Dynamic Response of Structures

A special issue of Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309). This special issue belongs to the section "Building Structures".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 October 2024 | Viewed by 33836

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Key Lab of Structures Dynamic Behavior and Control, Harbin Institute of Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150090, China
Interests: structural fire engineering; fire safety design; dynamic performance of reactive powder concrete; blast resistance design
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Key Lab of Structures Dynamic Behavior and Control, Harbin Institute of Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150090, China
Interests: reinforced concrete structures; structural analysis; prestressed concrete structures

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Guest Editor
School of Civil Engineering, Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin 123000, China
Interests: reinforced concrete structures; underground blasting engineering

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Guest Editor
School of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401, China
Interests: structural analysis; structural dynamics; finite element analysis; dynamic analysis; nonlinear analysis; dynamics; mechanics of materials; finite element modeling; numerical analysis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Structures are threatened by dynamic loading due to blasts, vibrations and earthquakes. Regarding the safety of buildings and properties, it is necessary to research the dynamic response of structures. Predictive systems of ground vibration are operated with the aim of protecting the surrounding urban communities. However, it is not enough to obtain the propagation of ground vibration, blast and seismic wave under different disasters; the damage of buildings under dynamic loading should be analyzed.

This Special Issue aims to gather innovative research and development in dynamic response of structures to improve the capability of disaster prevention and mitigation of buildings. The scope of this issue covers original research and review studies, including (but not limited to):

  • Dynamic response of structures;
  • Measurement, spectral analysis, and energy distribution of ground vibration;
  • Attenuation law of blasting-induced vibration and seismic wave;
  • Artificial intelligence for predicting ground vibration and blast;
  • Vibration absorption measures designing;
  • Seismic vulnerability analysis of structures;
  • Damage of structures evaluating.

Prof. Dr. Xiaomeng Hou
Prof. Dr. Wenzhong Zheng
Prof. Dr. Honglu Fei
Dr. Shaojun Cao
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • dynamic response of structures
  • measurement, spectral analysis, and energy distribution of ground vibration
  • attenuation law of blasting-induced vibration and seismic wave
  • artificial intelligence for predicting ground vibration and blast
  • vibration absorption measures designing
  • seismic vulnerability analysis of structures
  • damage of structures evaluating

Published Papers (20 papers)

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Research

23 pages, 13554 KiB  
Article
Research on the Crushing of Reinforced Concrete Two-Way Slabs by Pulse Power Discharge Technology
by Xinxin Lin, Fei Yang, Youwei Liu and Yang Yang
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1222; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051222 - 25 Apr 2024
Viewed by 428
Abstract
The application of pulse power discharge (PPD) technology in the crushing and dismantling of concrete structures has characteristics related to both green and environmental protection, as well as safety and reliability, with broad application prospects in the construction and municipal engineering fields in [...] Read more.
The application of pulse power discharge (PPD) technology in the crushing and dismantling of concrete structures has characteristics related to both green and environmental protection, as well as safety and reliability, with broad application prospects in the construction and municipal engineering fields in dense urban areas. Nevertheless, the research into using this technology to break reinforced concrete (RC) slabs is very limited, while the influence of key parameters on the crushing effect of reinforced concrete slabs is not clear. To solve this problem, a finite element model of an RC slab was established by ABAQUS. The effect of a shock wave generated by PPD on the surrounding concrete was simulated by an explosion-load equivalent, and the development process of concrete crack was simulated by a cohesive force model. Based on the results of the model analysis, the effects of reinforcement spacing, as well as diameter and concrete strength on the crushing effect of RC slabs were investigated. The results show that the increase in reinforcement diameter and the decrease in reinforcement spacing have a significant effect on limiting the development of cracks. According to the development of cracks, they can be divided into three types: edge cracks, cracks between central holes, and cracks between edge holes. The influence of reinforcement spacing and diameter on the first two crack widths is the most obvious. The increase in concrete strength also reduces the width of cracks. Based on the analysis results, the calculation expressions of the crushing effect of the PPD technique on RC slabs were established, which provides theoretical support for the popularization and application of this technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Response of Structures)
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22 pages, 6946 KiB  
Article
Human-Induced Vibration Control of Floor Structures Using MTMD System Optimized by MATLAB-SAP2000 Interface
by Quanwu Zhang, Weixing Shi and Yanze Wang
Buildings 2024, 14(2), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14020308 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 676
Abstract
Under human-induced excitations, a floor structure may suffer excessive vibrations due to its large span and low damping ratio. Vertical vibrations, in particular, can become intolerable during resonance events. A tuned mass damper (TMD) is a widely used single-degree-of-freedom dynamic vibration absorber. To [...] Read more.
