New Insights of Hematology in Cancer

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694). This special issue belongs to the section "Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2024 | Viewed by 6329

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Regenerative and Precision Medicine and Ionian Area-DiMePReJ, Hematology Section, Policlinico-University of Bari, P.zza G. Cesare, 11, 70124 Bari, Italy
Interests: hematologic neoplasms; cancer genetics; molecular diagnostics; target therapy; precision medicine
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

The recent efforts of oncological research have been directed towards pursuing the goal of precision medicine with the aim of identifying new possible biomarkers that can be used for the diagnostic and prognostic classification of hematological neoplasms, and that can be possible therapeutic targets, which could also possibly be employed for monitoring the patient's response to therapy. These important goals can be achieved through the use of innovative technologies that provide increasingly detailed readings of the biological peculiarities of hematological neoplasms. The use of broad-spectrum techniques that offer global information in the genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic and/or proteomic fields provides an increasingly detailed view of hematological malignancies. In this context, the aim of this Special Issue is to assemble the most recent advances within this field to understand how to exploit them to be able to cure even the most aggressive forms of cancer.

Considering the importance of this topic, I am pleased to invite the submission of original research articles and review articles covering the following topics:

  • New technologies useful to provide a global vision of hematologic neoplasms;
  • Discovery of new molecular targets;
  • Implementation of methodologies for management and treatment of hematological neoplasms;
  • Discovery of new options for molecular and/or cellular targeted therapy. 

I look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Nicoletta Coccaro
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cancers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • hematologic neoplasms
  • cancer genetics
  • molecular target
  • precision medicine
  • target therapy

