Use of Post-processing Waste in Construction

A special issue of Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309). This special issue belongs to the section "Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2024) | Viewed by 2854

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Building Services, Hydro, and Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-664 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: hydro-structures; combustion by-products; hardening slurries; concrete durability; circular economy

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Building Services, Hydro, and Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-664 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: carbon footprint; circular economy; combustion by-products; hardening slurries; immobilisation and leaching of heavy metals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The rapid development of technology, infrastructure and construction creates a huge amount of post-processing waste. This type of waste is a by-product of certain economic processes, and is most often generated by the combustion of coal, biomass, sugar cane, municipal waste, sewage sludge or other materials. The reuse of post-process wastesin the wider construction industry, such as ashes and slags, is extremely difficult and costly due to specific physical and chemical properties. Given the need to protect natural resources, the principles of circular economy should be applied. Developing technologies to significantly reduce CO2 and the protection of natural resources is becoming a priority for many research teams around the world.

The aim of this Special Issue is to encourage scientists and researchers to publish experimental and theoretical findings on post-process waste management in building materials. A special emphasis will be placed on recent original research and industrial applications.

We invite you to submit your scientific achievements, especially interdisciplinary articles.

Do not hesitate to contact us if you have any questions about this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Paweł Falaciński
Dr. Łukasz Szarek
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Buildings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • post-processing waste
  • combustion by-products
  • fly ash
  • blast-furnace slag
  • ashes from biomass combustion
  • municipal waste incineration ash
  • solid waste
  • carbon footprint
  • green buildings
  • circular economy

