational incubation. This outcome was independent of cell type but associated to reduced intracellular platinum. Pharmacological EZH2 inhibition revealed increased expression in SRE binding proteins, SREBP1/2 and ATP binding cassette subfamily G transporters ABCG1/2. The latter are associated with chemotherapy resistance due to increased platinum efflux. Knockdown experiments revealed that this was independent of the EZH2 functional state. The EZH2 inhibition effect on oxaliplatin resistance and efflux was reduced by additional inhibition of the regulated target proteins. In conclusion, pharmacological EZH2 inhibition is not suitable in combination with the common chemotherapeutic oxaliplatin in T-cell lymphomas revealing an EZH2-independent off-target effect. Full article
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19 pages, 3534 KiB  
Article
Association between Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 and Osimertinib Tolerance in EGFR-Mutated Lung Cancer via Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition
by Kentaro Tokumo, Takeshi Masuda, Taku Nakashima, Masashi Namba, Kakuhiro Yamaguchi, Shinjiro Sakamoto, Yasushi Horimasu, Shintaro Miyamoto, Hiroshi Iwamoto, Kazunori Fujitaka, Yoshihiro Miyata, Morihito Okada, Hironobu Hamada and Noboru Hattori
Cancers 2023, 15(4), 1092; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15041092 - 08 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2053
Abstract
Most epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells are killed within a few days after osimertinib treatment; however, surviving cells remain detectable and are called drug-tolerant cells. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) was reported to be involved in chemotherapeutic or radiotherapeutic [...] Read more.
Most epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells are killed within a few days after osimertinib treatment; however, surviving cells remain detectable and are called drug-tolerant cells. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) was reported to be involved in chemotherapeutic or radiotherapeutic resistance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether PAI-1 is involved in osimertinib tolerance and whether it could be a therapeutic target for overcoming this tolerance. We showed that the PAI-1 mRNA expression levels and mesenchymal gene expression levels were significantly higher in drug-tolerant EGFR-mutated NSCLC cells than in control cells after 7 days of in vitro osimertinib treatment. Additionally, an RNA microarray analysis revealed upregulation of the integrin-induced EMT pathway in osimertinib-tolerant cells. Furthermore, we observed that PAI-1 inhibitors suppressed proliferation and the degree of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tolerant cells. Finally, in a subcutaneous tumor model, we showed that combining osimertinib with a PAI-1 inhibitor prevented the regrowth of tumors comprising EGFR-mutated cancer cells. The present study is the first to show PAI-1 to be involved in tolerance to osimertinib via EMT. Full article
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4 pages, 207 KiB  
Editorial
Drug Resistance and Novel Therapies in Cancers in 2020
by Zhixiang Wang
Cancers 2023, 15(3), 717; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15030717 - 24 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1024
Abstract
After a very successful year in 2019 with 34 publications, our Topic collection “Drug Resistance and Novel Therapies in Cancers” guaranteed another productive year with the publication of 17 research articles and 4 review articles in 2020 [...] Full article

2022

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018

18 pages, 3833 KiB  
Article
Endothelial-Specific Molecule 1 Inhibition Lessens Productive Angiogenesis and Tumor Metastasis to Overcome Bevacizumab Resistance
by Nannan Kang, Xue Liang, Buxi Fan, Chen Zhao, Beiyu Shen, Xuemei Ji and Yu Liu
Cancers 2022, 14(22), 5681; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14225681 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2106
Abstract
The development of drug resistance in malignant tumors leads to disease progression, creating a bottleneck in treatment. Bevacizumab is widely used clinically, and acts by inhibiting angiogenesis to “starve” tumors. Continuous treatment can readily induce rebound proliferation of tumor blood vessels, leading to [...] Read more.
The development of drug resistance in malignant tumors leads to disease progression, creating a bottleneck in treatment. Bevacizumab is widely used clinically, and acts by inhibiting angiogenesis to “starve” tumors. Continuous treatment can readily induce rebound proliferation of tumor blood vessels, leading to drug resistance. Previously, we found that the fragment crystallizable (Fc) region of bevacizumab cooperates with the Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) ligand to induce M2b polarization in macrophages and secrete tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), which promotes immunosuppression, tumor metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, the downstream mechanism underlying TNFα-mediated bevacizumab resistance requires further investigation. Our RNA-Seq analysis results revealed that the expression of endothelial cell specific molecule-1 (ESM1) increased significantly in drug-resistant tumors and promoted metastasis and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, TNFα induced the upregulation of ESM1, which promotes metastasis and angiogenesis and regulates matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and delta-like ligand-4 molecules (DLL4). Accordingly, the curative effect of bevacizumab improved by neutralizing ESM1 with high-affinity anti-ESM1 monoclonal antibody 1-2B7 in bevacizumab-resistant mice. This study provides important insights regarding the molecular mechanism by which TNFα-induced ESM1 expression promotes angiogenesis, which is significant for elucidating the mechanism of bevacizumab drug resistance and possibly identifying appropriate biosimilar molecules. Full article
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27 pages, 4082 KiB  
Article
Combating Drug Resistance by Exploiting miRNA-200c-Controlled Phase II Detoxification
by Bianca Köhler, Sviatlana Dubovik, Elisa Hörterer, Ulrich Wilk, Jan Bernd Stöckl, Hande Tekarslan-Sahin, Bojan Ljepoja, Philipp Paulitschke, Thomas Fröhlich, Ernst Wagner and Andreas Roidl
Cancers 2022, 14(22), 5554; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14225554 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1852
Abstract
Acquired drug resistance constitutes a serious obstacle to the successful therapy of cancer. In the process of therapy resistance, microRNAs can play important roles. In order to combat resistance formation and to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutics, the mechanisms of the multifaceted hsa-miR-200c [...] Read more.
Acquired drug resistance constitutes a serious obstacle to the successful therapy of cancer. In the process of therapy resistance, microRNAs can play important roles. In order to combat resistance formation and to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutics, the mechanisms of the multifaceted hsa-miR-200c on drug resistance were elucidated. Upon knockout of hsa-miR-200c in breast carcinoma cells, a proteomic approach identified altered expression of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) when cells were treated with the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. In different hsa-miR-200c expression systems, such as knockout, inducible sponge and inducible overexpression, the differential expression of all members of the GST family was evaluated. Expression of hsa-miR-200c in cancer cells led to the repression of a multitude of these GSTs and as consequence, enhanced drug-induced tumor cell death which was evaluated for two chemotherapeutic drugs. Additionally, the influence of hsa-miR-200c on the glutathione pathway, which is part of the phase II detoxification mechanism, was investigated. Finally, the long-term effects of hsa-miR-200c on drug efficacy were studied in vitro and in vivo. Upon doxycycline induction of hsa-miR-200c, MDA-MB 231 xenograft mouse models revealed a strongly reduced tumor growth and an enhanced treatment response to doxorubicin. A combined treatment of these tumors with hsa-miR-200c and doxorubicin resulted in complete regression of the tumor in 60% of the animals. These results identify hsa-miR-200c as an important player regulating the cellular phase II detoxification, thus sensitizing cancer cells not expressing this microRNA to chemotherapeutics and reversing drug resistance through suppression of GSTs. Full article
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25 pages, 1015 KiB  
Review
EZH2 Inhibition and Cisplatin as a Combination Anticancer Therapy: An Overview of Preclinical Studies
by Ivana Samaržija, Marko Tomljanović, Renata Novak Kujundžić and Koraljka Gall Trošelj
Cancers 2022, 14(19), 4761; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14194761 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3416
Abstract
Anticancer monotherapies are often insufficient in eradicating cancer cells because cancers are driven by changes in numerous genes and pathways. Combination anticancer therapies which aim to target several cancer traits at once represent a substantial improvement in anticancer treatment. Cisplatin is a conventional [...] Read more.
Anticancer monotherapies are often insufficient in eradicating cancer cells because cancers are driven by changes in numerous genes and pathways. Combination anticancer therapies which aim to target several cancer traits at once represent a substantial improvement in anticancer treatment. Cisplatin is a conventional chemotherapy agent widely used in the treatment of different cancer types. However, the shortcomings of cisplatin use include its toxicity and development of resistance. Therefore, from early on, combination therapies that include cisplatin were considered and used in a variety of cancers. EZH2, an epigenetic regulator, is frequently upregulated in cancers which, in general, potentiates cancer cell malignant behavior. In the past decade, numerous EZH2 inhibitors have been explored for their anticancer properties. In this overview, we present the studies that discuss the joint action of cisplatin and EZH2 inhibitors. According to the data presented, the use of cisplatin and EZH2 inhibitors may be beneficial in the treatment of lung, ovarian, and breast cancers, since there is a substantial amount of published evidence that suggests their concerted action. However, in testicular germ cell tumors, such a combination would not be recommended because cisplatin resistance seems to be associated with decreased expression of EZH2 in this tumor type. Full article
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16 pages, 2215 KiB  
Review
Electrochemotherapy: An Alternative Strategy for Improving Therapy in Drug-Resistant SOLID Tumors
by Maria Condello, Gloria D’Avack, Enrico Pierluigi Spugnini and Stefania Meschini
Cancers 2022, 14(17), 4341; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14174341 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3103
Abstract
Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is one of the innovative strategies to overcome the multi drug resistance (MDR) that often occurs in cancer. Resistance to anticancer drugs results from a variety of factors, such as genetic or epigenetic changes, an up-regulated outflow of drugs, and various [...] Read more.
Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is one of the innovative strategies to overcome the multi drug resistance (MDR) that often occurs in cancer. Resistance to anticancer drugs results from a variety of factors, such as genetic or epigenetic changes, an up-regulated outflow of drugs, and various cellular and molecular mechanisms. This technology combines the administration of chemotherapy with the application of electrical pulses, with waveforms capable of increasing drug uptake in a non-toxic and well tolerated mechanical system. ECT is used as a first-line adjuvant therapy in veterinary oncology, where it improves the efficacy of many chemotherapeutic agents by increasing their uptake into cancer cells. The chemotherapeutic agents that have been enhanced by this technique are bleomycin, cisplatin, mitomycin C, and 5-fluorouracil. After their use, a better localized control of the neoplasm has been observed. In humans, the use of ECT was initially limited to local palliative therapy for cutaneous metastases of melanoma, but phase I/II studies are currently ongoing for several histotypes of cancer, with promising results. In this review, we described the preclinical and clinical use of ECT on drug-resistant solid tumors, such as head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, breast cancer, gynecological cancer and, finally, colorectal cancer. Full article
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18 pages, 16140 KiB  
Article
Novel Dicarboximide BK124.1 Breaks Multidrug Resistance and Shows Anticancer Efficacy in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Preclinical Models and Patients’ CD34+/CD38 Leukemia Stem Cells
by Iga Stukan, Marek Gryzik, Grażyna Hoser, Andrew Want, Wioleta Grabowska-Pyrzewicz, Mikolaj Zdioruk, Mariola Napiórkowska, Marcin Cieślak, Karolina Królewska-Golińska, Barbara Nawrot, Grzegorz Basak and Urszula Wojda
Cancers 2022, 14(15), 3641; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14153641 - 27 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2326
Abstract
The search is ongoing for new anticancer therapeutics that would overcome resistance to chemotherapy. This includes chronic myeloid leukemia, particularly suitable for the studies of novel anticancer compounds due to its homogenous and well-known genetic background. Here we show anticancer efficacy of novel [...] Read more.
