Safety and Optimization of Building Structures

A special issue of Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309). This special issue belongs to the section "Building Structures".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2023) | Viewed by 38198

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Reinforced Concrete and Stone Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, 129337 Moscow, Russia
Interests: structural optimization; mechanical safety; progressive collapse resistance, metaheuristic algorithms; reliability; optimal design; fire damage; corrosion effects; building material; AI algorithms
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Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science, Department of Foreign Languages and Professional Communication, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Moscow, Russia
Interests: polymer modification; composite materials; plasticizers; green chemistry; English for academic and professional communication

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ensuring the safety of a building’s erection, load-bearing, and enclosing structures is the most important task both for its engineering, science, and practice of design and its operation. At the same time, an important aspect is the development of design and optimization methods. The goals of such optimization can be focused not only on material or cost consumption but also the risks of accidents. Preventing risks related to the material and socioeconomic losses are the main priorities and matters of urgency, and new modern scientific research and practice will allow us to move forward in addressing them.

The main goal of the Special Issue “Safety and Optimization of Building Structures” is to provide a platform for discussing the main problems associated with ensuring the mechanical, fire, and environmental safety of load-bearing and enclosing structures of buildings. In these circumstances, it is important to consider the life cycle stages of a structure, the development of deterministic and metaheuristic optimization algorithms that ensure sustainable development, and the required level of comfort of a building’s internal environment.

Dr. Anatoly Alekseytsev
Dr. Alla Sokolova
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • structural optimization
  • mechanical safety
  • progressive collapse resistance
  • fire safety
  • life cycle
  • metaheuristic algorithms
  • risk prevention
  • sustainable development
  • reliability
  • optimal design

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Published Papers (28 papers)