Under human-induced excitations, a floor structure may suffer excessive vibrations due to its large span and low damping ratio. Vertical vibrations, in particular, can become intolerable during resonance events. A tuned mass damper (TMD) is a widely used single-degree-of-freedom dynamic vibration absorber. To enhance the serviceability of a floor structure, a multiple TMD (MTMD) system finds broad application. The parameters of the MTMD must be carefully designed to achieve satisfactory performance. However, existing studies often employ a simplified model of the floor structure with closely spaced modes to optimize the parameters of MTMD. Nonetheless, an oversimplified floor model can lead to a reduction in its control effect. To solve this problem, this study utilizes the OAPI facility of SAP2000 to build a connection with MATLAB. A multi-objective optimization algorithm based on the artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA) for MTMD is developed in MATLAB, while the finite element model of a real floor structure is built in SAP2000. The locations of the MTMD system are initially specified in SAP2000 and, through the proposed MATLAB–SAP2000 interface, data can be exchanged between them. Based on the structural dynamic responses to external excitations in SAP2000, the optimization process for the MTMD is carried out in MATLAB. Concurrently, the parameters of the MTMD in SAP2000 are iteratively adjusted until they reach their final optimal values. To underscore the enhancements brought about by the proposed interface and optimization method, a comparative case study is conducted. A group of MTMDs, optimized using a conventional method, is presented for reference. The numerical results indicate that, overall, the proposed MTMD system exhibits superior control effectiveness and robustness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Response of Structures)
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19 pages, 10469 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on the Impact Resistance of Polymer-Modified Steel Fiber-Reinforced Recycled Aggregate Concrete
by Dongtao Xia, Yu Wang and Kangning Ren
Buildings 2023, 13(12), 2965; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13122965 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 883
Abstract
Recycled aggregate concrete (RAC), composed of aggregates sourced from construction solid waste, has garnered significant attention owing to its notable environmental friendliness. In this study, waterborne epoxy resin (WER) and steel fibers (SFs) were introduced into the RAC to enhance its performance. Orthogonal [...] Read more.
Recycled aggregate concrete (RAC), composed of aggregates sourced from construction solid waste, has garnered significant attention owing to its notable environmental friendliness. In this study, waterborne epoxy resin (WER) and steel fibers (SFs) were introduced into the RAC to enhance its performance. Orthogonal tests were meticulously designed, with the substitution rate of recycled aggregate (RA), SF dosage and WER dosage as variable factors, to comprehensively analyze the splitting tensile strength and impact resistance of concrete. The impact resistance of concrete was investigated via the drop weight test method. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to scrutinize the microstructure of concrete, investigating the modification mechanism of WER. The results indicated that the addition of SFs exerted the most pronounced influence on the properties of RAC. As the addition of SFs increased from 0 to 1.0%, there were significant enhancements in the splitting tensile strength and impact energy of the specimens. WER exhibited notable improvements, primarily on the splitting tensile strength, while demonstrating an adverse effect on the impact resistance. Utilizing the Weibull distribution theory, the results of the impact tests were fitted and analyzed to predict the impact life of different mixtures. The predicted results showed high correlations with the measured values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Response of Structures)
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33 pages, 7770 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Response Analysis of a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Reinforced Viaduct under Full Scale Moving Maglev Train Load
by Ishola Valere Loic Chango, Jun Chen and Ziping Han
Buildings 2023, 13(12), 2899; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13122899 - 21 Nov 2023
Viewed by 783
Abstract
Fiber-reinforced polymers (FRPs) are widely utilized in the construction of bridges all over the world and are thought to be a potential alternative to steel reinforcement, particularly in concrete structures exposed to harsh conditions or the effects of electromagnetic fields. Although some FRP [...] Read more.
Fiber-reinforced polymers (FRPs) are widely utilized in the construction of bridges all over the world and are thought to be a potential alternative to steel reinforcement, particularly in concrete structures exposed to harsh conditions or the effects of electromagnetic fields. Although some FRP bridges have already been put into service and others are still being built, there is ongoing discussion in the civil engineering community over the efficacy of FRPs in substituting steel in vibration-prone bridge parts. This study adopts finite element modeling based on numerical and analytical approaches to investigate the dynamic behavior of the viaduct during maglev train operation when the steel-reinforced girder concrete is replaced by FRP-reinforced girder concrete. In this way, a realistic coupled maglev train–viaduct system is developed and validated by comparative analysis with data from field experiments. Then, an investigation of the viaduct dynamic behavior when the girder is reinforced with polyacrylic nitrile carbon FRP or S-glass FRP reveals that system displacement is governed by viaduct stiffness, whereas acceleration is governed by structure weight. Nonetheless, the dynamic load frequency has a considerable impact on the efficacy of FRP as viaduct concrete reinforcement, which has been demonstrated to be effective at particular train speeds dependent on the structure’s natural frequency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Response of Structures)
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16 pages, 12683 KiB  
Article
The Application of the Underwater Repair of Concrete Lining Slabs in the South-to-North Water Diversion Project
by Qin Rong, Yang Bai, Xu Wang and Xiaomeng Hou
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2815; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112815 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 906
Abstract
The cracking of concrete linings in the channel of the Yuzhou section of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in Henan Province poses a threat to the structural safety of the project and the water quality environment. To solve this problem, the mixing ratio [...] Read more.