The search is ongoing for new anticancer therapeutics that would overcome resistance to chemotherapy. This includes chronic myeloid leukemia, particularly suitable for the studies of novel anticancer compounds due to its homogenous and well-known genetic background. Here we show anticancer efficacy of novel dicarboximide denoted BK124.1 (C31H37ClN2O4) in a mouse CML xenograft model and in vitro in two types of chemoresistant CML cells: MDR1 blasts and in CD34+ patients’ stem cells (N = 8) using immunoblotting and flow cytometry. Intraperitoneal administration of BK124.1 showed anti-CML efficacy in the xenograft mouse model (N = 6) comparable to the commonly used imatinib and hydroxyurea. In K562 blasts, BK124.1 decreased the protein levels of BCR-ABL1 kinase and its downstream effectors, resulting in G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis associated with FOXO3a/p21waf1/cip1 upregulation in the nucleus. Additionally, BK124.1 evoked massive apoptosis in multidrug resistant K562-MDR1 cells (IC50 = 2.16 μM), in CD34+ cells from CML patients (IC50 = 1.5 µM), and in the CD34+/CD38 subpopulation consisting of rare, drug-resistant cancer initiating stem cells. Given the advantages of BK124.1 as a potential chemotherapeutic and its unique ability to overcome BCR-ABL1 dependent and independent multidrug resistance mechanisms, future development of BK124.1 could offer a cure for CML and other cancers resistant to present drugs. Full article
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38 pages, 1873 KiB  
Review
Drug Resistance in Colorectal Cancer: From Mechanism to Clinic
by Qianyu Wang, Xiaofei Shen, Gang Chen and Junfeng Du
Cancers 2022, 14(12), 2928; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14122928 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 5110
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The 5-year survival rate is 90% for patients with early CRC, 70% for patients with locally advanced CRC, and 15% for patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC). In fact, most CRC patients [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The 5-year survival rate is 90% for patients with early CRC, 70% for patients with locally advanced CRC, and 15% for patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC). In fact, most CRC patients are at an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. Although chemotherapy, molecularly targeted therapy and immunotherapy have significantly improved patient survival, some patients are initially insensitive to these drugs or initially sensitive but quickly become insensitive, and the emergence of such primary and secondary drug resistance is a significant clinical challenge. The most direct cause of resistance is the aberrant anti-tumor drug metabolism, transportation or target. With more in-depth research, it is found that cell death pathways, carcinogenic signals, compensation feedback loop signal pathways and tumor immune microenvironment also play essential roles in the drug resistance mechanism. Here, we assess the current major mechanisms of CRC resistance and describe potential therapeutic interventions. Full article
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14 pages, 2030 KiB  
Article
New Therapy Options for Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Pancreas—The Emergent Substance GP-2250 and Gemcitabine Prove to Be Highly Effective without the Development of Secondary Resistances In Vitro and In Vivo
by Marie Buchholz, Johanna Strotmann, Britta Majchrzak-Stiller, Stephan Hahn, Ilka Peters, Julian Horn, Thomas Müller, Philipp Höhn, Waldemar Uhl and Chris Braumann
Cancers 2022, 14(11), 2685; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14112685 - 29 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3283
Abstract
Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the pancreas (pNEC) is an aggressive form of neuroendocrine tumor characterized by a rising incidence without an increase in survival rates. GP-2250 is an oxathiazinane derivate possessing antineoplastic effects, especially in combination with Gemcitabine on the pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The cytotoxic [...] Read more.
Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the pancreas (pNEC) is an aggressive form of neuroendocrine tumor characterized by a rising incidence without an increase in survival rates. GP-2250 is an oxathiazinane derivate possessing antineoplastic effects, especially in combination with Gemcitabine on the pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The cytotoxic effects of the monotherapy of GP-2250 (GP-2250mono) and Gemcitabine (Gemmono), as well as the combination therapy of both, were studied in vitro using an MTT-assay on the QGP-1 and BON-1 cell lines, along with in vivo studies on a murine xenograft model of QGP-1 and a patient-derived xenograft model (PDX) of Bo99. In vitro, Gemmono and GP-2250mono showed a dose-dependent cytotoxicity. The combination of GP-2250 and Gemcitabine exhibited highly synergistic effects. In vivo, the combination therapy obtained a partial response in QGP-1, while GP-2250mono and Gemmono showed progressive disease or stable disease, respectively. In Bo99 PDX, the combination therapy led to a partial response, while the monotherapy resulted in progressive disease. No development of secondary resistances was observed, as opposed to monotherapy. This study was the first to evaluate the effects of the emerging substance GP-2250 on pNEC. The substance showed synergism in combination with Gemcitabine. The combination therapy proved to be effective in vitro and in vivo, without the development of secondary resistances. Full article
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15 pages, 2586 KiB  
Article
Anticancer Activity of (S)-5-Chloro-3-((3,5-dimethylphenyl)sulfonyl)-N-(1-oxo-1-((pyridin-4-ylmethyl)amino)propan-2-yl)-1H-indole-2-carboxamide (RS4690), a New Dishevelled 1 Inhibitor
by Antonio Coluccia, Marianna Bufano, Giuseppe La Regina, Michela Puxeddu, Angelo Toto, Alessio Paone, Amani Bouzidi, Giorgia Musto, Nadia Badolati, Viviana Orlando, Stefano Biagioni, Domiziana Masci, Chiara Cantatore, Roberto Cirilli, Francesca Cutruzzolà, Stefano Gianni, Mariano Stornaiuolo and Romano Silvestri
Cancers 2022, 14(5), 1358; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14051358 - 07 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3289
Abstract
Wingless/integrase-11 (WNT)/β-catenin pathway is a crucial upstream regulator of a huge array of cellular functions. Its dysregulation is correlated to neoplastic cellular transition and cancer proliferation. Members of the Dishevelled (DVL) family of proteins play an important role in the transduction of WNT [...] Read more.
Wingless/integrase-11 (WNT)/β-catenin pathway is a crucial upstream regulator of a huge array of cellular functions. Its dysregulation is correlated to neoplastic cellular transition and cancer proliferation. Members of the Dishevelled (DVL) family of proteins play an important role in the transduction of WNT signaling by contacting its cognate receptor, Frizzled, via a shared PDZ domain. Thus, negative modulators of DVL1 are able to impair the binding to Frizzled receptors, turning off the aberrant activation of the WNT pathway and leading to anti-cancer activity. Through structure-based virtual screening studies, we identified racemic compound RS4690 (1), which showed a promising selective DVL1 binding inhibition with an EC50 of 0.74 ± 0.08 μM. Molecular dynamic simulations suggested a different binding mode for the enantiomers. In the in vitro assays, enantiomer (S)-1 showed better inhibition of DVL1 with an EC50 of 0.49 ± 0.11 μM compared to the (R)-enantiomer. Compound (S)-1 inhibited the growth of HCT116 cells expressing wild-type APC with an EC50 of 7.1 ± 0.6 μM and caused a high level of ROS production. These results highlight (S)-1 as a lead compound for the development of new therapeutic agents against WNT-dependent colon cancer. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022, 2020, 2019, 2018

13 pages, 6484 KiB  
Article
High Antitumor Activity of the Dual Topoisomerase Inhibitor P8-D6 in Breast Cancer
by Inken Flörkemeier, Tamara N. Steinhauer, Nina Hedemann, Jörg Paul Weimer, Christoph Rogmans, Marion T. van Mackelenbergh, Nicolai Maass, Bernd Clement and Dirk O. Bauerschlag
Cancers 2022, 14(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14010002 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3110
Abstract
Breast cancer constitutes the leading cause of cancer deaths among females. However, numerous shortcomings, including low bioavailability, resistance and significant side effects, are responsible for insufficient treatment. The ultimate goal, therefore, is to improve the success rates and, thus, the range available treatment [...] Read more.
Breast cancer constitutes the leading cause of cancer deaths among females. However, numerous shortcomings, including low bioavailability, resistance and significant side effects, are responsible for insufficient treatment. The ultimate goal, therefore, is to improve the success rates and, thus, the range available treatment options for breast cancer. Consequently, the identification, development and evaluation of potential novel drugs such as P8-D6 with seminal antitumor capacities have a high clinical need. P8-D6 effectively induces apoptosis by acting as a dual topoisomerase I/II inhibitor. This study provides an overview of the effectiveness of P8-D6 in breast cancer with both 2D monolayers and 3D spheroids compared to standard therapeutic agents. For this drug effectiveness review, cell lines and ex vivo primary cells were used and cytotoxicity, apoptosis rates and membrane integrity were examined. This study provides evidence for a significant P8-D6-induced increase in apoptosis and cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells compared to the efficacy of standard therapeutic drugs. To sum up, P8-D6 is a fast and powerful inductor of apoptosis and might become a new and suitable therapeutic option for breast cancer in the future. Full article
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19 pages, 3786 KiB  
Article
IGF1R/IR Mediates Resistance to BRAF and MEK Inhibitors in BRAF-Mutant Melanoma
by Hima Patel, Rosalin Mishra, Nour Yacoub, Samar Alanazi, Mary Kate Kilroy and Joan T. Garrett
Cancers 2021, 13(22), 5863; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13225863 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3204
Abstract
The use of BRAF and MEK inhibitors for patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma is limited as patients relapse on treatment as quickly as 6 months due to acquired resistance. We generated trametinib and dabrafenib resistant melanoma (TDR) cell lines to the MEK and BRAF [...] Read more.