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 3316 KiB  
Article
Geotechnical Properties of Washed Mineral Waste from Grit Chambers and Its Potential Use as Soil Backfill and Road Embankment Materials
by Jacek Kostrzewa, Paweł Popielski and Agnieszka Dąbska
Buildings 2024, 14(3), 766; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14030766 - 12 Mar 2024
Viewed by 610
Abstract
The current practice of managing washed mineral waste from grit chambers under national legislation focuses primarily on its disposal, generating high costs for wastewater treatment plants. Other ways are being sought to enable its use, especially as a by-product in the construction industry. [...] Read more.
The current practice of managing washed mineral waste from grit chambers under national legislation focuses primarily on its disposal, generating high costs for wastewater treatment plants. Other ways are being sought to enable its use, especially as a by-product in the construction industry. This paper presents the results of laboratory tests of the geotechnical, physical and mechanical parameters of washed mineral waste from grit chambers. Research samples were taken from the largest, in terms of maximum daily capacity, wastewater treatment plant “Czajka” in Poland. The washed mineral waste was characterized by organic matter content (0.36% by Tyurin’s method or 1.04% by the loss on ignition method), fraction content (sand fraction was at least 90%; it corresponds in grain size to uniform-grained medium sand), specific density of solids (2.55 g/cm3), dry density, void ratio and porosity corresponding to the state of the loosest and densest possible composition of soil grains and particles (1.54 g/cm3, 0.656, 0.396 and 1.87 g/cm3, 0.364, 0.267, respectively), sand equivalent (93), passive capillarity (0.20 m), maximum dry density (1.78 g/cm3), optimal moisture content (11.23%), degree of saturation after compaction (0.66) and permeability coefficient (6.22·103cm/s). The mechanical parameters determined included internal friction angle (35.5°) and apparent cohesion (14.27 kPa). The possibility of using washed mineral waste as soil for the backfill of installation trenches, abutments and retaining structures, as well as road embankment material, was evaluated considering current standards and legislation. It was found that the values of the determined parameters of washed mineral waste coincide with the values of the geotechnical parameters of sand, and there is a possibility of using this waste as a material in the indicated applications after fulfilling the appropriate conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Post-processing Waste in Construction)
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15 pages, 8028 KiB  
Article
Solidification Behavior of Heavy Metal Pb2+ for Spontaneous Combustion Coal Gangue-Based Geopolymers
by Fang Liu, Ran Tang, Baomin Wang and Jifei Yan
Buildings 2024, 14(2), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14020354 - 27 Jan 2024
Viewed by 542
Abstract
Spontaneous combustion coal gangue (SCCG) is considered to be an aluminosilicate-based solid waste containing various toxic ions. The alkali-activation method for this material can not only fully use its potential hydration activity but also solidify the hazardous components to some extent. Through introducing [...] Read more.
Spontaneous combustion coal gangue (SCCG) is considered to be an aluminosilicate-based solid waste containing various toxic ions. The alkali-activation method for this material can not only fully use its potential hydration activity but also solidify the hazardous components to some extent. Through introducing additional Pb2+, the solidification behavior of heavy metal Pb2+ for an SCCG-based geopolymer was studied in the present paper. The solidification efficiencies were evaluated by Pb2+ leaching rates under neutral and acidic conditions, while its mechanism was explained by the methods of XRD, TG, FT-IR, SEM, and MIP. The results show that the Pb2+ solidification efficiency increases along with the curing age, and acidic rather than neutral conditions lead to a more intensive solidification capacity. Judging by the permissive maximum value of 5 mg/L, the Pb2+ original concentrations under neutral and acidic circumstances should be lower at 2.0 wt.% and 3.0 wt.%, respectively. The Pb2+ absorption is dominated by the physical process, due to the formation of no new hydration products. However, the Pb2+ addition would interrupt the reconstruction of the Si-Al network structure, slowing the accumulation of N-A-S-H gel and the densifying of the matrix. When the Pb2+ concentration grows, the sizes of hydration productions shrink continuously, more defects appear in the microstructure of the geopolymer, and the pore structure deteriorates rapidly, all of which accelerate the diffusion of toxic ions to the external condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Post-processing Waste in Construction)
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12 pages, 7191 KiB  
Article
Utilization of Fly Ash from Lignite Combustion in Materials Sealing Hydro-Technical Structures
by Zbigniew Kledyński, Agnieszka Machowska and Paweł Falaciński
Buildings 2023, 13(10), 2589; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13102589 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 450
Abstract
In Poland, approximately 2 million hectares of agricultural land are at risk of flooding, which constitutes approximately 7% of the country’s area, half of which is protected by flood embankments. The total length of the embankments is approximately 8.5 thousand km. kilometers. The [...] Read more.
In Poland, approximately 2 million hectares of agricultural land are at risk of flooding, which constitutes approximately 7% of the country’s area, half of which is protected by flood embankments. The total length of the embankments is approximately 8.5 thousand km. kilometers. The age of the embankments and their related technical condition, as well as insufficient funds allocated for maintenance and renovation, mean that the flood risk in the areas protected by the embankments is higher than would result from the geometric parameters of the embankments and floods assumed for their design. The need to renovate embankments, including their sealing, causes an increase in interest in new technological and material solutions, and it is expected that these solutions will be pro-ecological: low-emission and consistent with the idea of a circular economy. The research was aimed at presenting the possibility of using fly ash from lignite combustion (low-rank coal) in Pątnów Power Plant, in raw form and fractions separated from it. The article presents the method of preparation and properties of hardening slurries containing mineral by-products of coal combustion. The tests showed the usefulness of the fly ashes used as the main component of hardening slurries. Additionally, a beneficial effect of the fine fraction (0–30 μm) of fly ash on the properties of the slurry, especially on tightness and hydraulic conductivity, was found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Post-processing Waste in Construction)
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16 pages, 4970 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Fly Ash from Sewage Sludge on the Concrete Carbonation Course
by Gabriela Rutkowska, Mariusz Żółtowski, Konstantin Rusakov, Katarzyna Pawluk, Joanna Andrzejak and Bogdan Żółtowski
Buildings 2023, 13(7), 1838; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13071838 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 742
Abstract
CO2 emission limits introduced by the European Union are encouraging works on new-generation materials with reduced clinker content. Currently, fumed silica from hard coal combustion is used in cement and concrete technology in Europe and Poland. Its wide application depends mainly on [...] Read more.
CO2 emission limits introduced by the European Union are encouraging works on new-generation materials with reduced clinker content. Currently, fumed silica from hard coal combustion is used in cement and concrete technology in Europe and Poland. Its wide application depends mainly on its chemical and phase composition, especially the reactivity of pozzolanic acids and its high fineness similar to cement Many authors studied the influence of fly ashes from hard coal combustion, in accordance with PN-EN 450-1 and 450-2, on the properties of concrete, including the course of the carbonation process. There are no studies in the literature involving ashes from sewage sludge. The objective of the research is to assess the course of carbonation of concrete produced on the basis of fly ash from the thermal transformation of sewage sludge over time and to describe this phenomenon in a mathematical form. An additional objective was to analyze the physicochemical composition of sludge ash in accordance with the requirements of EN 450-1, ASTM-C618-03. In addition, this study also demonstrated the possibility of producing fly ash-modified standard concrete through the thermal treatment of sewage sludge. The average compressive strengths of Krakow gray concrete after curing for 28, 56, 90, and 365 days were 50.1 MPa, 50.6 MPa, 50.8 MPa, and 61.9 MPa, respectively. On the one hand, the additives introduced in the concrete mixture accelerate the carbonation process by shifting the carbonation front deep into the concrete and, on the other hand, create a denser microstructure In all cases, the largest increase in carbonation depth was observed up to the 56th day of the study, while the smallest increase was observed between 90 and 180 days. The diffusivity decreases and the rate of carbonation is reduced. The determined regression coefficients of hyperbolic models indicate the proper adjustment of the adopted hyperbolic model to the results of laboratory tests under accelerated carbonation conditions (R = 0.85–0.99), regardless of the content of fly ash from sewage sludge in ordinary concrete samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Post-processing Waste in Construction)
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