Indoor Climate and Energy Efficiency in Buildings

A special issue of Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309). This special issue belongs to the section "Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 August 2024 | Viewed by 6073

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
College of Architecture and Urban Planning, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074, China
Interests: natural ventilation; building energy conservation; green building and building performance; urban microclimate; IAQ and indoor environment; HVAC system
The Bartlett School of Sustainable Construction, University College London, London WC1E 7HB, UK
Interests: intelligent buildings; occupant behaviour and comfort; thermal storage; renewable energy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
College of Architecture and Urban Planning, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074, China
Interests: green building technology and evaluation; sponge city construction technology; landscape garden planning and design

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the continuous deterioration of global warming, it becomes more challenging to provide comfortable indoor environments with low energy consumption. However, for sustainable development, reducing the energy consumption of buildings is particularly urgent, and the achievement of this requires continuous development in technologies, especially those that can be used for building services systems. This Special Issue, therefore, would like to invite cutting-edge technologies that can help to achieve healthier indoor environments and lower energy consumption under the changing climate. These can include energy-efficient systems, renewable energy, energy storage materials and technology, environmental protection equipment and techniques, energy-efficient/smart behaviour, etc. The scope includes the above mentioned topics, with both research articles and review articles are welcome. The aim of this issue is to provide an interactive platform for researchers in relevant areas to share their current ideas, and to promote the speed of achieving low-carbon and healthy buildings.

The main topics include (but are not limited to):

  1. Low-energy and healthy buildings;
  2. Advanced energy storage materials and technologies;
  3. Advanced environmental protection equipment and techniques;
  4. Energy-efficient/smart occupant behaviour;
  5. Advanced carbon emissions/energy consumption control strategies/techniques throughout the life cycle of buildings;
  6. Coupled studies between urban form and building energy systems;
  7. Built environment and energy studies in the community scale, such as microclimate, air pollutant control, outdoor environment, district energy system, etc.

Dr. Yanan Liu
Dr. Shen Wei
Prof. Lili Dong
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Buildings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • energy efficient technology
  • indoor air quality
  • healthy building
  • occupant behaviour