The use of BRAF and MEK inhibitors for patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma is limited as patients relapse on treatment as quickly as 6 months due to acquired resistance. We generated trametinib and dabrafenib resistant melanoma (TDR) cell lines to the MEK and BRAF inhibitors, respectively. TDR cells exhibited increased viability and maintenance of downstream p-ERK and p-Akt as compared to parental cells. Receptor tyrosine kinase arrays revealed an increase in p-IGF1R and p-IR in the drug resistant cells versus drug sensitive cells. RNA-sequencing analysis identified IGF1R and INSR upregulated in resistant cell lines compared to parental cells. Analysis of TCGA PanCancer Atlas (skin cutaneous melanoma) showed that patients with a BRAF mutation and high levels of IGF1R and INSR had a worse overall survival. BMS-754807, an IGF1R/IR inhibitor, suppressed cell proliferation along with inhibition of intracellular p-Akt in TDR cells. Dual inhibition of IGF1R and INSR using siRNA reduced cell proliferation. The combination of dabrafenib, trametinib, and BMS-754807 treatment reduced in vivo xenograft tumor growth. Examining the role of IGF1R and IR in mediating resistance to BRAF and MEK inhibitors will expand possible treatment options to aid in long-term success for BRAF-mutant melanoma patients. Full article
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12 pages, 16499 KiB  
Article
REV1 Inhibition Enhances Radioresistance and Autophagy
by Kanayo E. Ikeh, Erica N. Lamkin, Andrew Crompton, Jamie Deutsch, Kira J. Fisher, Mark Gray, David J. Argyle, Won Y. Lim, Dmitry M. Korzhnev, M. Kyle Hadden, Jiyong Hong, Pei Zhou and Nimrat Chatterjee
Cancers 2021, 13(21), 5290; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13215290 - 21 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3422
Abstract
Cancer therapy resistance is a persistent clinical challenge. Recently, inhibition of the mutagenic translesion synthesis (TLS) protein REV1 was shown to enhance tumor cell response to chemotherapy by triggering senescence hallmarks. These observations suggest REV1’s important role in determining cancer cell response to [...] Read more.
Cancer therapy resistance is a persistent clinical challenge. Recently, inhibition of the mutagenic translesion synthesis (TLS) protein REV1 was shown to enhance tumor cell response to chemotherapy by triggering senescence hallmarks. These observations suggest REV1’s important role in determining cancer cell response to chemotherapy. Whether REV1 inhibition would similarly sensitize cancer cells to radiation treatment is unknown. This study reports a lack of radiosensitization in response to REV1 inhibition by small molecule inhibitors in ionizing radiation-exposed cancer cells. Instead, REV1 inhibition unexpectedly triggers autophagy, which is a known biomarker of radioresistance. We report a possible role of the REV1 TLS protein in determining cancer treatment outcomes depending upon the type of DNA damage inflicted. Furthermore, we discover that REV1 inhibition directly triggers autophagy, an uncharacterized REV1 phenotype, with a significant bearing on cancer treatment regimens. Full article
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15 pages, 3460 KiB  
Article
Pharmacological Inhibition of PP2A Overcomes Nab-Paclitaxel Resistance by Downregulating MCL1 in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ESCC)
by Qi Song, Herui Wang, Dongxian Jiang, Chen Xu, Jing Cui, Qi Zhang, Haixing Wang, Jie Huang, Jieakesu Su, Gen Sheng Wu, Zhengping Zhuang and Yingyong Hou
Cancers 2021, 13(19), 4766; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13194766 - 23 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2632
Abstract
Paclitaxel-based chemotherapy is a treatment option for advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the development of chemoresistance leads to treatment failure, and the underlying mechanism remains elusive. We investigated the mechanisms of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-PTX) resistance by establishing three nab-PTX resistant [...] Read more.
Paclitaxel-based chemotherapy is a treatment option for advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the development of chemoresistance leads to treatment failure, and the underlying mechanism remains elusive. We investigated the mechanisms of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-PTX) resistance by establishing three nab-PTX resistant ESCC cell lines. Proteomics analysis revealed higher oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in resistant cell line DR150 than in its parental cell line KYSE150, which is likely caused by stabilized anti-apoptotic protein MCL1. Additionally, we discovered the elevated activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), the phosphatase that dephosphorylates and stabilizes MCL1, in nab-PTX resistant cell lines. Pharmacological inhibition of PP2A with small molecule compound LB-100 decreased MCL1 protein level, caused more apoptosis in nab-PTX resistant ESCC cell lines than in the parental cells in vitro, and significantly inhibited the tumor growth of nab-PTX resistant xenografts in vivo. Moreover, LB-100 pretreatment partially restored nab-PTX sensitivity in the resistant cell lines and synergistically inhibited the tumor growth of nab-PTX resistant xenografts with nab-PTX. In summary, our study identifies a novel mechanism whereby elevated PP2A activity stabilizes MCL1 protein, increases OXPHOS, and confers nab-PTX resistance, suggesting that targeting PP2A is a potential strategy for reversing nab-PTX resistance in patients with advanced ESCC. Full article
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21 pages, 3718 KiB  
Article
The Novel Antitumor Compound HCA Promotes Glioma Cell Death by Inducing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Autophagy
by Roberto Beteta-Göbel, Javier Fernández-Díaz, Laura Arbona-González, Raquel Rodríguez-Lorca, Manuel Torres, Xavier Busquets, Paula Fernández-García, Pablo V. Escribá and Victoria Lladó
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4290; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174290 - 26 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3025
Abstract
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of primary brain tumor in adults, and the median survival of patients with GBM is 14.5 months. Melitherapy is an innovative therapeutic approach to treat different diseases, including cancer, and it is based on [...] Read more.
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of primary brain tumor in adults, and the median survival of patients with GBM is 14.5 months. Melitherapy is an innovative therapeutic approach to treat different diseases, including cancer, and it is based on the regulation of cell membrane composition and structure, which modulates relevant signal pathways. Here, we have tested the effects of 2-hydroxycervonic acid (HCA) on GBM cells and xenograft tumors. HCA was taken up by cells and it compromised the survival of several human GBM cell lines in vitro, as well as the in vivo growth of xenograft tumors (mice) derived from these cells. HCA appeared to enhance ER stress/UPR signaling, which consequently induced autophagic cell death of the GBM tumor cells. This negative effect of HCA on GBM cells may be mediated by the JNK/c-Jun/CHOP/BiP axis, and it also seems to be provoked by the cellular metabolite of HCA, C21:5n-3 (heneicosapentaenoic acid). These results demonstrate the efficacy of the melitherapeutic treatment used and the potential of using C21:5n-3 as an efficacy biomarker for this treatment. Given the safety profile in animal models, the data presented here provide evidence that HCA warrants further clinical study as a potential therapy for GBM, currently an important unmet medical need. Full article
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19 pages, 21563 KiB  
Article
LightSpot®-FL-1 Fluorescent Probe: An Innovative Tool for Cancer Drug Resistance Analysis by Direct Detection and Quantification of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) on Monolayer Culture and Spheroid Triple Negative Breast Cancer Models
by Antoine Goisnard, Pierre Daumar, Clémence Dubois, Corinne Aubel, Manon Roux, Marie Depresle, Jean Gauthier, Bernard Vidalinc, Frédérique Penault-Llorca, Emmanuelle Mounetou and Mahchid Bamdad
Cancers 2021, 13(16), 4050; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13164050 - 11 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2995
Abstract
P-gp is the most widely studied MDR protein conferring cellular resistance to many standard or targeted therapeutic agents. For this reason, P-gp chemoresistance evaluation, established before or during chemotherapy, can be very relevant in order to optimize the efficacy of treatments, particularly for [...] Read more.
P-gp is the most widely studied MDR protein conferring cellular resistance to many standard or targeted therapeutic agents. For this reason, P-gp chemoresistance evaluation, established before or during chemotherapy, can be very relevant in order to optimize the efficacy of treatments, particularly for aggressive tumoral subtypes such as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). In this context, our team developed an innovative cell-permeant fluorescent probe called the LightSpot®-FL-1, which is able to specifically localize and quantify the P-gp in cells or cell masses, as evidenced on different TNBC cell models. First, flow cytometry analysis showed LightSpot®-FL-1 cell penetration and persistence in time, in TNBC cells. Then, LightSpot®-FL-1 staining was compared to anti-P-gp immunostaining by fluorescence microscopy on five TNBC cell lines. Results showed a clear similarity of P-gp localization and expression level, confirmed by Pearson’s and Mander’s colocalization coefficients with 92.1% and 100.0%, and a strong correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.99. In addition, the LightSpot®-FL-1 staining allowed the quantification of a P-gp induction (33% expression increase) following a 6-hour spheroid model exposure to the anti-PARP Olaparib. Thus, the new LightSpot®-FL-1 cell-permeant probe, targeting P-gp, appears to be an effective tool for drug resistance evaluation in preclinical models and shows promising possibilities for future use in clinical diagnosis. Full article
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13 pages, 457 KiB  
Article
A Novel Combination of Bevacizumab with Chemotherapy Improves Therapeutic Effects for Advanced Biliary Tract Cancer: A Retrospective, Observational Study
by Sung-Nan Pei, Chun-Kai Liao, Yaw-Sen Chen, Cheng-Hao Tseng, Chao-Ming Hung, Chong-Chi Chiu, Meng-Che Hsieh, Yu-Fen Tsai, Hsiu-Yun Liao, Wei-Ching Liu and Kun-Ming Rau
Cancers 2021, 13(15), 3831; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13153831 - 29 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2484
Abstract
Background: Biliary tract cancer (BTC) is a heterogenous collection of biliary tract cancer at different primary sites, and the prognosis of advanced BTC is dismal. Systemic chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) has been the reference regimen since 2010. How to improve therapeutic [...] Read more.
Background: Biliary tract cancer (BTC) is a heterogenous collection of biliary tract cancer at different primary sites, and the prognosis of advanced BTC is dismal. Systemic chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) has been the reference regimen since 2010. How to improve therapeutic effects of GC regimen is an urgent mission at present. Methods: Bevacizumab with a reduced dosage and modified schedule (10 mg/Kg/triweekly, 1 day before GS at the first 2 cycles) was combined with standard GC for patients with advanced BTC. Tumor response was assessed using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 every 2 months. Kaplan–Meier curves were estimated for time-to-treatment failure (TTF), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Result: A total of thirty cases of advanced BTC accepted this treatment, and the overall response rate (ORR) was 50.0%, and the disease control rate was 80.0% for all patients. The median TTF was 5.8 months, the median PFS was 8.4 months, and the median OS was 13.6 months. Most responses were noted at the first evaluation. Adverse effects (AEs) were mostly tolerable. Conclusions: After modifying the schedule, adding bevacizumab to a traditional GC regimen could increase the ORR with a shorter time-to-response, a better PFS and OS than GC alone but without the addition of AE. This regimen can be applied to patients with advanced BTC, especially those who are with a big tumor burden and who need a rapid response. Full article
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22 pages, 5968 KiB  
Article
Targeting Orphan G Protein-Coupled Receptor 17 with T0 Ligand Impairs Glioblastoma Growth
by Phuong Doan, Phung Nguyen, Akshaya Murugesan, Kumar Subramanian, Saravanan Konda Mani, Vignesh Kalimuthu, Bobin George Abraham, Brett W. Stringer, Kadalmani Balamuthu, Olli Yli-Harja and Meenakshisundaram Kandhavelu
Cancers 2021, 13(15), 3773; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13153773 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3500
Abstract
Glioblastoma, an invasive high-grade brain cancer, exhibits numerous treatment challenges. Amongst the current therapies, targeting functional receptors and active signaling pathways were found to be a potential approach for treating GBM. We exploited the role of endogenous expression of GPR17, a G protein-coupled [...] Read more.