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Research

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20 pages, 8903 KiB  
Article
Optimization Analysis of Partition Wall Support Scheme of Multi-Arch Tunnel
by Shun-Qing Yang, Xue-Li Li, Wei Zhang, Sheng-Yuan Fan and Lian-Baichao Liu
Buildings 2024, 14(2), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14020490 - 09 Feb 2024
Viewed by 526
Abstract
With the fast progress of infrastructure projects, super-large cross-section projects are constantly emerging, and, therefore, engineering challenges and problems are increasing. Taking the triple-arch tunnel project in the turn-back line section of Santunbei Station in Urumqi Metro Line 1# as a case study, [...] Read more.
With the fast progress of infrastructure projects, super-large cross-section projects are constantly emerging, and, therefore, engineering challenges and problems are increasing. Taking the triple-arch tunnel project in the turn-back line section of Santunbei Station in Urumqi Metro Line 1# as a case study, this research applied numerical simulation software Midas GTS/NX 2022 for the analysis of tunnel force and deformation in triple-arch cross-sections under different support forms of partition wall. Following the optimization of the support design of the mixed partition wall to a single straight wall, the following analytical results were obtained: surface settlement was decreased by 21.15% at the original cross-section; maximum values of principal stress and displacement of partition wall were decreased by 6.73 and 10.64%, respectively; and corresponding values for initial support structure were decreased by 21.47% and 54.74%, respectively. Meanwhile, combined with comparative analysis of engineering measurement and numerical simulation results, surface settlement and vault deformation were found to be similar to the optimized simulation results, which not only verified the reliability of simulation results but also ensured the safe and smooth construction of the project, greatly improving construction efficiency and saving construction time and cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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24 pages, 39762 KiB  
Article
Concrete Carbonation of Deep Burial Storage Constructions under Model Aging Conditions
by Vyacheslav Medvedev, Andrey Pustovgar, Aleksey Adamtsevich and Liubov Adamtsevich
Buildings 2024, 14(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14010008 - 19 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 641
Abstract
To ensure the safe operation of concrete structures of deep-burial storages, it is necessary to research the degradation mechanisms of such structures. Concrete carbonation is one of the key factors determining the service life of concrete structures. Existing methods for the concrete carbonation [...] Read more.
To ensure the safe operation of concrete structures of deep-burial storages, it is necessary to research the degradation mechanisms of such structures. Concrete carbonation is one of the key factors determining the service life of concrete structures. Existing methods for the concrete carbonation process research at various stages of the building structure life cycle make it possible to conduct model tests in the shortest possible time by simulating the operational factors influencing the corrosion process development. The authors carried out model tests of concrete of deep-burial storages using the method of accelerated concrete carbonation and by taking into account the effects of elevated temperatures. When exposed to elevated temperatures during carbonation, concrete samples exhibit a decrease in compressive strength in the first 56 days of testing by an average of 1.6 MPa. However, by the end of the tests (168 days), the strength of concrete samples at elevated temperatures is on average 4 MPa higher. The microstructure and carbonation dynamics were studied by XRD, TGA and SEM. The data obtained in the research can be used to develop models for predicting the service life of concrete structures of deep-burial storages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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17 pages, 7764 KiB  
Article
The Load-Bearing Capacity and Deformability of Connections of Wooden Elements with Composite Materials Based on Fiberglass
by Alexander Tusnin, Linkov Nikolay and Klyukin Aleksandr
Buildings 2023, 13(12), 3063; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13123063 - 08 Dec 2023
Viewed by 692
Abstract
The research focuses on connections of wooden structural elements with composite materials based on fiberglass. An overview of existing research and regulatory technical documents in the field of connections between wooden elements and composite materials based on fiberglass has been conducted. A type [...] Read more.
The research focuses on connections of wooden structural elements with composite materials based on fiberglass. An overview of existing research and regulatory technical documents in the field of connections between wooden elements and composite materials based on fiberglass has been conducted. A type of connection for wooden elements with composite materials based on fiberglass is proposed. The article presents the results of strength and deformability studies of the developed connection. Strength characteristics are established in the form of the slice resistance of the composite material along the welding seam in the connection, a tear resistance of the composite material from the base, and the chipping of the composite material. The deformability characteristics of fiberglass connections under short-term machine testing with linearly increasing load in samples have been determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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17 pages, 9148 KiB  
Article
Behavior of Anchors Embedded in Concrete Damaged by the Maximum Considered Earthquake: An Experimental Study
by Oleg Kabantsev and Mikhail Kovalev
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2860; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112860 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 600
Abstract
The article presents experimental tests carried out to investigate the effect of crack width (0.4, 0.8, 1.5, and 3.0 mm) on the behavior of anchor bolts under static and dynamic loading. Ultimate loads for anchors reached 220 kN depending on the anchor type, [...] Read more.