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 3627 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Indoor Air Humidity on the Infiltration of Ambient Particles
by Jiayi Qiu, Haixi Zhang, Jialu Liu and Yanhua Liu
Buildings 2024, 14(4), 1022; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14041022 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 448
Abstract
Ambient particles contribute to occupant exposure as they infiltrate indoor environments through building envelope cracks, impacting indoor air quality. This study investigates the impact of indoor air humidity on the infiltration of ambient particles, highlighting humidity’s crucial role in influencing particle dynamics in [...] Read more.
Ambient particles contribute to occupant exposure as they infiltrate indoor environments through building envelope cracks, impacting indoor air quality. This study investigates the impact of indoor air humidity on the infiltration of ambient particles, highlighting humidity’s crucial role in influencing particle dynamics in indoor environments. Employing a controlled chamber system, we conducted experiments to quantify the infiltration of size-resolved particles under varying relative humidity (RH) conditions. Both the total number and the mass concentration of particles increased with RH in the experimental chamber. The smallest particles (0.3–0.4 μm) experienced reduced infiltration at higher RH levels due to hygroscopic growth, while intermediate-sized particles showed increased infiltration, resulted from coagulation effects. Large particles (>1.0 μm) demonstrated reduced infiltration factors, caused by lower penetration and higher deposition rates, with minimal impact from RH changes. Our findings reveal that RH influences particle hygroscopic growth, deposition rate, and coagulation process, thereby affecting indoor particle size distribution and concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Climate and Energy Efficiency in Buildings)
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27 pages, 5297 KiB  
Article
Trade-Off Judgement for Daylighting and Energy Consumption in the High and Large Space of the University Gymnasium in Beijing
by Yanpeng Wu, Meitong Jin and Tianhu Zhang
Buildings 2024, 14(1), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14010286 - 20 Jan 2024
Viewed by 719
Abstract
Taking the high and large space of the University of Science and Technology Beijing Gymnasium as this research object, this paper analyzes the influence of different window positions, window-to-wall ratio (WWR), solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), heat transfer coefficient (K), and visible light [...] Read more.
Taking the high and large space of the University of Science and Technology Beijing Gymnasium as this research object, this paper analyzes the influence of different window positions, window-to-wall ratio (WWR), solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), heat transfer coefficient (K), and visible light transmittance (VT) on the total indoor energy consumption in winter and summer and obtains the relationship between the daylight factor and VT formed when the window is opened per unit area. Through energy consumption simulation, the variation law and calculation formula for indoor total energy consumption are obtained. The results show that the SHGC and K of the exterior window have a significant influence on the total energy consumption. By using the energy consumption simulation of different types of exterior windows, it is concluded that the SHGC of the south-facing window is negatively correlated with the variation of air conditioning energy consumption per unit area Δe1,w, while the others are positively correlated. Moreover, the SHGC and K of the skylight have the most significant influence on the Δe1,w. The total energy consumption decreases and then increases with the increase in the window area, and there is a lowest point, so the right side of the lowest point is less than or equal to 105% of the lowest total energy consumption as a reasonable window area zone. Finally, a progressive optimization method for weighing daylighting and energy consumption in university gymnasiums in Beijing is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Climate and Energy Efficiency in Buildings)
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19 pages, 2218 KiB  
Article
Daylighting Performance of CdTe Semi-Transparent Photovoltaic Skylights with Different Shapes for University Gymnasium Buildings
by Yanpeng Wu, Shaoxiong Li, Xin Gao and Huifang Fan
Buildings 2024, 14(1), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14010241 - 16 Jan 2024
Viewed by 719
Abstract
The daylighting environment in university gymnasiums affects daily teaching and sports training. However, direct sunlight, glare, and indoor overheating in summer are common problems. Semi-transparent photovoltaic glass can solve these issues by replacing shading facilities, blocking solar radiation, and generating electricity. This study [...] Read more.
The daylighting environment in university gymnasiums affects daily teaching and sports training. However, direct sunlight, glare, and indoor overheating in summer are common problems. Semi-transparent photovoltaic glass can solve these issues by replacing shading facilities, blocking solar radiation, and generating electricity. This study examines the influence of different types of CdTe semi-transparent film photovoltaic glass on the daylighting environment of six typical university gymnasium skylights. The optimal types of CdTe semi-transparent film photovoltaic glass are determined by dynamic daylighting performance metrics DA, DAcon, DAmax, and UDI. The results show that, for instance, centralized rectangular skylights benefit from the 50–60% transmittance type, while centralized X-shaped skylights require the 70–80% transmittance type to enhance indoor daylighting. The research results offer specific recommendations based on skylight shapes and photovoltaic glass types and can provide a reference for the daylighting design of university gymnasium buildings with different forms of photovoltaic skylights in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Climate and Energy Efficiency in Buildings)
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27 pages, 31450 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Implementation Path of Passive Heat-Protection Design Heritage in Lingnan Buildings
by Hui Ji, Shuqi Wu, Bishan Ye, Shuxi Wang, Yuqing Chen and Ji-Yu Deng
Buildings 2023, 13(12), 2954; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13122954 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1127
Abstract
To achieve indoor thermal comfort via natural ventilation, traditional buildings in South China’s Lingnan region have evolved distinct features tailored to the hot and humid climate conditions, involving site planning, function layout, and construction techniques. This study delves into the influences of these [...] Read more.
To achieve indoor thermal comfort via natural ventilation, traditional buildings in South China’s Lingnan region have evolved distinct features tailored to the hot and humid climate conditions, involving site planning, function layout, and construction techniques. This study delves into the influences of these features on aspects such as sun-shading, ventilation, and heat insulation. By analyzing over ten Lingnan buildings in both the traditional and modern forms, several representative standardized models have been developed. Through a hybrid approach of combining qualitative and quantitative methodologies, including simulations, quantifications, and comparisons, several passive heat-protection measures commonly employed in Lingnan buildings were examined and evaluated. The effectiveness of shading, ventilation, and heat insulation in both traditional and modern buildings was assessed, resulting in the compilation of design principles for passive heat protection in buildings located in similar climatic zones. Key findings include (1) Shading: traditional methods reduce sunlight by 54.55%, while modern buildings enhance shading by applying new materials; (2) ventilation: traditional design achieves an outdoor wind speed of 1.5 m/s, improving thermal comfort, while modern Lingnan buildings optimize these principles; (3) insulation: traditional techniques maintain indoor temperatures below 26.0 °C, and modern buildings introduce innovation solutions for improved thermal insulation. In summary, traditional Lingnan design effectively addresses the challenges of the hot and humid climate by employing passive strategies for thermal comfort. Modern Lingnan buildings, in turn, preserve these principles while introducing innovative approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Climate and Energy Efficiency in Buildings)
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18 pages, 7159 KiB  
Article
CFD Analysis of Building Cross-Ventilation with Different Angled Gable Roofs and Opening Locations
by Jingyuan Shi, Changkai Zhao and Yanan Liu
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2716; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112716 - 27 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 874
Abstract
The geometric shape of the roof and the opening position are important parameters influencing the internal cross-ventilation of buildings. Although there has been extensive research on natural ventilation, most of it has focused on flat or sloping roofs with the same opening positions. [...] Read more.
The geometric shape of the roof and the opening position are important parameters influencing the internal cross-ventilation of buildings. Although there has been extensive research on natural ventilation, most of it has focused on flat or sloping roofs with the same opening positions. There is still limited research on the impact of different opening positions and sloping roofs on natural ventilation. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to investigate the air exchange efficiency (AEE) in general isolated buildings. These buildings encompassed three distinct opening configurations (top–top, top–bottom, and bottom–top) and six varying slope angles for gable roofs (0°, 9°, 18°, 27°, 36°, and 45°). Computational simulations were carried out using the SST k-omega turbulence model, and validation was performed against experimental data supplied by the Japanese AIJ Wind Tunnel Laboratory. Grid independence validation was also conducted to ensure the reliability of the CFD simulation results. The study revealed that the highest AEE was 48.1%, achieved with the top–bottom opening configuration and a gable roof slope angle of 45°. Conversely, the lowest AEE was 31.4%, attained with the bottom–top opening configuration and a gable roof slope angle of 27°. Furthermore, it was observed that when the opening configuration was set to top–top and bottom–top, the slope angle of the gable roof had minimal influence on AEE, with an average AEE of only around 33%. When the opening configuration was top–bottom, it was found that there was a positive correlation between the gable roof slope angle and AEE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Climate and Energy Efficiency in Buildings)
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Review

