Engineering Problems and Legal Challenges in Urban and Rural Low-Carbon Development

A special issue of Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309). This special issue belongs to the section "Architectural Design, Urban Science, and Real Estate".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2024 | Viewed by 4239

Special Issue Editors

School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China
Interests: building facade design; indoor and outdoor thermal comfort; energy-saving renovation of residential buildings; aging-friendly renovation of residential buildings; BIPV and BAPV; electrical and thermal characteristics of thin film photovoltaic materials

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Guest Editor
School of Mechanics, Civil Engineering and Architecture, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China
Interests: urban heat island; green buildings; urban planning and sustainable development; urban environmental simulation; district energy conservation

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Guest Editor
College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi'an 710021, China
Interests: carbon emissions; comprehensive evaluation; smart grid; energy planning; LMDI decomposition method; park cooling island
Innovation for Sustainable Maritime Architecture Research and Technology, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266033, China
Interests: building simulation; trombe wall; DC fan; building renovation

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China
Interests: urban heat island; urban planning and sustainable development; urban environmental simulation; urban big data collection; building information management; city information modeling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Urban and rural renewal is a necessary supplement to the development of high-speed urbanization. Rapid development will lead to a large number of problems such as overproduction, energy waste, and unbalanced resource allocation. These problems will reduce people's quality of life and the sustainability of future development. Discussing more new low-carbon building technologies in urban and rural renewal can effectively solve the conflict between people's increasing demand for quality of life and high energy consumption. At the same time, we also have to face up to the imbalance between urban and rural development. Although regional economic development is different, people in different regions have the right to equal healthy living environments.

This Special Issue on " Engineering Problems and Legal Challenges in Urban and Rural Low-carbon Development" aims to compile state-of-the-art knowledge on this matter. Submissions may concern theoretical or applied research in areas such as facade technology, engineering, PV systems and their structural applications, legal issues in urban and rural renewal, or other fields related to the demand for urban and rural renewal. Theoretical and experimental work in the form of research articles, case studies, and comprehensive reviews are suitable for publication.

The Special Issue covers topics including, but not limited to:

  • Eco-friendly and green facade design;
  • Low-carbon design;
  • Sustainable materials;
  • Building-integrated photovoltaics;
  • Building-attached photovoltaics;
  • The economy of renovation;
  • Low-carbon renovation;
  • The fairness of development.

Dr. Yujun Yang
Dr. Zongzhou Zhu
Dr. Yao Zhang
Dr. Tao Zhang
Dr. Duo Xu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Buildings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • eco-friendly and green facade design
  • low-carbon design
  • sustainable materials
  • building-integrated photovoltaic
  • building-attached photovoltaic
  • economy of renovation
  • low-carbon renovation
  • fairness of development.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