The cracking of concrete linings in the channel of the Yuzhou section of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in Henan Province poses a threat to the structural safety of the project and the water quality environment. To solve this problem, the mixing ratio of non-dispersible underwater concrete (NUC) was optimized, the bond strength of new and old concrete was measured, and an underwater repair methodology of the linings was proposed using NUC. The results showed that adding 2.5% of UWB-Ⅱ-type anti-dispersant resulted in NUC with a 28-day underwater compressive strength of 25.1 MPa and a strength ratio of 0.9 between land and water. The effects of water–cement ratio, anti-dispersant dosage, and fly ash dosage on the performance of the NUC were revealed through experiments, and the mix ratio of NUC was optimized. Bond strength measurement at the interface between the NUC and old concrete was tested using the straight shear test. The test results showed that the bond strength between non-dispersible concrete and ordinary concrete was higher than that between ordinary concrete of the same strength grade. Through an analysis of the ionic composition of the water, it was verified that the NUC did not affect the water quality. Therefore, NUC can provide a reference for the underwater repair of the lining panel of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Response of Structures)
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20 pages, 6675 KiB  
Article
Simulation Analysis of the Fracture of Reinforcement Concrete Columns Using High-Voltage Pulse Discharge
by Xiaodong Wang, Yixuan Sun and Miao Wang
Buildings 2023, 13(9), 2200; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13092200 - 29 Aug 2023
Viewed by 630
Abstract
High-voltage pulse discharge (HVPD) in liquid technology, when applied to the demolition of concrete structures, has the advantages of green environmental protection, saving energy, emission reduction, safety, reliability, etc. However, research on the influence law of various factors on the effect of crushing [...] Read more.
High-voltage pulse discharge (HVPD) in liquid technology, when applied to the demolition of concrete structures, has the advantages of green environmental protection, saving energy, emission reduction, safety, reliability, etc. However, research on the influence law of various factors on the effect of crushing is still insufficient. Therefore, this manuscript equated the shock load caused by HVPD to the blasting load and introduced a cohesive zone model based on ABAQUS. The whole process of a concrete column being subjected to a shock wave generated by pulse power discharge was simulated and analyzed. To validate the model’s reasonableness, a comparison and analysis were conducted with the results of experimental studies on concrete column fractures caused by HVPD in liquid. The study further investigated the influence of three parameters—one-side longitudinal reinforcement ratio, volume hoop ratio, and concrete grade strength—on the degree of fracture of the concrete column with a single row of holes (i.e., the width of transverse cracks or longitudinal cracks around the drilled holes). The simulation results revealed that the width of transverse cracks decreases significantly with the increase in the one-side longitudinal reinforcement ratio of the column, while the width of longitudinal cracks decreases substantially with the increase in the volume hoop ratio of the column. In addition, the degree of fracture of concrete columns decreases slightly with the increase in the concrete grade strength. Based on the simulation results, the mathematical expressions between the crack widths (transverse crack width and longitudinal crack width) and the key parameters, such as the one-side longitudinal reinforcement ratio of the column, volume hoop ratio of the column, and concrete grade strength, were established, respectively. These expressions facilitate their practical application in engineering practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Response of Structures)
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22 pages, 10629 KiB  
Article
Study on Impact Resistance of All-Lightweight Concrete Columns Based on Steel Fiber Reinforced and Various Axial Compression Ratio
by Xiuli Wang, Qinyuan Wu, Zhenguo Gao and Lirong Sha
Buildings 2023, 13(8), 2076; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13082076 - 16 Aug 2023
Viewed by 855
Abstract
Concrete columns in service are exposed to threats such as accidental impacts and explosions, which pose potential risks to the safety of buildings. Although fully lightweight concrete elements prepared from non-sintered fly ash ceramic pellets and pottery sand are widely used in engineering [...] Read more.
