Climate Resilient Buildings

A special issue of Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309). This special issue belongs to the section "Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021) | Viewed by 39317

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Construction Research Centre, National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Building M-24, Ottawa, ON K1A0R6, Canada
Interests: environmental loads; climate change; material durability; service-life prediction; sustainable development; sustainability; materials technology; construction materials; polymers; building and civil engineering; simulation and numerical modeling; technological innovation; technology transfer
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue focuses on contributions related to climate resilient buildings, with an emphasis on aspects related to estimating the expected longevity, or loss thereof, of building elements under a changing climate, in consideration of the spatial and temporal variation in climate loads. The long-term performance of building elements, such as wall and roof assemblies, fenestration components and related building products, is directly related to the loads to which these elements are subjected over time. Hence, contributions on the characterisation of both historical, as well as projected loads—i.e., loads that may arise from the effects of climate change—are particularly relevant to this issue. Apart from understanding the temporal variation in performance over time, there is also interest in knowing the spatial differences which show the dissimilarities in expected long-term performance, from one region to another, for a given time period. Such information may be useful to the various building code organisations of different countries, having interest in knowing the expected performance of different building classes in the climate zones, as occur across their territories. Other contributions of interest would include those on monitoring indoor temperature variations during extreme heat events, as are expected to occur from climate change, and the effects on the thermal comfort of occupants; demonstrating the use of standard approaches for estimating the durability and long-term performance of building elements in the context of the effects of climate change; methods for the design of longevity and resilience of building elements on the basis of climate loads; how estimated changes in longevity of building elements, that arise from the effects of climate change, affect the maintenance management of buildings; natural weathering and risk of the premature aging of building products, such as sealants, roofing and sheathing membranes, and the consequences of such degradation actions on the long-term performance of building assemblies.

Dr. Michael A. Lacasse
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Building elements
  • Climate change
  • Climate loads
  • Climate resilience
  • Durability
  • Envelope watertightness
  • Fenestration component
  • Long-term performance
  • Moisture performance
  • Roof assembly
  • Wall assembly

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Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

24 pages, 4194 KiB  
Article
Reliability of Existing Climate Indices in Assessing the Freeze-Thaw Damage Risk of Internally Insulated Masonry Walls
by Sahar Sahyoun, Hua Ge, Michael A. Lacasse and Maurice Defo
Buildings 2021, 11(10), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11100482 - 17 Oct 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1709
Abstract
This paper evaluates the reliability of the currently used climate-based indices in selecting a moisture reference year (MRY) for the freeze-thaw (FT) damage risk assessment of internally insulated solid brick walls. The evaluation methodology compares the ranking of the years determined by the [...] Read more.
This paper evaluates the reliability of the currently used climate-based indices in selecting a moisture reference year (MRY) for the freeze-thaw (FT) damage risk assessment of internally insulated solid brick walls. The evaluation methodology compares the ranking of the years determined by the climate-based indices and response-based indices from simulations, regarded as actual performance. The hygrothermal response of an old brick masonry wall assembly, before and after retrofit, was investigated in two Canadian cities under historical and projected future climates. Results indicated that climate-based indices failed to represent the actual performance. However, among the response-based indices, the freeze-thaw damage risk index (FTDR) showed a better correlation with the climate-based indices. Additionally, results indicated a better correlation between the climatic index (CI), the moisture index (MI), and FTDR in Ottawa; however, in Vancouver, a better fit was found between MI and FTDR. Moreover, the risk of freeze-thaw increased considerably after interior insulation was added under both historical and projected future climates. The risk of FT damage would increase for Ottawa but decrease for Vancouver under a warming climate projected in the future, based on the climate scenario used in this study. Further research is needed to develop a more reliable method for the ranking and the selection of MRYs on the basis of climate-based indices that is suitable for freeze-thaw damage risk assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Resilient Buildings)
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21 pages, 7068 KiB  
Article
Combined Use of Wind-Driven Rain Load and Potential Evaporation to Evaluate Moisture Damage Risk: Case Study on the Parliament Buildings in Ottawa, Canada
by Aytaç Kubilay, John Bourcet, Jessica Gravel, Xiaohai Zhou, Travis V. Moore, Michael A. Lacasse, Jan Carmeliet and Dominique Derome
Buildings 2021, 11(10), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11100476 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2335
Abstract
Parts of the building envelope that frequently receive high amounts of rain are usually exposed to a higher risk of deterioration due to moisture. Determination of such locations can thus help with the assessment of moisture-induced damage risks. This study performs computational fluid [...] Read more.