26 pages, 2165 KiB  
Article
Research on Planning Strategy for Urban Community Living Environment for the Elderly That Promotes “Living Mutual Aid”
by Tianye Liu, Chendi Zhu, Dian Zhou and Yupeng Wang
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1575; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061575 - 29 May 2024
Viewed by 61
Abstract
With the development of urban population aging in China, enhancing the quality of community living environments for the elderly has become crucial. Traditional residential planning focused on functionality, neglecting the elderly’s active participation and mutual aid needs. This paper proposes the development of [...] Read more.
With the development of urban population aging in China, enhancing the quality of community living environments for the elderly has become crucial. Traditional residential planning focused on functionality, neglecting the elderly’s active participation and mutual aid needs. This paper proposes the development of urban community environments promoting “living mutual aid” to improve elderly life quality and practice active aging. Using qualitative and quantitative methods, the study identifies key components of mutual aid, explores the relationship between mutual aid behaviors and spatial composition, and outlines strategies for designing community environments that support mutual aid. Based on “active aging” theory, the study qualitatively summarizes the concept of mutual aid among the elderly through literature and policy analysis. Surveys, interviews, and observations in Xi’an’s typical communities were conducted, with results analyzed using factor and frequency analysis. The study categorizes mutual aid activities and behavior characteristics, and explores the relationship between behavior and spatial needs using environmental behavior theory. It identifies mutual aid space units and suggests types, paths, strategies, and methods for integrating these units into community environments. The findings provide scientific guidance for urban community planning and valuable references for creating elderly-friendly urban habitats. Full article
22 pages, 2564 KiB  
Article
Research on the Energy Consumption Influence Mechanism and Prediction for the Early Design Stage of University Public Teaching Buildings in Beijing
by Jing Wang, Zongzhou Zhu, Jiacheng Zhao, Xinqi Li, Jingyan Liu and Yujun Yang
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1358; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051358 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 387
Abstract
The public teaching buildings of universities have a large flow of people, high lighting requirements, and large energy consumption, which present significant potential for energy saving. The greatest opportunity for integrating “green” architectural design strategies lies in the design phase, especially the early [...] Read more.
The public teaching buildings of universities have a large flow of people, high lighting requirements, and large energy consumption, which present significant potential for energy saving. The greatest opportunity for integrating “green” architectural design strategies lies in the design phase, especially the early stage of architectural design. However, current designers often rely on experience or qualitative judgment for decision-making. Thus, there is a pressing need for rational and quantitative green architectural design theories and techniques to guide and support decision-making for the design parameters of teaching buildings. This study, based on field surveys of 40 teaching buildings, constructs building archetypes regarding energy consumption including 28 typical values. Based on the “Rectangle”, “L”, “U”, and “Courtyard” archetypes, through batch energy consumption simulation and multiple regression methods, the influence mechanisms of nine energy consumption influencing factors on four types of building energy consumptions were explored, and energy consumption prediction models were derived. The findings of this research can serve as factor evaluation and selection in the early stage of architectural design for public teaching buildings at universities, and the prediction model can assist in the early estimation of energy consumption. This aims to enrich and supplement green architectural design methods by supporting the design of green public teaching buildings and providing reference and application for relevant engineering practices. Full article
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23 pages, 6836 KiB  
Article
Numerical Study of Air Distribution and Thermal Environment in Attached Ventilation Mode in the Generator Layer of a Hydropower Station
by Tong Ren, Mengzhuo Li, Long He and Panpan Sun
Buildings 2024, 14(4), 1030; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14041030 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 755
Abstract
Because they are in enclosed underground buildings, the generator layers of hydropower stations have limited ventilation. In order to reduce the influence of a hot and humid environment on equipment and staff health and create a good thermal environment with good air quality [...] Read more.
Because they are in enclosed underground buildings, the generator layers of hydropower stations have limited ventilation. In order to reduce the influence of a hot and humid environment on equipment and staff health and create a good thermal environment with good air quality for underground buildings, in this paper, vertical wall-attached ventilation was combined with the generator layer of a hydropower station to replace traditional ventilation. The influence of air supply velocity, air supply outlet position, and the opening mode of the generator layer on indoor velocity and temperature field distribution were analyzed via numerical simulation, and the evaluation indices of different cases were also compared. In the single-sided vertical wall-attached ventilation mode, when the velocity was increased from 4 m/s to 8 m/s, the maximum increment in the energy utilization coefficient was 41%, and the maximum reduction in the velocity non-uniformity coefficient was 9.5%. The results show that the single-sided mode can offer a higher ventilation efficiency than the double-sided mode, with a higher energy efficiency and a more uniform air distribution. Based on the mean temperature and velocity, and the key evaluation indices (head-foot temperature difference, percentage of dissatisfaction, non-uniformity coefficient, energy utilization coefficient, and air diffusion performance index), it is suggested that the single-sided air supply mode should be adopted for this kind of tall building, with an air supply velocity of v = 6 m/s and two open air supply outlets at each interval. Full article
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24 pages, 8532 KiB  
Article
Improvement of Human Comfort in Rural Cave Dwellings via Sunrooms in Cold Regions of China
by Yujun Yang, Kaixu Wang, Dian Zhou, Yupeng Wang, Qian Zhang and Duo Xu