Concrete columns in service are exposed to threats such as accidental impacts and explosions, which pose potential risks to the safety of buildings. Although fully lightweight concrete elements prepared from non-sintered fly ash ceramic pellets and pottery sand are widely used in engineering practice, the dynamic response of such elements under impact loading is not supported by adequate research data. Therefore, in this study, the dynamic response of all-lightweight concrete columns under impact loading with different axial compression ratios (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3) was investigated by means of drop hammer impact tests, and the potential of shear wave steel fibers in mitigating structural damage and preventing structural failure was investigated. The results of the study reveal that the specimens primarily exhibit shear and bending damage under impact loading. With an axial compression ratio of 0.1, the specimen is dominated by bending damage. As the axial compression ratio increases from 0.1 to 0.3, the specimen’s damage mode transitions to shear damage dominance. This change results in a larger impact force and displacement response while experiencing lower displacement acceleration. Additionally, the introduction of steel fibers improves the strength and stiffness of the specimens, shifting their behavior from shear to bending damage. Consequently, this reduces impact damage, mid-span displacement, and displacement acceleration while enhancing the specimen’s response to the impact force and its capacity for deformation energy dissipation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Response of Structures)
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30 pages, 28162 KiB  
Article
Integrated Modeling of Minerva Medica to Identify the Dynamic Effects of Rail-Traffic Vibrations
by Silvia Santini, Valerio Sabbatini, Claudio Sebastiani and Carlo Baggio
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1308; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051308 - 17 May 2023
Viewed by 1200
Abstract
A comprehensive study was carried out to integrate information from different sources and evaluate the effects of induced vibrations on a temple. Historical analysis was fundamental to interpreting the evolution of the construction and defining the HBIM. Experimental data were implemented in the [...] Read more.
A comprehensive study was carried out to integrate information from different sources and evaluate the effects of induced vibrations on a temple. Historical analysis was fundamental to interpreting the evolution of the construction and defining the HBIM. Experimental data were implemented in the FEM of the site, including the temple, its foundations, and the soil stratifications. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to identify the most influential parameters, which were calibrated to reduce error with the experimental frequencies. The FEM was further optimized with the Douglas–Reid method, considering, simultaneously, modal frequencies and deformations. Two different nonlinear dynamic analyses were performed; one analysis studied the effect on the temple of the dynamically moving load of the tram, and the other analysis studied the response of the temple to three-dimensional accelerations applied at the base. The drawbacks of each simulation were identified by comparing the numerical and experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Response of Structures)
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18 pages, 4530 KiB  
Article
Characteristics and Energy Distribution of Blast-Induced Ground Vibration in Deep-Hole Blasting
by Shijie Bao, Honglu Fei and Gang Hu
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 899; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13040899 - 29 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1379
Abstract
This study proposes an incremental extreme extraction method based on the waveform characteristics of ground vibration signals obtained from open-pit mines to investigate the distribution and characteristics of ground vibration from deep-hole blasting. Firstly, an incremental extreme extraction method is proposed based on [...] Read more.
This study proposes an incremental extreme extraction method based on the waveform characteristics of ground vibration signals obtained from open-pit mines to investigate the distribution and characteristics of ground vibration from deep-hole blasting. Firstly, an incremental extreme extraction method is proposed based on the waveform characteristics of borehole blasting vibration signals in open-pit mines. The proposed method could extract and screen the extreme values of blasting vibration signals and effectively improve the utilization rate of the data. The space vector of particle vibration is introduced to analyze the angle change between the particle velocity vector and the ground surface when the extreme value increases. Finally, the relation between the particle velocity vector and the angle between the ground plane and the increasing extremum position of several sets of measured signals is studied. Based on the statistical analysis, the results show that the particle velocity in the vertical direction has a significant advantage over that of the other two directions, and the angle between the extreme particle velocity vector direction and the ground plane is primarily distributed in the range of 60°~90°. After an unstable distribution of particle velocities in the transition zone, the particle velocities in each direction gradually attain a relatively balanced and stable attenuation condition as the distance increases. This proves the reliability of the proposed vector analysis of particle velocity in understanding the mechanism of rock blasting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Response of Structures)
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16 pages, 9758 KiB  
Article
Damage Analysis of Box Girder Based on a Vehicle–Bridge Interaction System
by Bin Zhou, Yingxin Hui and Xiaobo Zheng
Buildings 2023, 13(2), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13020547 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1569
Abstract
This study proposes a stress analysis method of reinforced concrete (RC) box girder based on damage to reveal the dynamic mechanical response and damage mechanisms of a bridge under moving vehicle load. The effect of different vehicle mass, speed, concrete strength, and longitudinal [...] Read more.