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 1451 KiB  
Article
Erdheim–Chester Disease: Investigating the Correlation between Targeted Treatment Therapy and Disease Outcomes
by Sabrina R. Wilcox, Samuel B. Reynolds and Asra Z. Ahmed
Cancers 2024, 16(7), 1299; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16071299 - 27 Mar 2024
Viewed by 591
Abstract
A retrospective analysis of 20 adult patients with histopathological and clinical diagnoses of ECD was conducted at a single institution over a twenty-year period (2002–2022). Clinical responses were compared on the basis of treatments rendered, which included chemotherapy, immunotherapy, systemic corticosteroids, surgery and [...] Read more.
A retrospective analysis of 20 adult patients with histopathological and clinical diagnoses of ECD was conducted at a single institution over a twenty-year period (2002–2022). Clinical responses were compared on the basis of treatments rendered, which included chemotherapy, immunotherapy, systemic corticosteroids, surgery and radiation, or targeted agents, referring to any small molecular inhibitors. Treatment response evaluation varied by the anatomic site(s) of disease, the extent of disease at diagnosis, and the imaging modality employed. In this analysis, patients were treated with a combination of targeted agents, myelosuppressive therapies, and radiation at various points in their disease courses. Of these, the most common treatment modality rendered was targeted therapy, employed in 11 of 20 patients. Partial responses or better were observed in 15 of 20 patients. Rates of stable disease trended towards being more frequent with targeted therapy versus conventional therapy but did not reach significance (p = 0.2967). Complete response rates trended towards being more common with conventional therapy than molecular (p = 0.5) but were equivocal overall. Trends of peripheral blood absolute monocytes with relation to disease activity were reviewed as recent literature implied that monocyte levels surrounding disease progression were of potential prognostic significance in histiocytic diseases. Amongst the patients who progressed at any point during their treatment course, absolute monocyte count (in K/µL) was identified at the closest available timepoint prior to or following disease progression and at the lowest value (nadir) following re-institution of therapy prior to any additional agent(s) being employed. There was no statistically significant difference in either of these monocyte values nor in disease outcomes with respect to treatments rendered within our cohort. However, our cohort consists of a heterogenous population of patients with ECD with data that highlights several trends over a longitudinal period, spanning the advent of targeted therapy. Significant differences are anticipated in ongoing analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights of Hematology in Cancer)
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17 pages, 2487 KiB  
Article
Poor Applicability of Currently Available Prognostic Scoring Systems for Prediction of Outcome in KIT D816V-Negative Advanced Systemic Mastocytosis
by Nicole Naumann, Martina Rudelius, Johannes Lübke, Deborah Christen, Jakob Bresser, Karl Sotlar, Georgia Metzgeroth, Alice Fabarius, Wolf-Karsten Hofmann, Jens Panse, Hans-Peter Horny, Nicholas C. P. Cross, Andreas Reiter and Juliana Schwaab
Cancers 2024, 16(3), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16030593 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 838
Abstract
Within our nationwide registry, we identified a KIT D816V mutation (KIT D816Vpos.) in 280/299 (94%) patients with advanced systemic mastocytosis (AdvSM). Age, cytopenias and the presence of additional somatic mutations confer inferior overall survival (OS). However, little is known about the [...] Read more.
Within our nationwide registry, we identified a KIT D816V mutation (KIT D816Vpos.) in 280/299 (94%) patients with advanced systemic mastocytosis (AdvSM). Age, cytopenias and the presence of additional somatic mutations confer inferior overall survival (OS). However, little is known about the characteristics of KIT D816V-negative (D816Vneg.) AdvSM. In 19 D816Vneg. patients, a combination of clinical, morphological and genetic features revealed three subgroups: (a) KIT D816H- or Y-positive SM (KIT D816H/Ypos., n = 7), predominantly presenting as mast cell leukemia (MCL; 6/7 patients), (b) MCL with negative KIT sequencing (KITneg. MCL, n = 7) and (c) KITneg. SM with associated hematologic neoplasm (KITneg. SM-AHN, n = 5). Although >70% of patients in the two MCL cohorts (KIT D816H/Ypos. and KITneg.) were classified as low/intermediate risk according to prognostic scoring systems (PSS), treatment response was poor and median OS was shorter than in a KIT D816Vpos. MCL control cohort (n = 29; 1.7 vs. 0.9 vs. 2.6 years; p < 0.04). The KITneg. SM-AHN phenotype was dominated by the heterogeneous AHN (low mast cell burden, presence of additional mutations) with a better median OS of 4.5 years. We conclude that (i) in MCL, negativity for D816V is a relevant prognostic factor and (ii) PSS fail to correctly classify D816Vneg. patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights of Hematology in Cancer)
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10 pages, 2247 KiB  
Article
CD30 Lateral Flow and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Detection of BIA-ALCL: A Pilot Study
by Victoria G. Zeyl, Haiying Xu, Imran Khan, Jason T. Machan, Mark W. Clemens, Honghua Hu, Anand Deva, Caroline Glicksman, Patricia McGuire, William P. Adams, Jr., David Sieber, Mithun Sinha and Marshall E. Kadin
Cancers 2023, 15(21), 5128; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15215128 - 25 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1947
Abstract
Introduction: Breast Implant-Associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) commonly presents as a peri-implant effusion (seroma). CD30 (TNFRSF8) is a consistent marker of tumor cells but also can be expressed by activated lymphocytes in benign seromas. Diagnosis of BIA-ALCL currently includes cytology and detection [...] Read more.