Parts of the building envelope that frequently receive high amounts of rain are usually exposed to a higher risk of deterioration due to moisture. Determination of such locations can thus help with the assessment of moisture-induced damage risks. This study performs computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of wind-driven rain (WDR) on the Parliament buildings in Ottawa, Canada. Long-term time-varying wetting load due to WDR and potential evaporation are considered according to several years of meteorological data, and this cumulative assessment is proposed as a fast method to identify critical locations and periods. The results show that, on the Center Block of the Parliament buildings, the façades of lower towers facing east are the most exposed to WDR, together with the corners of the main tower. Periods of high WDR wetting load larger than the potential evaporation are observed, indicating that deposited rain may lead to moisture accumulation in the envelope. During these critical periods of up to several months, air temperature may repeatedly drop below freezing point, which poses a risk of freeze–thaw damage. First assessment on future freeze–thaw damage risks indicates an increase in such risks at moderate increases in temperature, but a lower risk is found for larger increases in temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Resilient Buildings)
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17 pages, 37088 KiB  
Article
In-Situ and Predicted Performance of a Certified Industrial Passive House Building under Future Climate Scenarios
by Alison Conroy, Phalguni Mukhopadhyaya and Guido Wimmers
Buildings 2021, 11(10), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11100457 - 04 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2070
Abstract
The Wood Innovation Research Lab was designed as a low energy-use building to facilitate the construction and testing of engineered wood products by the faculty and staff of the Master of Engineering in Integrated Wood Design Program at the University of Northern British [...] Read more.
The Wood Innovation Research Lab was designed as a low energy-use building to facilitate the construction and testing of engineered wood products by the faculty and staff of the Master of Engineering in Integrated Wood Design Program at the University of Northern British Columbia in Prince George, BC, Canada. Constructed using a 533 mm thick-wall and 659 mm flat roof assembly, it received certification as Canada’s first industrial facility built to the International Passive House standard. Temperature and humidity sensors were installed in the north and south exterior wall assemblies to measure long-term hygrothermal performance. Data collected between 2018–2020 shows no record of long-term moisture accumulation within the exterior assemblies. Data collected during this time period was used to validate hygrothermal performance models for the building created using the WUFI® Plus software. Long-term performance models created using future climate data for five cities across Canada under two global warming scenarios shows favorable results, with an increase in average annual temperatures resulting in lower average relative humidity values at the interior face of the exterior sheathing board in the exterior wall assemblies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Resilient Buildings)
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16 pages, 3440 KiB  
Article
An Approach Concerning Climate Change and Timber Building Resilience: Araucanía Region, South Chile
by Andrés J. Prieto, Konstantin Verichev and Ana Silva
Buildings 2021, 11(10), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11100452 - 02 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1938
Abstract
This study analysed climate change effects concerning the resilience of timber buildings located in southern Chile, specifically in two cities: Collipulli and Temuco (Araucanía Region). A digital fuzzy logic method was used in a set of timber buildings declared as heritage conservation buildings [...] Read more.
This study analysed climate change effects concerning the resilience of timber buildings located in southern Chile, specifically in two cities: Collipulli and Temuco (Araucanía Region). A digital fuzzy logic method was used in a set of timber buildings declared as heritage conservation buildings by Chilean Government standards. The outcomes revealed that climate change impacts did not substantially alter the functional performance of the set of heritage timber buildings examined. This study’s results can assist in developing upcoming strategies or recommendations that can support adaptation policies for administering architectural heritage regarding climate change forecasts. These data will invaluably help stakeholders who support the conservation of timber structures located in the southern environment of Chile and under the changing climatic hazard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Resilient Buildings)
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13 pages, 1901 KiB  
Article
Exterior Wood-Frame Walls—Wind–Vapour Barrier Ratio in Denmark
by Martin Morelli, Torben Valdbjørn Rasmussen and Marcus Therkelsen
Buildings 2021, 11(10), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11100428 - 23 Sep 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2376
Abstract
Wood-frame walls in cold climates are traditional constructed with a vapour barrier that also constitutes the air-tightness layer. Polyethylene foil as a vapour barrier is likely used; however, other building materials can be used to obtain correspondingly sufficient properties. 1D hygrothermal simulations were [...] Read more.