This study proposes a stress analysis method of reinforced concrete (RC) box girder based on damage to reveal the dynamic mechanical response and damage mechanisms of a bridge under moving vehicle load. The effect of different vehicle mass, speed, concrete strength, and longitudinal reinforcement ratio on the stress of a single box girder is investigated using solid finite element vehicle–bridge interaction dynamic elastic–plastic analysis (a total of 13 kinds of loading schemes) that is based on the Newmark algorithms of a numerical analysis model of a five-axle vehicle and road roughness. The results reveal that the damage status of the RC box girder strongly depends on the vehicle mass and speed. The damage region of the box girder gradually increases, and changes from flexural damage to flexural-shear damage, which fails rapidly as the vehicle mass increases from 10 t to 60 t. With an increase in vehicle speed, the maximum vertical vibration displacement and the maximum longitudinal stress of the steel bar increase nonlinearly and the damage of the box girder first increases and then decreases. The most severe damage occurs at the vehicle speed of 25 m/s for all vehicle masses. As a result, limiting speed below 25 m/s under the vehicle mass (10 t to 60 t) and increasing concrete strength and reinforcement ratio in a certain range could reduce the damage status of a bridge effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Response of Structures)
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25 pages, 8997 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Behavior of Special-Shaped Reinforced Concrete Composite Columns Encased with GFRP Core Columns
by Jing Ji, Jiaqi Li, Liangqin Jiang, Hongguo Ren, Qingqin Wang, Xue Wang, Lingjie He and Zhanbin Zhang
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 1895; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12111895 - 5 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1457
Abstract
In order to investigate the mechanical behavior of special-shaped reinforced concrete composite columns encased with GFRP core columns (EGCSSCs) subjected to axial load, twenty-seven full-scale EGCSSCs were designed with varying parameters: axial compressive strength of core concrete (fcc), axial compressive [...] Read more.
In order to investigate the mechanical behavior of special-shaped reinforced concrete composite columns encased with GFRP core columns (EGCSSCs) subjected to axial load, twenty-seven full-scale EGCSSCs were designed with varying parameters: axial compressive strength of core concrete (fcc), axial compressive strength of peripheral concrete (fco), thickness of GFRP tube (tgfrp), ratio of longitudinal reinforcement (ρv), stirrup ratio (ρs) and GFRP ratio in the cross-section (α). The three-dimensional finite element refined models of EGCSSCs were established by ABAQUS finite element software, and the response of EGCSSCs under axial load was studied based on the verification of finite element modeling. The influence of different parameters on the ultimate axial compressive strength (Nus), initial stiffness (K), and ductility index (µ) of EGCSSCs was obtained, and the typical failure mode of EGCSSCs was clearly described. The results showed that the main failure mode of the EGCSSCs subjected to axial load was bulging outward at the middle of the EGCSSCs, showed yielding of the longitudinal steel bars, and was crushing both ends of the peripheral concrete. When the column was damaged, the peripheral concrete reached peak stress earlier than the core concrete. All specimens exhibited excellent load-carrying capacity and good ductility. Moreover, with the existence of GFRP core columns, the Nus and µ of the columns were increased by 11.61% and 140.86%. In addition, K increased with the increase in fcc, fco, tgfrp and α, and the largest increments were 23.99%, 50.54%, 21.77%, and 34.19%, respectively. µ decreased with the increase in fcc and fco, which decreased by 14.05% and 40.28%, respectively. By using statistical regression and introducing the constraint effect coefficients and the reduction coefficient, the calculation formula for the axial compression-bearing capacity of EGCSSCs was derived, which could lay a foundation for the popularization and application of this kind of composite column in practical engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Response of Structures)
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19 pages, 6081 KiB  
Article
Seismic Vulnerability Analysis of Masonry Structures Built with Disassembled Brick Wall Sections
by Zhiming Su, Wenzhong Zheng, Ying Wang and Xiaomeng Hou
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 1831; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12111831 - 1 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2770
Abstract
Disassembling brick wall pieces into brick wall sections and constructing masonry buildings with disassembled brick wall sections (DBWSs) can reduce construction waste production at source and help achieve carbon peak and carbon neutrality. A finite element model (FEM) for typical MSBD is established [...] Read more.
Disassembling brick wall pieces into brick wall sections and constructing masonry buildings with disassembled brick wall sections (DBWSs) can reduce construction waste production at source and help achieve carbon peak and carbon neutrality. A finite element model (FEM) for typical MSBD is established based on the calibrated finite element analysis method to evaluate the seismic performance of masonry structures built with disassembled brick wall sections (MSBD). Subsequently, the peak ground acceleration is selected as the ground motion intensity index, and the maximum inter-story displacement angle is chosen as the structural damage index. The 20 ground motion records are selected and scaled by peak acceleration in 0.2 g steps to form 120 structure-ground vibration samples for incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) and seismic vulnerability analysis. The IDA results indicated that with the gradual increase in peak ground acceleration, the maximum inter-story displacement angle increases and the model transits from the elastic stage to the elastoplastic stage. Because the characteristics of ground motion records are different, the order of structural plasticity development will be different and the number of ground motion records needs to be considered in the seismic performance assessment. The calculation model will not collapse under the 7 and 8 degree design-based earthquake and the probability of moderate and severe damage of the structure under the rare earthquake is minimal, according to the seismic vulnerability curves. The seismic vulnerability analysis results indicate that MSBD has good seismic performance under earthquakes and meets the requirements of “perfect subjected to frequent earthquake, reparable subjected to design based earthquake, no collapse subjected to rare earthquake.” The seismic vulnerability analysis based on probability statistics can provide a reference for seismic design and evaluation of earthquake damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Response of Structures)
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15 pages, 3833 KiB  
Article
Investigations of the Mechanical Properties and Durability of Reactive Powder Concrete Containing Waste Fly Ash
by Yubing Du, Shiyu Wang, Wenru Hao, Feiting Shi, Hui Wang, Feng Xu and Tao Du
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050560 - 27 Apr 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1732
Abstract
Waste fly ash (WFA) with pozzolanic activities may be advantageous to the mechanical properties of reactive powder concrete (RPC) when WFA partially replaces cement in RPC. In this study, RPC specimens with 0–25% WFA were prepared under the curing temperatures of 0, 20, [...] Read more.