Glioblastoma, an invasive high-grade brain cancer, exhibits numerous treatment challenges. Amongst the current therapies, targeting functional receptors and active signaling pathways were found to be a potential approach for treating GBM. We exploited the role of endogenous expression of GPR17, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), with agonist GA-T0 in the survival and treatment of GBM. RNA sequencing was performed to understand the association of GPR17 expression with LGG and GBM. RT-PCR and immunoblotting were performed to confirm the endogenous expression of GPR17 mRNA and its encoded protein. Biological functions of GPR17 in the GBM cells was assessed by in vitro analysis. HPLC and histopathology in wild mice and an acute-toxicity analysis in a patient-derived xenograft model were performed to understand the clinical implication of GA-T0 targeting GPR17. We observed the upregulation of GPR17 in association with improved survival of LGG and GBM, confirming it as a predictive biomarker. GA-T0-stimulated GPR17 leads to the inhibition of cyclic AMP and calcium flux. GPR17 signaling activation enhances cytotoxicity against GBM cells and, in patient tissue-derived mesenchymal subtype GBM cells, induces apoptosis and prevents proliferation by stoppage of the cell cycle at the G1 phase. Modulation of the key genes involved in DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and in several signaling pathways, including MAPK/ERK, PI3K–Akt, STAT, and NF-κB, prevents tumor regression. In vivo activation of GPR17 by GA-T0 reduces the tumor volume, uncovering the potential of GA-T0–GPR17 as a targeted therapy for GBM treatment. Conclusion: Our analysis suggests that GA-T0 targeting the GPR17 receptor presents a novel therapy for treating glioblastoma. Full article
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17 pages, 1522 KiB  
Review
Trastuzumab Mechanism of Action; 20 Years of Research to Unravel a Dilemma
by Hamid Maadi, Mohammad Hasan Soheilifar, Won-Shik Choi, Abdolvahab Moshtaghian and Zhixiang Wang
Cancers 2021, 13(14), 3540; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13143540 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 11734
Abstract
Trastuzumab as a first HER2-targeted therapy for the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer patients was introduced in 1998. Although trastuzumab has opened a new avenue to treat patients with HER2-positive breast cancer and other types of cancer, some patients are not responsive or [...] Read more.
Trastuzumab as a first HER2-targeted therapy for the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer patients was introduced in 1998. Although trastuzumab has opened a new avenue to treat patients with HER2-positive breast cancer and other types of cancer, some patients are not responsive or become resistant to this treatment. So far, several mechanisms have been suggested for the mode of action of trastuzumab; however, the findings regarding these mechanisms are controversial. In this review, we aimed to provide a detailed insight into the various mechanisms of action of trastuzumab. Full article
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23 pages, 1467 KiB  
Review
Autophagy Inhibition in BRAF-Driven Cancers
by Mona Foth and Martin McMahon
Cancers 2021, 13(14), 3498; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13143498 - 13 Jul 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4788
Abstract
Several BRAF-driven cancers, including advanced BRAFV600E/K-driven melanoma, non-small-cell lung carcinoma, and thyroid cancer, are currently treated using first-line inhibitor combinations of BRAFV600E plus MEK1/2. However, despite the success of this vertical inhibition strategy, the durability of patient response is often [...] Read more.
Several BRAF-driven cancers, including advanced BRAFV600E/K-driven melanoma, non-small-cell lung carcinoma, and thyroid cancer, are currently treated using first-line inhibitor combinations of BRAFV600E plus MEK1/2. However, despite the success of this vertical inhibition strategy, the durability of patient response is often limited by the phenomenon of primary or acquired drug resistance. It has recently been shown that autophagy, a conserved cellular recycling process, is increased in BRAF-driven melanoma upon inhibition of BRAFV600E signaling. Autophagy is believed to promote tumor progression of established tumors and also to protect cancer cells from the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy. To this end, BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi)-resistant cells often display increased autophagy compared to responsive lines. Several mechanisms have been proposed for BRAFi-induced autophagy, such as activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress gatekeeper GRP78, AMP-activated protein kinase, and transcriptional regulation of the autophagy regulating transcription factors TFEB and TFE3 via ERK1/2 or mTOR inhibition. This review describes the relationship between BRAF-targeted therapy and autophagy regulation, and discusses possible future treatment strategies of combined inhibition of oncogenic signaling plus autophagy for BRAF-driven cancers. Full article
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17 pages, 1007 KiB  
Review
Novel Anticancer and Treatment Sensitizing Compounds against Pancreatic Cancer
by Gabrielle Wishart, Priyanka Gupta, Andrew Nisbet, Eirini Velliou and Giuseppe Schettino
Cancers 2021, 13(12), 2940; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13122940 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3720
Abstract
The isolation of chemical compounds from natural origins for medical application has played an important role in modern medicine with a range of novel treatments having emerged from various natural forms over the past decades. Natural compounds have been exploited for their antioxidant, [...] Read more.
The isolation of chemical compounds from natural origins for medical application has played an important role in modern medicine with a range of novel treatments having emerged from various natural forms over the past decades. Natural compounds have been exploited for their antioxidant, antimicrobial and antitumor capabilities. Specifically, 60% of today’s anticancer drugs originate from natural sources. Moreover, the combination of synthetic and natural treatments has shown applications for (i) reduced side effects, (ii) treatment sensitization and (iii) reduction in treatment resistance. This review aims to collate novel and natural compounds that are being explored for their preclinical anticancer, chemosensitizing and radiosensitizing effects on Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC), which is a lethal disease with current treatments being inefficient and causing serve side effects. Two key points are highlighted by this work: (i) the availability of a range of natural compounds for potentially new therapeutic approaches for PDAC, (ii) potential synergetic impact of natural compounds with advanced chemo- and radio-therapeutic modalities for PDAC. Full article
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31 pages, 1581 KiB  
Review
Targeting mTOR and Glycolysis in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer
by Ryan W. Holloway and Paola A. Marignani
Cancers 2021, 13(12), 2922; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13122922 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 9894
Abstract
Up to one third of all breast cancers are classified as the aggressive HER2-positive subtype, which is associated with a higher risk of recurrence compared to HER2-negative breast cancers. The HER2 hyperactivity associated with this subtype drives tumor growth by up-regulation of mechanistic [...] Read more.
Up to one third of all breast cancers are classified as the aggressive HER2-positive subtype, which is associated with a higher risk of recurrence compared to HER2-negative breast cancers. The HER2 hyperactivity associated with this subtype drives tumor growth by up-regulation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway activity and a metabolic shift to glycolysis. Although inhibitors targeting the HER2 receptor have been successful in treating HER2-positive breast cancer, anti-HER2 therapy is associated with a high risk of recurrence and drug resistance due to stimulation of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway and glycolysis. Combination therapies against HER2 with inhibition of mTOR improve clinical outcomes compared to HER2 inhibition alone. Here, we review the role of the HER2 receptor, mTOR pathway, and glycolysis in HER2-positive breast cancer, along with signaling mechanisms and the efficacy of treatment strategies of HER2-positive breast cancer. Full article
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14 pages, 8018 KiB  
Article
KEAP1 Is Required for Artesunate Anticancer Activity in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer
by Kristen S. Hill, Anthony McDowell, J. Robert McCorkle, Erin Schuler, Sally R. Ellingson, Rina Plattner and Jill M. Kolesar
Cancers 2021, 13(8), 1885; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13081885 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3894
Abstract
Artesunate is the most common treatment for malaria throughout the world. Artesunate has anticancer activity likely through the induction of reactive oxygen species, the same mechanism of action utilized in Plasmodium falciparum infections. Components of the kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1)/nuclear factor erythroid [...] Read more.
Artesunate is the most common treatment for malaria throughout the world. Artesunate has anticancer activity likely through the induction of reactive oxygen species, the same mechanism of action utilized in Plasmodium falciparum infections. Components of the kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1)/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) pathway, which regulates cellular response to oxidative stress, are mutated in approximately 30% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC); therefore, we tested the hypothesis that KEAP1 is required for artesunate sensitivity in NSCLC. Dose response assays identified A549 cells, which have a G333C-inactivating mutation in KEAP1, as resistant to artesunate, with an IC50 of 23.6 µM, while H1299 and H1563 cells were sensitive to artesunate, with a 10-fold lower IC50. Knockdown of KEAP1 through siRNA caused increased resistance to artesunate in H1299 cells. Alternatively, the pharmacological inhibition of NRF2, which is activated downstream of KEAP1 loss, by ML385 partially restored sensitivity of A549 cells to artesunate, and the combination of artesunate and ML385 was synergistic in both A549 and H1299 cells. These findings demonstrate that KEAP1 is required for the anticancer activity of artesunate and support the further development of NRF2 inhibitors to target patients with mutations in the KEAP1/NRF2 pathway. Full article
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18 pages, 5579 KiB  
Article
FEN1 Blockade for Platinum Chemo-Sensitization and Synthetic Lethality in Epithelial Ovarian Cancers
by Katia A. Mesquita, Reem Ali, Rachel Doherty, Michael S. Toss, Islam Miligy, Adel Alblihy, Dorjbal Dorjsuren, Anton Simeonov, Ajit Jadhav, David M. Wilson III, Ian Hickson, Natalie J. Tatum, Emad A. Rakha and Srinivasan Madhusudan
Cancers 2021, 13(8), 1866; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13081866 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3614
Abstract
FEN1 plays critical roles in long patch base excision repair (LP-BER), Okazaki fragment maturation, and rescue of stalled replication forks. In a clinical cohort, FEN1 overexpression is associated with aggressive phenotype and poor progression-free survival after platinum chemotherapy. Pre-clinically, FEN1 is induced upon [...] Read more.
FEN1 plays critical roles in long patch base excision repair (LP-BER), Okazaki fragment maturation, and rescue of stalled replication forks. In a clinical cohort, FEN1 overexpression is associated with aggressive phenotype and poor progression-free survival after platinum chemotherapy. Pre-clinically, FEN1 is induced upon cisplatin treatment, and nuclear translocation of FEN1 is dependent on physical interaction with importin β. FEN1 depletion, gene inactivation, or inhibition re-sensitizes platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin. BRCA2 deficient cells exhibited synthetic lethality upon treatment with a FEN1 inhibitor. FEN1 inhibitor-resistant PEO1R cells were generated, and these reactivated BRCA2 and overexpressed the key repair proteins, POLβ and XRCC1. FEN1i treatment was selectively toxic to POLβ deficient but not XRCC1 deficient ovarian cancer cells. High throughput screening of 391,275 compounds identified several FEN1 inhibitor hits that are suitable for further drug development. We conclude that FEN1 is a valid target for ovarian cancer therapy. Full article
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31 pages, 6334 KiB  
Article
Sensitivity and Resistance of Oncogenic RAS-Driven Tumors to Dual MEK and ERK Inhibition
by Antonella Catalano, Mojca Adlesic, Thorsten Kaltenbacher, Rhena F. U. Klar, Joachim Albers, Philipp Seidel, Laura P. Brandt, Tomas Hejhal, Philipp Busenhart, Niklas Röhner, Kyra Zodel, Kornelia Fritsch, Peter J. Wild, Justus Duyster, Ralph Fritsch, Tilman Brummer and Ian J. Frew
Cancers 2021, 13(8), 1852; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13081852 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4057
Abstract
Oncogenic mutations in RAS family genes arise frequently in metastatic human cancers. Here we developed new mouse and cellular models of oncogenic HrasG12V-driven undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma metastasis and of KrasG12D-driven pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma metastasis. Through analyses of these cells [...] Read more.