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17 pages, 5914 KiB  
Review
Integrated Systems of Light Pipes in Buildings: A State-of-the-Art Review
by Yanpeng Wu, Meitong Jin, Mingxi Liu and Shaoxiong Li
Buildings 2024, 14(2), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14020425 - 4 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1080
Abstract
Artificial lighting comprises nearly one-third of the total electrical load of buildings, resulting in significant carbon emissions. Reducing the carbon emissions caused by artificial lighting is one of the ways to achieve low-carbon buildings. To meet the demand for high-efficiency, energy-saving, and comfortable [...] Read more.
Artificial lighting comprises nearly one-third of the total electrical load of buildings, resulting in significant carbon emissions. Reducing the carbon emissions caused by artificial lighting is one of the ways to achieve low-carbon buildings. To meet the demand for high-efficiency, energy-saving, and comfortable lighting, light pipes are increasingly used in buildings. This paper reviews the research and development of light pipes and integrated technology. Sky conditions as a dynamic factor always affect the performance of light pipes. The combination of light pipes and an artificial lighting system can effectively solve this problem. A light pipe can be integrated with a ventilation stack to achieve the ventilation and cooling or heating of a building. A lighting-heating coupled light guide can improve the energy efficiency and sustainability in buildings, such as where antimony tin oxide nanofluid is introduced to absorb additional heat and then provide domestic hot water. The application of a photocatalyst to light pipes can realize air purification and self-cleaning. The use of light pipes does not consume electricity and can reduce the time spent using artificial lighting, thus allowing for power savings. From a whole life cycle perspective, the use of light pipes can be a balance of cost and benefit. In conclusion, such information could be useful for engineers, researchers, and designers to assess the suitability of applying integrated light pipes in different building types and examine the potential of energy and cost savings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Climate and Energy Efficiency in Buildings)
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