Waste fly ash (WFA) with pozzolanic activities may be advantageous to the mechanical properties of reactive powder concrete (RPC) when WFA partially replaces cement in RPC. In this study, RPC specimens with 0–25% WFA were prepared under the curing temperatures of 0, 20, and 40 °C for 3 to 120 days. The flowability of fresh RPC, the mechanical strengths, and the NaCl freeze–thaw damage were investigated. Additionally, the following carbonation depths after different NaCl freeze–thaw cycles and the leaching amount of toxic metal elements were also determined experimentally. The results indicated that the incorporation of WFA could decrease the slump flow of fresh RPC due to the relatively smaller particle size of WFA. With an increase in the WFA content, the early-age flexural and compressive strengths first exhibited an increasing and then decreasing trend. However, WFA will always deteriorate the long-term mechanical properties, and both flexural and compressive strengths can be reduced by up to 25% when cured for 120 days. A higher temperature (i.e., 40 °C) was found to benefit the mechanical properties, especially when cured for 3 days. The RPC with 10% WFA exhibited the optimum salt-freezing resistance with an approximately 30% reduction in the mass loss rate when the NaCl freeze–thaw cycles reached 300. The improvement in durability can be attributed to a more compact microstructure of RPC with WFA through microscopic observations. The relationships between the mass and mechanical strength loss rates can be expressed through positive correlation quadratic functions. The carbonation depth decreased following a quadratic function with increasing mass ratios of WFA and NaCl freeze–thaw cycles. The leaching amounts of Cr and Zn increased with increasing WFA content over time, and the cumulative values reached equilibrium at 5 months. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Response of Structures)
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25 pages, 7269 KiB  
Article
A P-I Diagram Approach for Predicting Dynamic Response and Damage Assessment of Reactive Power Concrete Columns Subjected to Blast Loading
by Qin Rong, Zhonghui Zhao, Xiaomeng Hou and Zhizhong Jiang
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040462 - 8 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1945
Abstract
Reactive power concrete (RPC) possesses high compressive strength, toughness, and durability, and it is increasingly being used in important buildings. The column is an important load-bearing member of a building, and its failure under blast loading results in building collapse. Based on these [...] Read more.
Reactive power concrete (RPC) possesses high compressive strength, toughness, and durability, and it is increasingly being used in important buildings. The column is an important load-bearing member of a building, and its failure under blast loading results in building collapse. Based on these attributes, the dynamic response and the degree of damage to the RPC column are critical in assessing building performance. Due to the lack of methods, the progress of the study is relatively slow. In order to solve these issues, the dynamic response of the RPC column is studied based on the equivalent single-degree-of-freedom method and P-I curve in this paper. During the model validation phase, the deformation of the RPC column predicted using the ESDOF approach correlates well with the explosion simulation and test results. The P-I curves of the typical RPC column were also determined, and some data were analyzed to evaluate the influence of different key parameters, such as slenderness ratio, cross-sectional dimension, and axial compression ratio. The results show that the RPC column is susceptible to shear, bending, and bending-shear failure in the impulse load region, quasi-static load region, and dynamic load region, respectively. The cross-sectional dimension and slenderness ratio exhibit the greatest influence on P-I curves among the five parameters. With the increasing cross-sectional dimension and slenderness ratio, the overpressure asymptote of bending response increases by 4.2 times and decreases by about 57.3%. Furthermore, combined with the P-I curve features, it is found that reasonably increasing the cross-sectional dimensions and RPC strength could simultaneously improve the comprehensive anti-blast performance of RPC columns. This study was carried out to obtain the effect of the five parameters mentioned above on the degree of damage under different blast loading, which can provide a valuable reference for the dynamic response of RPC columns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Response of Structures)
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16 pages, 7607 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Response Parameter Analysis of Steel Frame Joints under Blast Loading
by Suxia Kou, Xiuhua Zhang, Wancheng Li and Chunlei Song
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040433 - 1 Apr 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2201
Abstract
A finite element model of steel frame joints is established using finite element analysis software ANSYS/LS-DYNA. The ideal triangular impact load is used to numerically analyze the dynamic response of steel frame welded joints under blast loading, the main factors affecting this response, [...] Read more.