Oncogenic mutations in RAS family genes arise frequently in metastatic human cancers. Here we developed new mouse and cellular models of oncogenic HrasG12V-driven undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma metastasis and of KrasG12D-driven pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma metastasis. Through analyses of these cells and of human oncogenic KRAS-, NRAS- and BRAF-driven cancer cell lines we identified that resistance to single MEK inhibitor and ERK inhibitor treatments arise rapidly but combination therapy completely blocks the emergence of resistance. The prior evolution of resistance to either single agent frequently leads to resistance to dual treatment. Dual MEK inhibitor plus ERK inhibitor therapy shows anti-tumor efficacy in an HrasG12V-driven autochthonous sarcoma model but features of drug resistance in vivo were also evident. Array-based kinome activity profiling revealed an absence of common patterns of signaling rewiring in single or double MEK and ERK inhibitor resistant cells, showing that the development of resistance to downstream signaling inhibition in oncogenic RAS-driven tumors represents a heterogeneous process. Nonetheless, in some single and double MEK and ERK inhibitor resistant cell lines we identified newly acquired drug sensitivities. These may represent additional therapeutic targets in oncogenic RAS-driven tumors and provide general proof-of-principle that therapeutic vulnerabilities of drug resistant cells can be identified. Full article
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4 pages, 209 KiB  
Editorial
Drug Resistance and Novel Therapies in Cancers in 2019
by Zhixiang Wang
Cancers 2021, 13(4), 924; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040924 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1856
Abstract
After the successful launch in the second half of 2018 by Cancers, the topic collection “Drug Resistance and Novel Therapies in Cancers” experienced its productive first full year in 2019 [...] Full article
16 pages, 2300 KiB  
Article
Facilitating Drug Discovery in Breast Cancer by Virtually Screening Patients Using In Vitro Drug Response Modeling
by Robert F. Gruener, Alexander Ling, Ya-Fang Chang, Gladys Morrison, Paul Geeleher, Geoffrey L. Greene and R. Stephanie Huang
Cancers 2021, 13(4), 885; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040885 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3304
Abstract
(1) Background: Drug imputation methods often aim to translate in vitro drug response to in vivo drug efficacy predictions. While commonly used in retrospective analyses, our aim is to investigate the use of drug prediction methods for the generation of novel drug discovery [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Drug imputation methods often aim to translate in vitro drug response to in vivo drug efficacy predictions. While commonly used in retrospective analyses, our aim is to investigate the use of drug prediction methods for the generation of novel drug discovery hypotheses. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a severe clinical challenge in need of new therapies. (2) Methods: We used an established machine learning approach to build models of drug response based on cell line transcriptome data, which we then applied to patient tumor data to obtain predicted sensitivity scores for hundreds of drugs in over 1000 breast cancer patients. We then examined the relationships between predicted drug response and patient clinical features. (3) Results: Our analysis recapitulated several suspected vulnerabilities in TNBC and identified a number of compounds-of-interest. AZD-1775, a Wee1 inhibitor, was predicted to have preferential activity in TNBC (p < 2.2 × 10−16) and its efficacy was highly associated with TP53 mutations (p = 1.2 × 10−46). We validated these findings using independent cell line screening data and pathway analysis. Additionally, co-administration of AZD-1775 with standard-of-care paclitaxel was able to inhibit tumor growth (p < 0.05) and increase survival (p < 0.01) in a xenograft mouse model of TNBC. (4) Conclusions: Overall, this study provides a framework to turn any cancer transcriptomic dataset into a dataset for drug discovery. Using this framework, one can quickly generate meaningful drug discovery hypotheses for a cancer population of interest. Full article
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23 pages, 3352 KiB  
Article
Sulforaphane Inhibits the Expression of Long Noncoding RNA H19 and Its Target APOBEC3G and Thereby Pancreatic Cancer Progression
by Yiqiao Luo, Bin Yan, Li Liu, Libo Yin, Huihui Ji, Xuefeng An, Jury Gladkich, Zhimin Qi, Carolina De La Torre and Ingrid Herr
Cancers 2021, 13(4), 827; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040827 - 16 Feb 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3062
Abstract
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is extremely malignant and the therapeutic options available usually have little impact on survival. Great hope is placed on new therapeutic targets, including long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and on the development of new drugs, based on e.g., broccoli-derived sulforaphane, [...] Read more.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is extremely malignant and the therapeutic options available usually have little impact on survival. Great hope is placed on new therapeutic targets, including long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and on the development of new drugs, based on e.g., broccoli-derived sulforaphane, which meanwhile has shown promise in pilot studies in patients. We examined whether sulforaphane interferes with lncRNA signaling and analyzed five PDAC and two nonmalignant cell lines, patient tissues (n = 30), and online patient data (n = 350). RT-qPCR, Western blotting, MTT, colony formation, transwell and wound healing assays; gene array analysis; bioinformatics; in situ hybridization; immunohistochemistry and xenotransplantation were used. Sulforaphane regulated the expression of all of five examined lncRNAs, but basal expression, biological function and inhibition of H19 were of highest significance. H19 siRNA prevented colony formation, migration, invasion and Smad2 phosphorylation. We identified 103 common sulforaphane- and H19-related target genes and focused to the virus-induced tumor promoter APOBEC3G. APOBEC3G siRNA mimicked the previously observed H19 and sulforaphane effects. In vivo, sulforaphane- or H19 or APOBEC3G siRNAs led to significantly smaller tumor xenografts with reduced expression of Ki67, APOBEC3G and phospho-Smad2. Together, we identified APOBEC3G as H19 target, and both are inhibited by sulforaphane in prevention of PDAC progression. Full article
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19 pages, 8322 KiB  
Article
HSP90α Mediates Sorafenib Resistance in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Necroptosis Inhibition under Hypoxia
by Yan Liao, Yue Yang, Di Pan, Youxiang Ding, Heng Zhang, Yuting Ye, Jia Li and Li Zhao
Cancers 2021, 13(2), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13020243 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3362
Abstract
As one of the most common malignancies worldwide, Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been treated by Sorafenib, which is the first approved target drug by FDA for advanced HCC. However, drug resistance is one of the obstacles to its application. As a typical characteristic [...] Read more.
As one of the most common malignancies worldwide, Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been treated by Sorafenib, which is the first approved target drug by FDA for advanced HCC. However, drug resistance is one of the obstacles to its application. As a typical characteristic of most solid tumors, hypoxia has become a key cause of resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It is important to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of Sorafenib resistance under hypoxia. In this study, the morphological changes of hepatocellular carcinoma cells were observed by Live Cell Imaging System and Transmission Electron Microscope; Sorafenib was found to induce necroptosis in liver cancer. Under hypoxia, the distribution of necroptosis related proteins was changed, which contributed to Sorafenib resistance. HSP90α binds with the necrosome complex and promotes chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) degradation, which leads necroptosis blocking and results in Sorafenib resistance. The patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) model has been established to investigate the potential therapeutic strategies to overcome Sorafenib resistance. 17-AAG inhibited HSP90α and presented obvious reversal effects of Sorafenib resistance in vivo and in vitro. All the results emphasized that HSP90α plays a critical role in Sorafenib resistance under hypoxia and 17-AAG combined with Sorafenib is a promising therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Full article
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2020

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17 pages, 3326 KiB  
Article
Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Ibrutinib and Acalabrutinib Counteract Anthracycline Resistance in Cancer Cells Expressing AKR1C3
by Anselm Morell, Lucie Čermáková, Eva Novotná, Lenka Laštovičková, Melodie Haddad, Andrew Haddad, Ramon Portillo and Vladimír Wsól
Cancers 2020, 12(12), 3731; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12123731 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3099
Abstract
Over the last few years, aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 (AKR1C3) has been associated with the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR), thereby hindering chemotherapy against cancer. In particular, impaired efficacy of the gold standards of induction therapy in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) [...] Read more.
Over the last few years, aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 (AKR1C3) has been associated with the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR), thereby hindering chemotherapy against cancer. In particular, impaired efficacy of the gold standards of induction therapy in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) has been correlated with AKR1C3 expression, as this enzyme metabolises several drugs including anthracyclines. Therefore, the development of selective AKR1C3 inhibitors may help to overcome chemoresistance in clinical practice. In this regard, we demonstrated that Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors ibrutinib and acalabrutinib efficiently prevented daunorubicin (Dau) inactivation mediated by AKR1C3 in both its recombinant form as well as during its overexpression in cancer cells. This revealed a synergistic effect of BTK inhibitors on Dau cytotoxicity in cancer cells expressing AKR1C3 both exogenously and endogenously, thus reverting anthracycline resistance in vitro. These findings suggest that BTK inhibitors have a novel off-target action, which can be exploited against leukaemia through combination regimens with standard chemotherapeutics like anthracyclines. Full article
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21 pages, 1323 KiB  
Review
Getting Lost in the Cell–Lysosomal Entrapment of Chemotherapeutics
by Xingjian Zhai and Yassine El Hiani
Cancers 2020, 12(12), 3669; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12123669 - 07 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2963
Abstract
Despite extensive research, resistance to chemotherapy still poses a major obstacle in clinical oncology. An exciting strategy to circumvent chemoresistance involves the identification and subsequent disruption of cellular processes that are aberrantly altered in oncogenic states. Upon chemotherapeutic challenges, lysosomes are deemed to [...] Read more.
Despite extensive research, resistance to chemotherapy still poses a major obstacle in clinical oncology. An exciting strategy to circumvent chemoresistance involves the identification and subsequent disruption of cellular processes that are aberrantly altered in oncogenic states. Upon chemotherapeutic challenges, lysosomes are deemed to be essential mediators that enable cellular adaptation to stress conditions. Therefore, lysosomes potentially hold the key to disarming the fundamental mechanisms of chemoresistance. This review explores modes of action of classical chemotherapeutic agents, adaptive response of the lysosomes to cell stress, and presents physiological and pharmacological insights pertaining to drug compartmentalization, sequestration, and extracellular clearance through the lens of lysosomes. Full article
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26 pages, 4224 KiB  
Review
Cannabidiol (CBD) as a Promising Anti-Cancer Drug
by Emily S. Seltzer, Andrea K. Watters, Danny MacKenzie, Jr., Lauren M. Granat and Dong Zhang
Cancers 2020, 12(11), 3203; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113203 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 120 | Viewed by 29726
Abstract
Recently, cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), have been the subject of intensive research and heavy scrutiny. Cannabinoids encompass a wide array of organic molecules, including those that are physiologically produced in humans, synthesized in laboratories, and extracted primarily [...] Read more.