Wood-frame walls in cold climates are traditional constructed with a vapour barrier that also constitutes the air-tightness layer. Polyethylene foil as a vapour barrier is likely used; however, other building materials can be used to obtain correspondingly sufficient properties. 1D hygrothermal simulations were conducted for a wood-frame structure to investigate the wind–vapour barrier ratio, and if the vapour barrier of polyethylene foil could be omitted and replaced by other materials. The results were postprocessed using the VTT mould model. The results showed how wood-frame walls can be designed with respect to internal humidity class and diffusion resistance divided into three categories: no risk for mould growth, needs further investigation, and is not performing well as the risk for mould growth is present. For internal humidity classes 1–3, the ratio between wind and vapour barrier must be about 1:5, and 1:10 for classes 4 and 5 to be on the safe side. Simulations were performed for the climate of Lund, Sweden, which were used to simulate climate in Denmark too. Nevertheless, the results are related to climate data and, thus, the location. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Resilient Buildings)
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29 pages, 22423 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of ALARO-0 and REMO Regional Climate Models over Iran Focusing on Building Material Degradation Criteria
by Hamed Hedayatnia, Sara Top, Steven Caluwaerts, Lola Kotova, Marijke Steeman and Nathan Van Den Bossche
Buildings 2021, 11(8), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11080376 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2671
Abstract
Understanding how climate change affects material degradation is the first step in heritage conservation. To study such impact, high-resolution climate information is required. However, so far, no regional climate simulations have been evaluated considering building damage criteria over the region of Iran. This [...] Read more.
Understanding how climate change affects material degradation is the first step in heritage conservation. To study such impact, high-resolution climate information is required. However, so far, no regional climate simulations have been evaluated considering building damage criteria over the region of Iran. This paper has a twofold objective: to conduct an overview of climate model performance over Iran by evaluating the output of two regional climate models, ALARO-0 and REMO2015, and to find an optimal approach for model evaluation fitted to studies on building physics. Data of the evaluation run for both models were compared with data of weather stations located in six different climate zones in Iran to assess their performance over the region and gain insight about model uncertainties. Given that the research scope covers the evaluation of climate models to use in studies on building physics, in addition to climate parameters, five degradation risks are analysed. The performance of the two models varies over the studied locations. In general, both models fall within the spread of observations except for wind parameters. Accordingly, indices related to temperature and precipitation are well predicted, in contrast to indices related to wind. The analysis shows that considering the observed biases, selecting an ensemble of representative models based on the evaluation results of climate variables important for hygrothermal simulations would be recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Resilient Buildings)
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24 pages, 6969 KiB  
Article
Risk Assessment of Joint Sealing Tape in Joints between Precast Concrete Sandwich Panels Resilient to Climate Change
by Charlotte Svensson Tengberg, Lars Olsson and Carl-Eric Hagentoft
Buildings 2021, 11(8), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11080343 - 11 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3600
Abstract
Lately, a new technical solution, pre-compressed joint sealing tapes in precast concrete sandwich panel facades, has been introduced in Sweden. Although the consequences of performance failure can go far beyond the component, affecting the building, the introduction has gained little attention in terms [...] Read more.