Buildings 2024, 14(3), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14030734 - 8 Mar 2024
Viewed by 562
Abstract
Economic development limits the living quality of rural residents. In particular, the residential buildings in northern China generally have poor thermal comfort in winter, which affects the physical and mental health of residents. Because of the separation of rooms, residents who live in [...] Read more.
Economic development limits the living quality of rural residents. In particular, the residential buildings in northern China generally have poor thermal comfort in winter, which affects the physical and mental health of residents. Because of the separation of rooms, residents who live in cave dwellings often have to enter and leave rooms in the course of their daily lives, which leads to worse thermal feelings in winter. Because of the low price and the wind insulation and heat storage, sunrooms are widely used in renovations of rural houses. The traditional purpose of the addition of a sunroom is to provide a buffer room between outdoor and indoor spaces. This manuscript focuses on improving the degree of thermal comfort by means of a sunroom connecting all rooms. This study selected two families with the same number of members and similar daily activities as the study cases. One of the families had a sunroom built to connect its bedroom, living room, and washroom. The household’s air temperature and human comfort were measured both on holidays and on workdays. It is demonstrated that adding a sunroom can significantly stabilize the thermal environment and increase the air temperature in both the bedroom and the living room. Adding a sunroom can increase the air temperature of a cave dwelling’s main room by 1.0 °C on workdays and 4.3 °C on holidays. A cave dwelling with a sunroom can also provide residents with a decent level of human comfort for 24.4% of their daily time on workdays and 39.1% of the time during holidays. This research demonstrates that a sunroom can not only increase the air temperature in cave dwellings but also enhance the stability of human comfort. The conclusion provides new renovation ideas for improving the living comfort of cave dwellings. Full article
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21 pages, 12671 KiB  
Article
Microclimate-Adaptive Morphological Parametric Design of Streets and Alleys in Traditional Villages
by Yufei Lyu, Lei Zhang, Xin Liu and Xuan Ma
Buildings 2024, 14(1), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14010152 - 8 Jan 2024
Viewed by 769
Abstract
Microclimate is a reflection of the climatic conditions within the scope of human daily activities, so it is closely related to human activities. This paper uses Qingshui Village in Hancheng as the research object and the purpose of this paper was to study [...] Read more.
Microclimate is a reflection of the climatic conditions within the scope of human daily activities, so it is closely related to human activities. This paper uses Qingshui Village in Hancheng as the research object and the purpose of this paper was to study the influence mechanism of the traditional street spatial form on microclimate and thermal comfort, emphasizing the use of parameterized design platforms in technical methods to construct performance simulations and obtain relatively optimal solutions that are suitable for the spatial form of rural streets and alleys in the region. We select the Universal Thermal Climate Evaluation Index (UTCI) as the evaluation index for microclimate comfort and construct a performance-driven automatic optimization method for street and alley spaces. The results showed that: (1) When the street is in the northeast-southwest direction, the width is taken in the range of 6.5 m–7.3 m, the height of the building on the north side of the street is about 6.0 m, and the height of the building on the south side of the street is about 5.7 m, the comfort rate can reach up to 33.8%. (2) As for street and alley intersections, the focus remains on retaining their original forms while primarily controlling the scale changes. Within streets, the height of the building in the east-west direction is controlled at 5.6 m–6.1 m, the building in the north-south direction is controlled at 7 m–7.4 m, and street widths are controlled between 5.4 m and 6.3 m, resulting in a comfort level of 32.0%; (3) In alleys, east-west building heights are kept between 4.2 m and 5.5 m, and north-south building heights range from 4.5 m to 5.3 m, with widths at around 4.5 m, resulting in a similar comfort level of 32.0%. The research outcomes offer a scientific foundation for the design, creation, and enhancement of the physical environment of local village streets and alleys. Full article
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19 pages, 3461 KiB  
Article
Local Climate Zone in Xi’an City: A Novel Classification Approach Employing Spatial Indicators and Supervised Classification
by Duo Xu, Qian Zhang, Dian Zhou, Yujun Yang, Yiquan Wang and Alessandro Rogora
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2806; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112806 - 9 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 995
Abstract
The Local Climate Zone (LCZ), as a foundational element of urban climate zone classification proposed by Oke and Stewart, categorizes urban surface types based on 10 influential parameters affecting the urban heat island effect, such as building density, surface reflectivity, sky view factor, [...] Read more.
The Local Climate Zone (LCZ), as a foundational element of urban climate zone classification proposed by Oke and Stewart, categorizes urban surface types based on 10 influential parameters affecting the urban heat island effect, such as building density, surface reflectivity, sky view factor, and surface roughness length. This method divides cities into 17 different Local Climate Zones (LCZs) to standardize climate observations and promote global climate research exchange, offering valuable insights for heat island studies. In this study, we enhance the existing local climate zones spatial classification approach by focusing on Xi’an city’s urban layout and architectural features. By using urban spatial indicators and employing a supervised classification approach and a spatial clustering method with land parcels as statistical units, we investigate typical urban areas and classify Xi’an’s land parcels into 17 or 15 distinct local climate zones. Subsequently, through the evaluation of two distinct classification methods, the most suitable urban microclimate zoning method for Xi’an city was selected. This optimization of the local climate zoning representation introduces a spatial classification method tailored to urban climate planning and control, utilizing urban spatial indicators and remote sensing data. The resulting urban climate zoning map not only supports sample selection for urban heat environment parameter observation but also aids urban planners in identifying spatial distribution patterns for climate zoning. Full article
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