Recently, cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), have been the subject of intensive research and heavy scrutiny. Cannabinoids encompass a wide array of organic molecules, including those that are physiologically produced in humans, synthesized in laboratories, and extracted primarily from the Cannabis sativa plant. These organic molecules share similarities in their chemical structures as well as in their protein binding profiles. However, pronounced differences do exist in their mechanisms of action and clinical applications, which will be briefly compared and contrasted in this review. The mechanism of action of CBD and its potential applications in cancer therapy will be the major focus of this review article. Full article
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2 pages, 166 KiB  
Editorial
Drug Resistance and Novel Therapies in Cancers
by Zhixiang Wang
Cancers 2020, 12(10), 2929; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12102929 - 12 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1795
19 pages, 2732 KiB  
Article
Time-Resolved Profiling Reveals ATF3 as a Novel Mediator of Endocrine Resistance in Breast Cancer
by Simone Borgoni, Emre Sofyalı, Maryam Soleimani, Heike Wilhelm, Karin Müller-Decker, Rainer Will, Ashish Noronha, Lukas Beumers, Pernette J. Verschure, Yosef Yarden, Luca Magnani, Antoine H.C. van Kampen, Perry D. Moerland and Stefan Wiemann
Cancers 2020, 12(10), 2918; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12102918 - 11 Oct 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3735
Abstract
Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death for women worldwide. Patients whose tumors express Estrogen Receptor α account for around 70% of cases and are mostly treated with targeted endocrine therapy. However, depending on the degree of severity of the [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death for women worldwide. Patients whose tumors express Estrogen Receptor α account for around 70% of cases and are mostly treated with targeted endocrine therapy. However, depending on the degree of severity of the disease at diagnosis, 10 to 40% of these tumors eventually relapse due to resistance development. Even though recent novel approaches as the combination with CDK4/6 inhibitors increased the overall survival of relapsing patients, this remains relatively short and there is a urgent need to find alternative targetable pathways. In this study we profiled the early phases of the resistance development process to uncover drivers of this phenomenon. Time-resolved analysis revealed that ATF3, a member of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors, acts as a novel regulator of the response to therapy via rewiring of central signaling processes towards the adaptation to endocrine treatment. ATF3 was found to be essential in controlling crucial processes such as proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis during the early response to treatment through the regulation of MAPK/AKT signaling pathways. Its essential role was confirmed in vivo in a mouse model, and elevated expression of ATF3 was verified in patient datasets, adding clinical relevance to our findings. This study proposes ATF3 as a novel mediator of endocrine resistance development in breast cancer and elucidates its role in the regulation of downstream pathways activities. Full article
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28 pages, 2976 KiB  
Article
L-Arginine/Nitric Oxide Pathway Is Altered in Colorectal Cancer and Can Be Modulated by Novel Derivatives from Oxicam Class of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
by Małgorzata Krzystek-Korpacka, Berenika Szczęśniak-Sięga, Izabela Szczuka, Paulina Fortuna, Marek Zawadzki, Agnieszka Kubiak, Magdalena Mierzchała-Pasierb, Mariusz G. Fleszar, Łukasz Lewandowski, Paweł Serek, Natalia Jamrozik, Katarzyna Neubauer, Jerzy Wiśniewski, Radosław Kempiński, Wojciech Witkiewicz and Iwona Bednarz-Misa
Cancers 2020, 12(9), 2594; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12092594 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4648
Abstract
L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway metabolites are altered in colorectal cancer (CRC). We evaluated underlying changes in pathway enzymes in 55 paired tumor/tumor-adjacent samples and 20 normal mucosa using quantitative-PCR and assessed the impact of classic and novel oxicam analogues on enzyme expression and intracellular [...] Read more.
L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway metabolites are altered in colorectal cancer (CRC). We evaluated underlying changes in pathway enzymes in 55 paired tumor/tumor-adjacent samples and 20 normal mucosa using quantitative-PCR and assessed the impact of classic and novel oxicam analogues on enzyme expression and intracellular metabolite concentration (LC-MS/MS) in Caco-2, HCT116, and HT-29 cells. Compared to normal mucosa, ARG1, PRMT1, and PRMT5 were overexpressed in both tumor and tumor-adjacent tissue and DDAH2 solely in tumor-adjacent tissue. Tumor-adjacent tissue had higher expression of ARG1, DDAH1, and DDAH2 and lower NOS2 than patients-matched tumors. The ARG1 expression in tumors increased along with tumor grade and reflected lymph node involvement. Novel oxicam analogues with arylpiperazine moiety at the thiazine ring were more effective in downregulating DDAHs and PRMTs and upregulating ARG2 than piroxicam and meloxicam. An analogue distinguished by propylene linker between thiazine’s and piperazine’s nitrogen atoms and containing two fluorine substituents was the strongest inhibitor of DDAHs and PRMTs expression, while an analogue containing propylene linker but no fluorine substituents was the strongest inhibitor of ARG2 expression. Metabolic reprogramming in CRC includes overexpression of DDAHs and PRMTs in addition to ARG1 and NOS2 and is not restricted to tumor tissue but can be modulated by novel oxicam analogues. Full article
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26 pages, 1657 KiB  
Review
Electroporation-Based Treatments in Urology
by Aleksander Kiełbik, Wojciech Szlasa, Jolanta Saczko and Julita Kulbacka
Cancers 2020, 12(8), 2208; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12082208 - 07 Aug 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4667
Abstract
The observation that an application of a pulsed electric field (PEF) resulted in an increased permeability of the cell membrane has led to the discovery of the phenomenon called electroporation (EP). Depending on the parameters of the electric current and cell features, electroporation [...] Read more.
The observation that an application of a pulsed electric field (PEF) resulted in an increased permeability of the cell membrane has led to the discovery of the phenomenon called electroporation (EP). Depending on the parameters of the electric current and cell features, electroporation can be either reversible or irreversible. The irreversible electroporation (IRE) found its use in urology as a non-thermal ablative method of prostate and renal cancer. As its mechanism is based on the permeabilization of cell membrane phospholipids, IRE (as well as other treatments based on EP) provides selectivity sparing extracellular proteins and matrix. Reversible EP enables the transfer of genes, drugs, and small exogenous proteins. In clinical practice, reversible EP can locally increase the uptake of cytotoxic drugs such as cisplatin and bleomycin. This approach is known as electrochemotherapy (ECT). Few in vivo and in vitro trials of ECT have been performed on urological cancers. EP provides the possibility of transmission of genes across the cell membrane. As the protocols of gene electrotransfer (GET) over the last few years have improved, EP has become a well-known technique for non-viral cell transfection. GET involves DNA transfection directly to the cancer or the host skin and muscle tissue. Among urological cancers, the GET of several plasmids encoding prostate cancer antigens has been investigated in clinical trials. This review brings into discussion the underlying mechanism of EP and an overview of the latest progress and development perspectives of EP-based treatments in urology. Full article
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9 pages, 1346 KiB  
Article
Cisplatin Decreases ENaC Activity Contributing to Renal Salt Wasting Syndrome
by Antonio G. Soares, Elena Mironova, Crystal R. Archer, Jorge Contreras, James D. Stockand and Tarek Mohamed Abd El-Aziz
Cancers 2020, 12(8), 2140; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12082140 - 01 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2893
Abstract
Cisplatin (CDDP) is an important anticancer drug. A common side effect of CDDP is renal salt and water-wasting syndrome (RSWS). The origin of RSWS is obscure. Emerging evidence, though, suggests that broad inhibition of sodium transport proteins by CDDP may result in decreases [...] Read more.
Cisplatin (CDDP) is an important anticancer drug. A common side effect of CDDP is renal salt and water-wasting syndrome (RSWS). The origin of RSWS is obscure. Emerging evidence, though, suggests that broad inhibition of sodium transport proteins by CDDP may result in decreases in tubular reabsorption, causing increases in sodium and water excretion. In this sense, CDDP would be acting like a diuretic. The effect of CDDP on the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC), which is the final arbiter fine-tuning renal Na+ excretion, is unknown. We test here whether CDDP affects ENaC to promote renal salt and water excretion. The effects of CDDP and benzamil (BZM), a blocker of ENaC, on excretion of a sodium load were quantified. Similar to BZM, CDDP facilitated renal Na+ excretion. To directly quantify the effects on ENaC, principal cells in split-open tubules were patch clamped. CDDP, at doses comparable to those used for chemotherapy (1.5 µM), significantly decreased ENaC activity in native tubules. To further elaborate on this mechanism, the dose-dependent effects of CDDP on mouse ENaC (mENaC) heterologously expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were tested using patch clamping. As in native tubules, CDDP significantly decreased the activity of mENaC expressed in CHO cells. Dose–response curves and competition with amiloride identified CDDP as a weak inhibitor of ENaC (apparent IC50 = 1 µM) that competes with amiloride for inhibition of the channel, weakening the inhibitory actions of the latter. Such observations are consistent with CDDP being a partial modulator of ENaC, which possibly has a binding site that overlaps with that of amiloride. These findings are consistent with inhibition of ENaC by CDDP contributing to the RSWS caused by this important chemotherapy drug. Full article
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20 pages, 3286 KiB  
Article
Mambalgin-2 Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Glioma Cells via Interaction with ASIC1a
by Maxim Bychkov, Mikhail Shulepko, Dmitry Osmakov, Yaroslav Andreev, Anastasia Sudarikova, Valeria Vasileva, Marat S. Pavlyukov, Yaroslav A. Latyshev, Alexander A. Potapov, Mikhail Kirpichnikov, Zakhar O. Shenkarev and Ekaterina Lyukmanova
Cancers 2020, 12(7), 1837; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071837 - 08 Jul 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4744
Abstract
Gliomas are fast growing and highly invasive brain tumors, characterized by tumor microenvironment acidification that drives glioma cell growth and migration. Channels containing Acid-sensing Ion Channel 1a subunit (ASIC1a) mediate amiloride-sensitive cation influx in late stage glioma cells, but not in normal astrocytes. [...] Read more.