Lately, a new technical solution, pre-compressed joint sealing tapes in precast concrete sandwich panel facades, has been introduced in Sweden. Although the consequences of performance failure can go far beyond the component, affecting the building, the introduction has gained little attention in terms of risk assessment in the literature and in industry. Instead, reference cases are used as verification without formal evaluation, potentially leading to serial failure. The aim of this paper was to provide guidance on how a design–build contractor should handle this new technical solution. A risk assessment framework using a design–build contractor’s perspective was applied to the case. The framework addresses new technical solutions or adaption to new conditions (e.g., climate change) with the aim of preventing serial failures. Moisture conditions within the joints were simulated using present and future climates, and probabilities of failure were assessed using the Monte Carlo method. The results of the study included identified risks of failure associated with the solution and factors influencing the probability of failure. A main issue was the exposure of the facade to driving rain but also run-off areas and imperfections in the application of the joint sealing tape. Future climate changes affect performance negatively. In conclusion, the new technical solution might be possible to use if draining potential is ensured in all detailed designs and a set of recommendations, including full-scale testing, is provided for the design–build contractor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Resilient Buildings)
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20 pages, 33304 KiB  
Article
Hygrothermal Characteristics of Cold Roof Cavities in New Zealand
by Stephan H. Rupp, Stephen McNeil, Manfred Plagmann and Greg Overton
Buildings 2021, 11(8), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11080334 - 03 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2095
Abstract
The New Zealand Building Code contains minimum durability requirements for components. For roof structures the requirement is 50 years if the component is structural or 15 years if it is not. Metal roof claddings are very common in New Zealand, and roof spaces [...] Read more.
The New Zealand Building Code contains minimum durability requirements for components. For roof structures the requirement is 50 years if the component is structural or 15 years if it is not. Metal roof claddings are very common in New Zealand, and roof spaces are typically not deliberately ventilated. Recently, a number of roofs are failing to meet their durability requirement, and the lack of deliberate ventilation is a contributory factor in some cases. In this paper, we consider roof failures and analyse them using the hygrothermal simulation software WUFI® 2D (version 4.1). Using the National Research Council of Canada’s Guideline on Design for Durability of Building Envelopes, we evaluate to what extent the guideline can be used for such more complex models. Experimental data from a residential dwelling where excessive roof moisture issues were discovered shortly after occupancy are presented. A novel remedial solution using daytime-only ventilation to the roof cavity was trialled, and the data were used to benchmark a two-dimensional numerical simulation of the roof space using WUFI® 2D. A larger hygrothermal data set for 71 dwellings is presented together with relevant climatic conditions. The study works towards evidence-based building code changes for roof ventilation and is an example of using the guideline document for more complicated building envelope assemblies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Resilient Buildings)
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31 pages, 5627 KiB  
Article
Stochastic Simulation of Mould Growth Performance of Wood-Frame Building Envelopes under Climate Change: Risk Assessment and Error Estimation
by Lin Wang, Maurice Defo, Zhe Xiao, Hua Ge and Michael A. Lacasse
Buildings 2021, 11(8), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11080333 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2157
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that the effects of climate change on building structures will increase the mould growth risk of the wood-frame building envelope in many circumstances. This risk can be controlled by wind-driven rain deflection, improving water tightness of the exterior facade, [...] Read more.
Previous studies have shown that the effects of climate change on building structures will increase the mould growth risk of the wood-frame building envelope in many circumstances. This risk can be controlled by wind-driven rain deflection, improving water tightness of the exterior facade, and improving cladding ventilation. However, the effectiveness of these risk mitigation strategies are subject to various uncertainties, such as the uncertainties of wall component properties and micro-climatic conditions. The objective of this paper is to apply stochastic hygrothermal simulation to evaluate the mould growth risk of a brick veneer-clad wood-frame wall with a drainage cavity under historical and future climatic conditions of Ottawa, a Canadian city located in a cold climate zone. An extensive literature review was conducted to quantify the range of stochastic variables including rain deposition factor, rain leakage moisture source, cladding ventilation rate and material properties of brick. The randomised Sobol sequence-based sampling method, one of the Randomized Quasi-Monte Carlo (RQMC) methods, was applied for risk assessment and error estimation. It was found that, under the climatic condition of Ottawa, limiting the amount of wind-driven rain to which walls are subjected is a more robust mitigation measure than improving cladding ventilation in controlling mould growth risk, the improving of water tightness of exterior façade is not as robust as wind-driven rain deflection and cladding ventilation, however, the reduction of rainwater penetration can reduce the mould growth risk at different levels of rain deposition factor and cladding ventilation rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Resilient Buildings)
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31 pages, 10415 KiB  
Article
Risk Assessment Framework to Avoid Serial Failure for New Technical Solutions Applied to the Construction of a CLT Structure Resilient to Climate
by Charlotte Svensson Tengberg and Carl-Eric Hagentoft
Buildings 2021, 11(6), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11060247 - 09 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3497
Abstract
Design-build contractors are challenged with the task of minimizing failure risks when introducing new technical solutions or adapting technical solutions to new conditions, e.g., climate change. They seem to have a disproportional trust in suppliers and their reference cases and might not have [...] Read more.