A finite element model of steel frame joints is established using finite element analysis software ANSYS/LS-DYNA. The ideal triangular impact load is used to numerically analyze the dynamic response of steel frame welded joints under blast loading, the main factors affecting this response, and the failure modes of three types of joints, so as to provide reference for the antiexplosive design of steel frame joints. The results show that steel frame joints vibrate violently in the explosive blast direction. Due to the strain rate effect, the strength of steel increases, the material enters the plastic strengthening stage, and there is a certain residual displacement. In addition, displacement and stress caused by blast action in the joint area are large, and the flange shear failure of the beam and column is prone to occur in the joint. Increasing the flange width of the beam and the column cannot improve the antiexplosive performance of the joints, while increasing their thickness can. Furthermore, bolted and welded joints have the highest stiffness and best antiexplosion performance, followed by welded joints, while the antiexplosion performance of bolted joints was the worst. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Response of Structures)
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16 pages, 5658 KiB  
Article
Seismic Wave Attenuation Characteristics from the Ground Motion Spectral Analysis around the Kanto Basin
by Ying Zhou, Tianming Miao, Jian Yang, Xiuli Wang, Hongwei Wang and Wenzhong Zheng
Buildings 2022, 12(3), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12030318 - 8 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2991
Abstract
In order to study the seismic wave attenuation characteristics of complex plate tectonics in and around the Kanto Basin, based on the focal mechanism and Slab1.0 model, the research area is divided into four regions. The one-step non-parametric generalized inversion technique was used [...] Read more.
In order to study the seismic wave attenuation characteristics of complex plate tectonics in and around the Kanto Basin, based on the focal mechanism and Slab1.0 model, the research area is divided into four regions. The one-step non-parametric generalized inversion technique was used to analyze the seismic wave attenuation characteristics of each region separately. The results show that the seismic path attenuation of earthquakes occurring in the shallow crust (Reg.1) is weak, and the seismic wave refraction at the crust–mantle boundary leads to almost no attenuation over a long hypocentral distance (>60 km), the frequency–dependent inelastic attenuation is also weak with the 0.5–20 Hz quality factor Q = 92.33f1.87. The seismic path attenuation of the upper mantle earthquakes occurring in the Kanto Basin (Reg.2) is strong, and the attenuation curve decreases with the increase of hypocentral distance, which is approximately parallel to the geometric diffusion R−2.0, the frequency–dependent inelastic attenuation is stronger with the quality factor Q = 27.75f1.08. The seismic path attenuation of subduction zone earthquakes (Reg.3 and Reg.4) is more obvious in the high–frequency band and has a frequency correlation, indicating that the attenuation of subduction zone earthquakes includes more inelastic attenuation. The frequency–dependent inelastic attenuation Q of Reg.3 and Reg.4 are 52.58f0.95 and 58.07f0.89, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Response of Structures)
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14 pages, 5533 KiB  
Article
Study on Breaking Concrete Structures by Pulse Power Technology
by Xiaodong Wang, Pingjian Liu, Yixuan Sun and Wenqi Wang
Buildings 2022, 12(3), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12030274 - 26 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2658
Abstract
Using pulse power technology to break concrete structures can reduce environmental pollution, save energy, and increase safety and reliability. The whole process of concrete beam subjected to shock wave generated by pulse power discharge was simulated and analyzed. An experiment of breaking reinforced [...] Read more.
Using pulse power technology to break concrete structures can reduce environmental pollution, save energy, and increase safety and reliability. The whole process of concrete beam subjected to shock wave generated by pulse power discharge was simulated and analyzed. An experiment of breaking reinforced concrete beams by metal wire explosion in liquid was carried out. And the main parameters are pulse power discharge voltage, copper wires section size, concrete beam material strength, drilling parameters, etc. The results show that with the increase of discharge voltage and the total area of copper wire cross section between electrodes, the breaking effect of concrete beam is obviously improved. The breaking effect of the beam is slightly improved when the concrete strength is reduced. The breaking effect of concrete beams with 40 mm aperture is better than that of concrete beams with 50 mm aperture. As the distance between adjacent boreholes decreases, the fractures are easier to connect. According to the test results, the formulas for calculating the crack width of concrete beams were proposed, which takes the output voltage, the number of copper wires between electrodes, the hole spacing, the strength of concrete and other key parameters as independent variables. The calculated results agree well with the test results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Response of Structures)
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38 pages, 237795 KiB  
Article
Study on a Novel Variable-Frequency Rolling Pendulum Bearing
by Hui Pang, Wen Xu, Junwu Dai and Tao Jiang
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020254 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2137
Abstract
Seismic isolation is a technique that has been widely used around the world to decouple the superstructure from the ground motions during earthquakes. However, the attention of seismic isolation is mostly focused on the protection of the building structures. Acceleration-sensitive devices or equipment, [...] Read more.