Gliomas are fast growing and highly invasive brain tumors, characterized by tumor microenvironment acidification that drives glioma cell growth and migration. Channels containing Acid-sensing Ion Channel 1a subunit (ASIC1a) mediate amiloride-sensitive cation influx in late stage glioma cells, but not in normal astrocytes. Thus, selective targeting of ASIC1a can be a perspective strategy for glioma treatment. Here, ASIC1a expression in U251 MG and A172 glioma cells, but not in normal astrocytes, was demonstrated. Recombinant analog of mambalgin-2 from black mamba Dendroaspis polylepis inhibited amiloride-sensitive currents at ASIC1a both in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in U251 MG cells, while its mutants with impaired activity towards this channel did not. Mambalgin-2 inhibited U251 MG and A172 glioma cells growth with EC50 in the nanomolar range without affecting the proliferation of normal astrocytes. Notably, mambalgin-2 mutants did not affect glioma cell proliferation, pointing on ASIC1a as the main molecular target of mambalgin-2 in U251 MG and A172 cells. Mambalgin-2 induced a cell cycle arrest, inhibited Cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) phosphorylation and caused apoptosis in U251 MG and A172 cells. Moreover, mambalgin-2 inhibited the growth of low-passage primary cells from a patient with glioblastoma. Altogether, our data point to mambalgin-2 as a useful hit for the development of new drugs for glioma treatment. Full article
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18 pages, 2750 KiB  
Article
Erdafitinib Resensitizes ABCB1-Overexpressing Multidrug-Resistant Cancer Cells to Cytotoxic Anticancer Drugs
by Chung-Pu Wu, Tai-Ho Hung, Sung-Han Hsiao, Yang-Hui Huang, Lang-Cheng Hung, Yi-Jou Yu, Yu-Tzu Chang, Shun-Ping Wang and Yu-Shan Wu
Cancers 2020, 12(6), 1366; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061366 - 26 May 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3930
Abstract
The development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer patients, which is often associated with the overexpression of ABCB1 (MDR1, P-glycoprotein) in cancer cells, remains a significant problem in cancer chemotherapy. ABCB1 is one of the major adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that [...] Read more.
The development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer patients, which is often associated with the overexpression of ABCB1 (MDR1, P-glycoprotein) in cancer cells, remains a significant problem in cancer chemotherapy. ABCB1 is one of the major adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that can actively efflux a range of anticancer drugs out of cancer cells, causing MDR. Given the lack of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment for multidrug-resistant cancers, we explored the prospect of repurposing erdafitinib, the first fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) kinase inhibitor approved by the FDA, to reverse MDR mediated by ABCB1. We discovered that by reducing the function of ABCB1, erdafitinib significantly resensitized ABCB1-overexpressing multidrug-resistant cancer cells to therapeutic drugs at sub-toxic concentrations. Results of erdafitinib-stimulated ABCB1 ATPase activity and in silico docking analysis of erdafitinib binding to the substrate-binding pocket of ABCB1 further support the interaction between erdafitinib and ABCB1. Moreover, our data suggest that ABCB1 is not a major mechanism of resistance to erdafitinib in cancer cells. In conclusion, we revealed an additional action of erdafitinib as a potential treatment option for multidrug-resistant cancers, which should be evaluated in future drug combination trials. Full article
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17 pages, 3776 KiB  
Article
Chemotherapeutic Agents Sensitize Resistant Cancer Cells to the DR5-Specific Variant DR5-B More Efficiently Than to TRAIL by Modulating the Surface Expression of Death and Decoy Receptors
by Artem A. Artykov, Dmitry A. Belov, Victoria O. Shipunova, Daria B. Trushina, Sergey M. Deyev, Dmitry A. Dolgikh, Mikhail P. Kirpichnikov and Marine E. Gasparian
Cancers 2020, 12(5), 1129; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12051129 - 30 Apr 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2970
Abstract
TRAIL is considered a promising antitumor agent because it causes apoptosis of transformed cells without affecting normal cells. However, many types of tumors are cytokine resistant, and combination therapy with various chemotherapeutic drugs is being developed to overcome the resistance. We have demonstrated [...] Read more.
TRAIL is considered a promising antitumor agent because it causes apoptosis of transformed cells without affecting normal cells. However, many types of tumors are cytokine resistant, and combination therapy with various chemotherapeutic drugs is being developed to overcome the resistance. We have demonstrated that the combination of TRAIL with doxorubicin, bortezomib, and panobinostat dramatically reduced the viability of TRAIL-resistant A549 and HT-29 cells. Chemotherapy even more efficiently sensitized cells to the DR5-specific mutant variant of TRAIL DR5-B, which does not have an affinity for decoy receptors. Bortezomib and doxorubicin greatly enhanced the surface expression of the death receptors DR5 and DR4, while panobinostat increased expression of DR5 and suppressed expression of DR4 in both cell lines. All drugs increased surface expression of the decoy receptors DcR1 and DcR2. Unlike the combined treatment, if the cells were pretreated with chemotherapy for 24 h, the cytotoxic activity of TRAIL was less pronounced, while sequential treatment of cells enhanced the effectiveness of DR5-B. The same results were obtained with agonistic anti-DR5 antibodies. Thus, the effectiveness of TRAIL was rather limited due to changes in the ratio of death and decoy receptors and DR5-specific agonists may be preferred in combination antitumor therapy regimens. Full article
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17 pages, 3988 KiB  
Article
Nelfinavir Inhibits the TCF11/Nrf1-Mediated Proteasome Recovery Pathway in Multiple Myeloma
by Dominika Fassmannová, František Sedlák, Jindřich Sedláček, Ivan Špička and Klára Grantz Šašková
Cancers 2020, 12(5), 1065; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12051065 - 25 Apr 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 5191
Abstract
Proteasome inhibitors are the backbone of multiple myeloma therapy. However, disease progression or early relapse occur due to development of resistance to the therapy. One important cause of resistance to proteasome inhibition is the so-called bounce-back response, a recovery pathway driven by the [...] Read more.
Proteasome inhibitors are the backbone of multiple myeloma therapy. However, disease progression or early relapse occur due to development of resistance to the therapy. One important cause of resistance to proteasome inhibition is the so-called bounce-back response, a recovery pathway driven by the TCF11/Nrf1 transcription factor, which activates proteasome gene re-synthesis upon impairment of the proteasome function. Thus, inhibiting this recovery pathway potentiates the cytotoxic effect of proteasome inhibitors and could benefit treatment outcomes. DDI2 protease, the 3D structure of which resembles the HIV protease, serves as the key player in TCF11/Nrf1 activation. Previous work found that some HIV protease inhibitors block DDI2 in cell-based experiments. Nelfinavir, an oral anti-HIV drug, inhibits the proteasome and/or pAKT pathway and has shown promise for treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. Here, we describe how nelfinavir inhibits the TCF11/Nrf1-driven recovery pathway by a dual mode of action. Nelfinavir decreases the total protein level of TCF11/Nrf1 and inhibits TCF11/Nrf1 proteolytic processing, likely by interfering with the DDI2 protease, and therefore reduces the TCF11/Nrf1 protein level in the nucleus. We propose an overall mechanism that explains nelfinavir’s effectiveness in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Full article
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17 pages, 3704 KiB  
Article
Glucocorticoids Promote the Onset of Acute Experimental Colitis and Cancer by Upregulating mTOR Signaling in Intestinal Epithelial Cells
by Zhengguo Zhang, Lin Dong, Anna Jia, Xi Chen, Qiuli Yang, Yufei Wang, Yuexin Wang, Ruichen Liu, Yejin Cao, Ying He, Yujing Bi and Guangwei Liu
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 945; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12040945 - 11 Apr 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4320
Abstract
The therapeutic effects of glucocorticoids on colitis and colitis-associated cancer are unclear. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic roles of glucocorticoids in acute experimental ulcerative colitis and colitis-associated cancer in mice and their immunoregulatory mechanisms. Murine acute ulcerative colitis was induced by [...] Read more.
The therapeutic effects of glucocorticoids on colitis and colitis-associated cancer are unclear. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic roles of glucocorticoids in acute experimental ulcerative colitis and colitis-associated cancer in mice and their immunoregulatory mechanisms. Murine acute ulcerative colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and treated with dexamethasone (Dex) at different doses. Dex significantly exacerbated the onset and severity of DSS-induced colitis and potentiated mucosal inflammatory macrophage and neutrophil infiltration, as well as cytokine production. Furthermore, under inflammatory conditions, the expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) did not change significantly, while mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling was higher in colonic epithelial cells than in colonic immune cells. The deletion of mTOR in intestinal epithelial cells, but not that in myeloid immune cells, in mice significantly ameliorated the severe course of colitis caused by Dex, including weight loss, clinical score, colon length, pathological damage, inflammatory cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. These data suggest that mTOR signaling in intestinal epithelial cells, mainly mTORC1, plays a critical role in the Dex-induced exacerbation of acute colitis and colitis-associated cancer. Thus, these pieces of evidence indicate that glucocorticoid-induced mTOR signaling in epithelial cells is required in the early stages of acute ulcerative colitis by modulating the dynamics of innate immune cell recruitment and activation. Full article
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19 pages, 23256 KiB  
Article
Preclinical Study Using ABT263 to Increase Enzalutamide Sensitivity to Suppress Prostate Cancer Progression Via Targeting BCL2/ROS/USP26 Axis Through Altering ARv7 Protein Degradation
by Hua Xu, Yin Sun, Chi-Ping Huang, Bosen You, Dingwei Ye and Chawnshang Chang
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 831; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12040831 - 30 Mar 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4058
Abstract
Background: The recently developed antiandrogen, Enzalutamide (Enz), has reformed the standard of care for castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. However, Enz-resistance inevitably emerges despite success of Enz in prolonging CRPC patients’ survival. Here we found that Enz-resistant prostate cancer (PCa) cells had [...] Read more.
Background: The recently developed antiandrogen, Enzalutamide (Enz), has reformed the standard of care for castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. However, Enz-resistance inevitably emerges despite success of Enz in prolonging CRPC patients’ survival. Here we found that Enz-resistant prostate cancer (PCa) cells had higher BCL2 expression. We aimed to test whether targeting BCL2 would influence Enz sensitivity of prostate cancer (PCa) and identify the potential mechanism. Methods: The study was designed to target Enz-induced BCL2 with inhibitor ABT263 and test Enz sensitivity in Enz-resistant PCa cells by MTT assay. Cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were detected with dihydroethidium staining, and in vitro deubiquitinating enzyme activity assay was used to evaluate ubiquitin specific protease 26 (USP26) activity. Results: ABT263 could increase Enz sensitivity in both Enz-sensitive and Enz-resistant PCa cells via inducing ROS generation. Elevated cellular ROS levels might then inhibit USP26 activity to increase the ubiquitination of androgen receptor (AR) and AR splice variant 7 (ARv7) and their ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent degradation, which contributed to the increase of Enz sensitivity. In vivo mouse model also demonstrates that ABT263 will suppress the PCa progression. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that targeting Enz-induced BCL2 with inhibitor ABT263 could increase Enz sensitivity in both Enz-sensitive and Enz-resistant PCa cells through induction of cellular ROS levels and suppression of USP26 activity with a consequent increase of ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent degradation of AR and ARv7 protein expression. Full article
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15 pages, 2929 KiB  
Article
Carbon-Ion Beam Irradiation Alone or in Combination with Zoledronic acid Effectively Kills Osteosarcoma Cells
by Eun Ho Kim, Mi-Sook Kim, Akihisa Takahashi, Masao Suzuki, Guillaume Vares, Akiko Uzawa, Akira Fujimori, Tatsuya Ohno and Sei Sai
Cancers 2020, 12(3), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12030698 - 16 Mar 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3789
Abstract
Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. The overall five-year survival rate for all bone cancers is below 70%; however, when the cancer has spread beyond the bone, it is about 15–30%. Herein, we evaluated the effects [...] Read more.
Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. The overall five-year survival rate for all bone cancers is below 70%; however, when the cancer has spread beyond the bone, it is about 15–30%. Herein, we evaluated the effects of carbon-ion beam irradiation alone or in combination with zoledronic acid (ZOL) on OSA cells. Carbon-ion beam irradiation in combination with ZOL significantly inhibited OSA cell proliferation by arresting cell cycle progression and initiating KHOS and U2OS cell apoptosis, compared to treatments with carbon-ion beam irradiation, X-ray irradiation, and ZOL alone. Moreover, we observed that this combination greatly inhibited OSA cell motility and invasion, accompanied by the suppression of the Pi3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways, which are related to cell proliferation and survival, compared to individual treatments with carbon-ion beam or X-ray irradiation, or ZOL. Furthermore, ZOL treatment upregulated microRNA (miR)-29b expression; the combination with a miR-29b mimic further decreased OSA cell viability via activation of the caspase 3 pathway. Thus, ZOL-mediated enhancement of carbon-ion beam radiosensitivity may occur via miR-29b upregulation; co-treatment with the miR-29b mimic further decreased OSA cell survival. These findings suggest that the carbon-ion beam irradiation in combination with ZOL has high potential to increase OSA cell death. Full article
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23 pages, 4742 KiB  
Article
Autophagic Inhibition via Lysosomal Integrity Dysfunction Leads to Antitumor Activity in Glioma Treatment
by Hui-Yun Hwang, Yoon Sun Cho, Jin Young Kim, Ki Na Yun, Jong Shin Yoo, Eunhyeong Lee, Injune Kim and Ho Jeong Kwon
Cancers 2020, 12(3), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12030543 - 27 Feb 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4872
Abstract
Manipulating autophagy is a promising strategy for treating cancer as several autophagy inhibitors are shown to induce autophagic cell death. One of these, autophagonizer (APZ), induces apoptosis-independent cell death by binding an unknown target via an unknown mechanism. To identify APZ targets, we [...] Read more.
Manipulating autophagy is a promising strategy for treating cancer as several autophagy inhibitors are shown to induce autophagic cell death. One of these, autophagonizer (APZ), induces apoptosis-independent cell death by binding an unknown target via an unknown mechanism. To identify APZ targets, we used a label-free drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) approach with a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) readout. Of 35 protein interactors, we identified Hsp70 as a key target protein of unmodified APZ in autophagy. Either APZ treatment or Hsp70 inhibition attenuates integrity of lysosomes, which leads to autophagic cell death exhibiting an excellent synergism with a clinical drug, temozolomide, in vitro, in vivo, and orthotropic glioma xenograft model. These findings demonstrate the potential of APZ to induce autophagic cell death and its development to combinational chemotherapeutic agent for glioma treatment. Collectively, our study demonstrated that APZ, a new autophagy inhibitor, can be used as a potent antitumor drug candidate to get over unassailable glioma and revealed a novel function of Hsp70 in lysosomal integrity regulation of autophagy. Full article
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18 pages, 4058 KiB  
Article
The Role of p53-Mediated Signaling in the Therapeutic Response of Colorectal Cancer to 9F, a Spermine-Modified Naphthalene Diimide Derivative
by Lei Gao, Chaochao Ge, Senzhen Wang, Xiaojuan Xu, Yongli Feng, Xinna Li, Chaojie Wang, Yuxia Wang, Fujun Dai and Songqiang Xie
Cancers 2020, 12(3), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12030528 - 25 Feb 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3218
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent cancers due to its frequency and high rate of mortality. Polyamine-vectorized anticancer drugs possess multiple biological properties. Of these drugs, 9F has been shown to inhibit tumor growth and the metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma. [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent cancers due to its frequency and high rate of mortality. Polyamine-vectorized anticancer drugs possess multiple biological properties. Of these drugs, 9F has been shown to inhibit tumor growth and the metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma. This current study aims to investigate the effects of 9F on CRC and determine its molecular mechanisms of action. Our findings demonstrate that 9F inhibits CRC cell growth by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, and suppresses migration, invasion and angiogenesis in vitro, resulting in the inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Based on RNA-seq data, further bioinformatic analyses suggest that 9F exerts its anticancer activities through p53 signaling, which is responsible for the altered expression of key regulators of the cell cycle, apoptosis, the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and angiogenesis. In addition, 9F is more effective than amonafide against CRC. These results show that 9F can be considered as a potential strategy for CRC treatment. Full article
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21 pages, 1238 KiB  
Review
Targeting Cancer Metabolism to Resensitize Chemotherapy: Potential Development of Cancer Chemosensitizers from Traditional Chinese Medicines
by Wei Guo, Hor-Yue Tan, Feiyu Chen, Ning Wang and Yibin Feng
Cancers 2020, 12(2), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12020404 - 10 Feb 2020
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 5220
Abstract
Cancer is a common and complex disease with high incidence and mortality rates, which causes a severe public health problem worldwide. As one of the standard therapeutic approaches for cancer therapy, the prognosis and outcome of chemotherapy are still far from satisfactory due [...] Read more.
Cancer is a common and complex disease with high incidence and mortality rates, which causes a severe public health problem worldwide. As one of the standard therapeutic approaches for cancer therapy, the prognosis and outcome of chemotherapy are still far from satisfactory due to the severe side effects and increasingly acquired resistance. The development of novel and effective treatment strategies to overcome chemoresistance is urgent for cancer therapy. Metabolic reprogramming is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Cancer cells could rewire metabolic pathways to facilitate tumorigenesis, tumor progression, and metastasis, as well as chemoresistance. The metabolic reprogramming may serve as a promising therapeutic strategy and rekindle the research enthusiasm for overcoming chemoresistance. This review focuses on emerging mechanisms underlying rewired metabolic pathways for cancer chemoresistance in terms of glucose and energy, lipid, amino acid, and nucleotide metabolisms, as well as other related metabolisms. In particular, we highlight the potential of traditional Chinese medicine as a chemosensitizer for cancer chemotherapy from the metabolic perspective. The perspectives of metabolic targeting to chemoresistance are also discussed. In conclusion, the elucidation of the underlying metabolic reprogramming mechanisms by which cancer cells develop chemoresistance and traditional Chinese medicines resensitize chemotherapy would provide us a new insight into developing promising therapeutics and scientific evidence for clinical use of traditional Chinese medicine as a chemosensitizer for cancer therapy. Full article
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17 pages, 6368 KiB  
Article
Heterogeneous Responses of Gastric Cancer Cell Lines to Tenovin-6 and Synergistic Effect with Chloroquine
by Xiangyu Ke, Qingsong Qin, Tianyi Deng, Yueyan Liao and Shou-Jiang Gao
Cancers 2020, 12(2), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12020365 - 05 Feb 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4140
Abstract
Gastric cancer (GC) is the fifth most frequently diagnosed cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death. Approximately 15% of GC is associated with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). GC is largely incurable with a dismal five-year survival rate. There is an urgent need [...] Read more.
Gastric cancer (GC) is the fifth most frequently diagnosed cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death. Approximately 15% of GC is associated with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). GC is largely incurable with a dismal five-year survival rate. There is an urgent need to identify new therapeutic agents for the treatment of GC. Tenovin-6 was initially identified as a p53 activator, but it was later found to inhibit autophagy flux, and the protein deacetylase activity of sirtuins. Tenovin-6 shows promising therapeutic effect in various malignancies. However, it remains unknown whether Tenovin-6 is effective for GC. In this study, we found that EBV-positive and -negative GC cell lines were sensitive to Tenovin-6 but with different response times and doses. Tenovin-6 suppressed anchorage-independent growth of GC cells. Tenovin-6 induced different levels of apoptosis and phases of cell-cycle arrest depending on the cell lines with some manifesting gap 1 (G1) and others showing synthesis (S) phase cell-cycle arrest. Mechanistically, Tenovin-6 induced autophagy or p53 activation in GC cells depending on the status of TP53 gene. However, initiation of autophagy following treatment with Tenovin-6 conferred some protective effect on numerous cells. Combined treatment with Tenovin-6 and autophagy inhibitor chloroquine increased the cytotoxic effect by inducing microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B)-II accumulation, and by enhancing apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest. These results indicated that Tenovin-6 can be used as a potential therapeutic agent for GC, but the genetic background of the cancer cells might determine the response and mechanism of action. Treatment with Tenovin-6 alone or in combination with chloroquine could be a promising therapeutic approach for GC. Full article
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18 pages, 3629 KiB  
Article
Combination of Decitabine and Entinostat Synergistically Inhibits Urothelial Bladder Cancer Cells via Activation of FoxO1
by Chenyin Wang, Alexandra Hamacher, Patrick Petzsch, Karl Köhrer, Günter Niegisch, Michèle J. Hoffmann, Wolfgang A. Schulz and Matthias U. Kassack
Cancers 2020, 12(2), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12020337 - 03 Feb 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3534
Abstract
Occurrence of cisplatin-resistance in bladder cancer is frequent and results in disease progression. Thus, novel therapeutic approaches are a high medical need for patients suffering from chemotherapy failure. The purpose of this study was to test the combination of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor [...] Read more.
Occurrence of cisplatin-resistance in bladder cancer is frequent and results in disease progression. Thus, novel therapeutic approaches are a high medical need for patients suffering from chemotherapy failure. The purpose of this study was to test the combination of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor decitabine (DAC) with the histone deacetylase inhibitor entinostat (ENT) in bladder cancer cells with different platinum sensitivities: J82, cisplatin-resistant J82CisR, and RT-112. Intermittent treatment of J82 cells with cisplatin resulted in the six-fold more cisplatin-resistant cell line J82CisR. Combinations of DAC and/or ENT plus cisplatin could not reverse chemoresistance. However, the combination of DAC and ENT acted cytotoxic in a highly synergistic manner as shown by Chou-Talalay analysis via induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Importantly, this effect was cancer cell-selective as no synergism was found for the combination in the non-cancerous urothelial cell line HBLAK. Expression analysis indicated that epigenetic treatment led to up-regulation of forkhead box class O1 (FoxO1) and further activated proapoptotic Bim and the cell cycle regulator p21 and reduced expression of survivin in J82CisR. In conclusion, the combination of DAC and ENT is highly synergistic and has a promising potential for therapy of bladder cancer, particularly in cases with platinum resistance. Full article
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