Design-build contractors are challenged with the task of minimizing failure risks when introducing new technical solutions or adapting technical solutions to new conditions, e.g., climate change. They seem to have a disproportional trust in suppliers and their reference cases and might not have adequate resources or methodologies for sufficient evaluation. This creates the potential for serial failures to spread in the construction industry. To mitigate this, it was suggested that a predefined risk assessment framework should be introduced with the aim of providing a prequalification and requirements for the use of the technical solution. The objectives of this paper are to develop a comprehensive risk assessment framework and to explore the framework’s potential to adequately support the design-build contractor’s decisions. The framework uses qualitative assessment, relying on expert workshops and quantitative assessments, with a focus on simulation and probabilities. Tollgates are used to communicate risk assessments to the contractor. The framework is applied to a real-life case study of construction with a CLT-structure for a Swedish design-build contractor, where exposure to precipitation during construction is a key issue. In conclusion, the chosen framework was successful in a design-build contractor context, structuring the process and identifying difficulties in achieving the functional requirements concerning moisture. Three success factors were: documentation and communication, expert involvement, and the use of tollgates. Recommendations to the design-build contractor on construction of CLT structure are to keep construction period short and to use full weather protection on site. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Resilient Buildings)
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17 pages, 22206 KiB  
Article
Application of Support Vector Regression to the Prediction of the Long-Term Impacts of Climate Change on the Moisture Performance of Wood Frame and Massive Timber Walls
by Naman Bansal, Maurice Defo and Michael A. Lacasse
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11050188 - 29 Apr 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4366
Abstract
The objective of this study was to explore the potential of a machine learning algorithm, the Support Vector Machine Regression (SVR), to forecast long-term hygrothermal responses and the moisture performance of light wood frame and massive timber walls. Hygrothermal simulations were performed using [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to explore the potential of a machine learning algorithm, the Support Vector Machine Regression (SVR), to forecast long-term hygrothermal responses and the moisture performance of light wood frame and massive timber walls. Hygrothermal simulations were performed using a 31-year long series of climate data in three cities across Canada. Then, the first 5 years of the series were used in each case to train the model, which was then used to forecast the hygrothermal responses (temperature and relative humidity) and moisture performance indicator (mold growth index) for the remaining years of the series. The location of interest was the exterior layer of the OSB and cross-laminated timber in the case of the wood frame wall and massive timber wall, respectively. A sliding window approach was used to incorporate the dependence of the hygrothermal response on the past climatic conditions, which allowed SVR to capture time, implicitly. The variable selection was performed using the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator, which revealed wind-driven rain, relative humidity, temperature, and direct radiation as the most contributing climate variables. The results show that SVR can be effectively used to forecast hygrothermal responses and moisture performance on a long climate data series for most of the cases studied. In some cases, discrepancies were observed due to the lack of capturing the full range of variability of climate variables during the first 5 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Resilient Buildings)
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21 pages, 44123 KiB  
Article
Factorial Study on the Impact of Climate Change on Freeze-Thaw Damage, Mould Growth and Wood Decay in Solid Masonry Walls in Brussels
by Isabeau Vandemeulebroucke, Steven Caluwaerts and Nathan Van Den Bossche
Buildings 2021, 11(3), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11030134 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3187
Abstract
Previous studies show that climate change has an impact on the damage risks in solid masonry facades. To conserve these valuable buildings, it is important to determine the projected change in damages for the original and internally insulated cases. Since historical masonry covers [...] Read more.