Introduction: Breast Implant-Associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) commonly presents as a peri-implant effusion (seroma). CD30 (TNFRSF8) is a consistent marker of tumor cells but also can be expressed by activated lymphocytes in benign seromas. Diagnosis of BIA-ALCL currently includes cytology and detection of CD30 by immunohistochemistry or flow cytometry, but these studies require specialized equipment and pathologists’ interpretation. We hypothesized that a CD30 lateral flow assay (LFA) could provide a less costly rapid test for soluble CD30 that eventually could be used by non-specialized personnel for point-of-care diagnosis of BIA-ALCL. Methods: We performed LFA for CD30 and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 15 patients with pathologically confirmed BIA-ALCL and 10 patients with benign seromas. To determine the dynamic range of CD30 detection by LFA, we added recombinant CD30 protein to universal buffer at seven different concentrations ranging from 125 pg/mL to 10,000 pg/mL. We then performed LFA for CD30 on cryopreserved seromas of 10 patients with pathologically confirmed BIA-ALCL and 10 patients with benign seromas. Results: Recombinant CD30 protein added to universal buffer produced a distinct test line at concentrations higher than 1000 pg/mL and faint test lines at 250–500 pg/mL. LFA produced a positive test line for all BIA-ALCL seromas undiluted and for 8 of 10 malignant seromas at 1:10 dilution, whereas 3 of 10 benign seromas were positive undiluted but all were negative at 1:10 dilution. Undiluted CD30 LFA had a sensitivity of 100.00%, specificity of 70.00%, positive predictive value of 76.92%, and negative predictive value of 100.00% for BIA-ALCL. When specimens were diluted 1:10, sensitivity was reduced to 80.00% but specificity and positive predictive values increased to 100.00%, while negative predictive value was reduced to 88.33%. When measured by ELISA, CD30 was below 1200 pg/mL in each of six benign seromas, whereas seven BIA-ALCL seromas contained CD30 levels > 2300 pg/mL, in all but one case calculated from dilutions of 1:10 or 1:50. Conclusions: BIA-ALCL seromas can be distinguished from benign seromas by CD30 ELISA and LFA, but LFA requires less time (<20 min) and can be performed without special equipment by non-specialized personnel, suggesting future point-of-care testing for BIA-ALCL may be feasible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights of Hematology in Cancer)
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12 pages, 1860 KiB  
Article
Survival of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome and Hematologic Malignancies—A Real-World Analysis
by Stefan A. Lange, Christoph Schliemann, Christiane Engelbertz, Jannik Feld, Lena Makowski, Joachim Gerß, Patrik Dröge, Thomas Ruhnke, Christian Günster, Holger Reinecke and Jeanette Köppe
Cancers 2023, 15(20), 4966; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15204966 - 12 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1042
Abstract
Background: The impact of the encounter between coronary heart disease (CHD) and cancer, and in particular hematologic malignancies (HM), remains poorly understood. Objective: The aim of this analysis was to clarify how HM affects the prognosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We analyzed [...] Read more.
Background: The impact of the encounter between coronary heart disease (CHD) and cancer, and in particular hematologic malignancies (HM), remains poorly understood. Objective: The aim of this analysis was to clarify how HM affects the prognosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We analyzed German health insurance data from 11 regional Ortskrankenkassen (AOK) of patients hospitalized for ACS between January 2010 and December 2018, matched by age, sex and all comorbidities for short- and long-term survival and major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Results: Of 439,716 patients with ACS, 2104 (0.5%) also had an HM. Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative disorders (27.7%), lymphocytic leukemias (24.8%), and multiple myeloma (22.4%) predominated. These patients were about 6 years older (78 vs. 72 years *). They had an ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, 18.2 vs. 34.9% *) less often and more often had a non-STEMI (NSTEMI, 81.8 vs. 65.1% *). With the exception of dyslipidemia, these patients had more concomitant and previous cardiovascular disease and a worse NYHA stage. They were less likely to undergo coronary angiography (65.3 vs. 71.6% *) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, 44.3 vs. 52.0% *), although the number of bleeding events was not relevantly increased (p = 0.22). After adjustment for the patients’ risk profile, the HM was associated with reduced long-term survival. However, this was not true for short-term survival. Here, there was no difference in the STEMI patients, * p < 0.001. Conclusion: Survival in ACS and HM is significantly lower, possibly due to the avoidance of PCI because of a perceived increased risk of bleeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights of Hematology in Cancer)
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12 pages, 970 KiB  
Article
Prognostic Significance of the Myelodysplastic Syndrome-Specific Comorbidity Index (MDS-CI) in Patients with Myelofibrosis: A Retrospective Study
by Kira-Lee Koster, Nora-Medea Messerich, Thomas Volken, Sergio Cogliatti, Thomas Lehmann, Lukas Graf, Andreas Holbro, Rudolf Benz, Izadora Demmer, Wolfram Jochum, Tata Nageswara Rao and Tobias Silzle
Cancers 2023, 15(19), 4698; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15194698 - 24 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1434
Abstract
In myelofibrosis, comorbidities (CMs) add prognostic information independently from the Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System (DIPSS). The Myelodysplastic Syndrome-Specific Comorbidity Index (MDS-CI) offers a simple tool for CM assessment as it is calculable after having performed a careful history and physical examination, a [...] Read more.
In myelofibrosis, comorbidities (CMs) add prognostic information independently from the Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System (DIPSS). The Myelodysplastic Syndrome-Specific Comorbidity Index (MDS-CI) offers a simple tool for CM assessment as it is calculable after having performed a careful history and physical examination, a small routine chemistry panel (including creatinine and liver enzymes) and a limited set of functional diagnostics. To assess the prognostic impact of the MDS-CI in addition to the DIPSS and the Mutation-Enhanced International Prognostic Scoring System (MIPSS)-70, we performed a retrospective chart review of 70 MF patients who had not received allogeneic stem cell transplantation (primary MF, n = 51; secondary MF, n = 19; median follow-up, 40 months) diagnosed at our institution between 2000 and 2020. Cardiac diseases (23/70) and solid tumors (12/70) were the most common CMs observed at MF diagnosis. Overall survival (OS) was significantly influenced by the MDS-CI (median OS MDS-CI low (n = 38): 101 months; MDS-CI intermediate (n = 25): 50 months; and high (n = 7): 8 months; p < 0.001). The MDS-CI added prognostic information after inclusion as a categorical variable in a multivariate model together with the dichotomized DIPSS or the dichotomized MIPSS70: MDS-CI high HR 14.64 (95% CI 4.42; 48.48), p = 0.0002, and MDS-CI intermediate HR 1.97 (95% CI 0.96; 4.03), p = 0.065, and MDS-CI high HR 19.65 (95% CI 4.71; 81.95), p < 0.001, and MDS-CI intermediate HR 1.063 (95% CI 0.65; 4.06), p = 0.2961, respectively. The analysis of our small and retrospective MF cohort suggests that the MDS-CI represents a useful tool to identify MF patients with an increased vulnerability due to comorbidities. However, analyses of larger cohorts are necessary to define the value of the MDS-CI as a prognostic tool in comparison with other comorbidity indices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights of Hematology in Cancer)
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