Seismic isolation is a technique that has been widely used around the world to decouple the superstructure from the ground motions during earthquakes. However, the attention of seismic isolation is mostly focused on the protection of the building structures. Acceleration-sensitive devices or equipment, which are in desperate need of seismic protection, are still not fully emphasized. Meanwhile, the stiffness and frequencies of the conventional rolling- and sliding-type isolation bearings demonstrate an upward trend as the isolation layer displacement increases, which may bring self-centering and resonance issues. Thus, a novel variable-frequency rolling pendulum bearing is developed for the protection of acceleration-sensitive equipment. The rolling-type isolation bearing is selected to enhance the self-centering capacity, and additional viscous dampers are incorporated to improve the system damping. Moreover, the theoretical formulas of several typical variable-frequency rolling pendulum bearings are derived and presented to figure out the dynamic characterization of the device. The isolation efficiency of the proposed device under different parameters is also validated using shake table tests. Test results demonstrate that the newly proposed devices show excellent isolation performance at reducing both acceleration and displacement responses. Finally, the numerical model of this isolation system is proposed in detail. The simulated results, including relative acceleration responses, relative displacement responses and movement locus of the upper plates, are consistent with test results, which demonstrates this simplified model could be used for further studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Response of Structures)
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19 pages, 35060 KiB  
Article
Forecasting the Collapse-Induced Ground Vibration Using a GWO-ELM Model
by Yu Yan, Xiaomeng Hou, Shaojun Cao, Ruisen Li and Wei Zhou
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020121 - 25 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3224
Abstract
Blasting demolition is a popular method in the area of building demolishing. Due to the complex process of the building components’ collapse, it is difficult to predict the collapse-induced ground vibrations. As the accuracy of the empirical equation in predicting the collapse-induced ground [...] Read more.
Blasting demolition is a popular method in the area of building demolishing. Due to the complex process of the building components’ collapse, it is difficult to predict the collapse-induced ground vibrations. As the accuracy of the empirical equation in predicting the collapse-induced ground vibration is not high, there is a significant risk of damage to the surrounding structures. To mitigate this risk, it is necessary to control and predict the peak particle velocity (PPV) and dominant frequency of ground vibration with higher accuracy. In this study, the parameters on the PPV and frequency of collapse-induced ground vibration are analyzed based on the Hertz theory. Then, fall tests are performed to simulate the collapse process of structural components and to investigate the characteristics of influential parameters on PPV and frequency. Using kernel density estimation (KDE) and Pearson correlation, the PPV and frequency are correlated with the distance from the falling point to the monitored point (R) and the mass of the falling structural component (M). Using recorded ground vibration data, the PPV and frequency are predicted using an extreme learning machine in combination with gray wolf optimization. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is compared with other predictive models. The results indicate that the accuracy pre-diction of the proposed algorithm is better than those of plain extreme learning machines and the empirical equations, which indicates that the approach can be applied for PPV and frequency prediction of collapse-induced ground vibrations during blasting demolition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Response of Structures)
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14 pages, 2430 KiB  
Article
Effect of Stress–Strength Ratio and Fiber Length on Creep Property of Polypropylene Fiber-Reinforced Alkali-Activated Slag Concrete
by Xianyu Zhou, Wenzhong Zheng and Yu Yan
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020091 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1627
Abstract
Alkali-activated slag (AAS) is an environmentally friendly green cementitious material that can replace ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and has attracted extensive research by scholars all over the world. However, research regarding its creep performance has been lacking, which in turn affects its further [...] Read more.
Alkali-activated slag (AAS) is an environmentally friendly green cementitious material that can replace ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and has attracted extensive research by scholars all over the world. However, research regarding its creep performance has been lacking, which in turn affects its further application. The creep of alkali-activated slag concrete is large, and fiber addition has been shown to improve this problem. Polypropylene (PP) fiber has good alkali resistance and is economical. This paper studies the effect of the stress–strength ratio and fiber length on the creep property of PP fiber-reinforced alkali-activated slag (FRAAS) concrete. At the stress–strength ratio of 0.15, PP fiber addition is able to greatly reduce the creep of concrete. When the stress–strength ratio increases, the shorter fiber loses the anchoring force and the holes caused by the longer fiber crack. This in turn leads to the deterioration of the inhibition effect on concrete creep. The CEB-FIP 2010 model is highly accurate, but the final value prediction is small. The early prediction value of the GL2000 model is rather large and conservative. The creep coefficient of the prediction model and the measured secant modulus of PP FRAAS concrete with different fiber lengths under different stress–strength ratios may solve the issue of creep prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Response of Structures)
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