Previous studies show that climate change has an impact on the damage risks in solid masonry facades. To conserve these valuable buildings, it is important to determine the projected change in damages for the original and internally insulated cases. Since historical masonry covers a wide range of properties, it is unknown how sensitive the climate change impact is to variations in different parameters, such as wall thickness, brick type, etc. A factorial study is performed to determine the climate change impact on freeze-thaw risk, mould growth and wood decay in solid masonry in Brussels, Belgium. It is found that the critical orientation equals the critical wind-driven rain orientation and does not change over time. Further, the freeze-thaw risk is generally decreasing, whereas the change in mould growth and wood decay depends on the climate scenario. Knowing the brick type and rain exposure coefficient is most important when assessing the climate change impact. For freeze-thaw risk and wood decay, it is found that simulating one wall thickness for the uninsulated and one insulated case is sufficient to represent the climate change impact. Finally, the effects of climate change generally do not compensate for the increase in damage after the application of internal insulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Resilient Buildings)
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19 pages, 3991 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Moisture Load in a Vinyl-Clad Wall Assembly through Watertightness Tests
by Zhe Xiao, Michael A. Lacasse, Maurice Defo and Elena Dragomirescu
Buildings 2021, 11(3), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11030117 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1833
Abstract
The moisture load in wall assemblies is typically considered as 1% of the Wind Driving Rain (WDR) load that is deposited on the surface of wall assemblies as specified in the ASHRAE-160 standard whereas this ratio has been shown to be inaccurate as [...] Read more.
The moisture load in wall assemblies is typically considered as 1% of the Wind Driving Rain (WDR) load that is deposited on the surface of wall assemblies as specified in the ASHRAE-160 standard whereas this ratio has been shown to be inaccurate as compared to results derived from several watertightness tests. Accurate assessment of moisture loads arising from WDR can be obtained through the watertightness test during which different levels of WDR intensities and Driving Rain Wind Pressures (DRWPs) are applied to a test specimen and water that penetrates wall assembly can thus be quantified. Although many previous studies have included watertightness tests, only a few of these have attempted to correlate the moisture loads to WDR conditions as may occur in specific locations within a country. To improve the assessment of moisture loads for a vinyl-clad wall assembly, a wall test specimen was tested following a test protocol based on local climate data using National Research Council of Canada’s Dynamic Wind and Wall Testing Facility (DWTF). The use of this test protocol permitted quantifying the moisture load in the vinyl wall assembly when subjected to several different simulated WDR conditions. The moisture load was formulated as a function of the WDR intensity and DRWP which thereafter allowed evaluating the moisture load based on a given climate’s hourly rainfall intensity and wind velocity. Such work is particularly relevant considering that the intensity, duration and frequency of WDR events across Canada will in some regions increase due to the effects of climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Resilient Buildings)
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16 pages, 2904 KiB  
Article
Effects of Climate Change on the Moisture Performance of Tallwood Building Envelope
by Maurice Defo and Michael A. Lacasse
Buildings 2021, 11(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11020035 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2660
Abstract
The objective of this study was to assess the potential effects of climate change on the moisture performance and durability of massive timber walls on the basis of results derived from hygrothermal simulations. One-dimensional simulations were run using DELPHIN 5.9.4 for 31 consecutive [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to assess the potential effects of climate change on the moisture performance and durability of massive timber walls on the basis of results derived from hygrothermal simulations. One-dimensional simulations were run using DELPHIN 5.9.4 for 31 consecutive years of the 15 realizations of the modeled historical (1986–2016) and future (2062–2092) climates of five cities located across Canada. For all cities, water penetration in the wall assembly was assumed to be 1% wind-driven rain, and the air changes per hour in the drainage cavity was assumed to be 10. The mold growth index on the outer layer of the cross-laminated timber panel was used to compare the moisture performance for the historical and future periods. The simulation results showed that the risk of mold growth would increase in all the cities considered. However, the relative change varied from city to city. In the cities of Ottawa, Calgary and Winnipeg, the relative change in the mold growth index was higher than in the cities of Vancouver and St. John’s. For Vancouver and St. John’s, and under the assumptions used for these simulations, the risk was already higher under the historical period. This means that the mass timber walls in these two cities could not withstand a water penetration rate of 1% wind-driven rain, as used in the simulations, with a drainage cavity of 19 mm and an air changes per hour value of 10. Additional wall designs will be explored in respect to the moisture performance, and the results of these studies will be reported in a future publication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Resilient Buildings)
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