The article presents experimental tests carried out to investigate the effect of crack width (0.4, 0.8, 1.5, and 3.0 mm) on the behavior of anchor bolts under static and dynamic loading. Ultimate loads for anchors reached 220 kN depending on the anchor type, the diameter, and the crack opening width. Mechanical and bonded anchors were studied as the most frequently used anchor types. Two states of concrete, resulting from the design earthquake and the maximum considered earthquake, were simulated in the course of the experiments. Within the framework of the study, dependencies between the bearing capacity and stiffness of anchorages, on the one hand, and the level of concrete damage, on the other hand, were identified for different types of anchors. The data, generated in the course of the study, were used to identify the types of anchorages recommended for embedment in seismic areas. Plasticity coefficients and seismic load reduction coefficients were determined for different types of anchors and levels of concrete damage as a result of experimental studies. Reduction coefficients can be contributed to the design of anchorages embedded in seismic areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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16 pages, 4037 KiB  
Article
Nonlinear Deformation Model for Analysis of Temperature Effects on Reinforced Concrete Beam Elements
by Vladimir I. Korsun, Valeriy I. Morozov, Ashot G. Tamrazyan and Anatoly V. Alekseytsev
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2734; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112734 - 29 Oct 2023
Viewed by 791
Abstract
The results of the study are aimed at developing a nonlinear strain model for reinforced concrete beam elements in the general case of force actions and temperature effects for different durations. As a rule, temperature effects on structures involve temperature drops, causing heterogeneity [...] Read more.
The results of the study are aimed at developing a nonlinear strain model for reinforced concrete beam elements in the general case of force actions and temperature effects for different durations. As a rule, temperature effects on structures involve temperature drops, causing heterogeneity of mechanical and rheological properties of concrete and reinforcement. The article has approximating expressions needed to take into account the effects of temperature and heating time on the values of temperature-induced strain and mechanical and rheological properties of heavy concretes with C30–C60 strength classes. The properties of concrete and rebars are heterogeneous from top to bottom and across the width of the cross section. A physically nonlinear problem is solved using the method of elastic solutions combined with the method of stepwise increases in temperature and force loading. The cooling of a heated reinforced concrete element to normal temperature is considered a short-term effect. Strength criteria of portions of a concrete cross section, crack closure conditions, and the ability of cracked sections to take loads in compression amid a change in the sign of stresses are determined. The stress–strain state (SSS) analysis of reinforced concrete beams, made according to the proposed method, is compared with the experimental studies using (i) values of thermal bending moments in statically indeterminate structures, (ii) cracking forces, and (iii) values of deformations (elongations and curvatures) of the elements in the longitudinal axis. Good agreement between the calculated and experimental values of controllable criteria confirms the reliability of physical relationships (i) developed for heterogeneous reinforced concrete beam elements and (ii) applied to the complex cases of temperature and force effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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18 pages, 6038 KiB  
Article
Concrete Modification for Hot Weather Using Crushed Dolomite Stone
by Svetlana V. Samchenko, Oksana A. Larsen, Irina V. Kozlova, Dmitriy G. Alpackiy and Dheyaa A. N. Alobaidi
Buildings 2023, 13(10), 2462; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13102462 - 27 Sep 2023
Viewed by 918
Abstract
Crushed dolomite stone can be used as a part of concrete for hot weather. Fine dolomite as a filler is not commonly included in Portland cement. In this paper, the properties of a blended binder based on Portland cement and dolomite filler are [...] Read more.
Crushed dolomite stone can be used as a part of concrete for hot weather. Fine dolomite as a filler is not commonly included in Portland cement. In this paper, the properties of a blended binder based on Portland cement and dolomite filler are presented. Dolomite filler was obtained from dust grains by mechanical activation in a laboratory ball mill to increase the specific surface area and its chemical activity. It is shown that the impact of mechanical activation allows to obtain dolomite filler with a median particle size of 1.4 μm and a specific surface area of 639.9 m2/kg. The content of dolomite filler in Portland cement was 10, 30 and 50%. The main properties of blended cements, i.e., the standard consistency, setting time, compressive strength, average density, and drying shrinkage, were determined on pastes. The mineralogical composition of the hydrated pastes was determined by XRD at 28 days. The presence of dolomite filler at levels higher than 10% decreases the compressive strength of blended cements. The dolomite filler decreases the water demand, shortens the setting time, and mitigates the development of drying shrinkage in the blended binder. To prevent concrete cracking, the application of dolomite filler in blended cement is relevant in hot weather due to its reduced drying shrinkage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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26 pages, 3471 KiB  
Article
Cost Forecasting for Building Materials under Conditions of Uncertainty: Methodology and Practice
by Svetlana S. Uvarova, Svetlana V. Belyaeva, Alexandr K. Orlov and Vadim S. Kankhva
Buildings 2023, 13(9), 2371; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13092371 - 18 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 934
Abstract
Most large construction projects face the problem of cost overruns and failures to meet deadlines mainly due to changes in the cost of building materials. A lot of studies proved the high importance of the cost of building materials for the project budget [...] Read more.
Most large construction projects face the problem of cost overruns and failures to meet deadlines mainly due to changes in the cost of building materials. A lot of studies proved the high importance of the cost of building materials for the project budget and highlighted a number of factors that determine the cost of materials. However, modern unstable economic dynamics lead to the need not only to observe sufficient accuracy of quantity and cost calculations regarding primary building materials but also to carefully predict the cost, taking into account uncertainty factors (changes in the geopolitical situation, the impact of the pandemic, changes in the technological structure, etc.). This article proposes the use of a calculation and expert methodology for forecasting the cost of building materials on the example of building bars for two regions of the Russian Federation. This study includes a review of literature, which showed the dependence of the dynamics of the cost of construction on the prices of building materials, confirmed the impact of economic and noneconomic factors of the dynamics of prices of building materials and the impact of risk and uncertainty. Based on the literature review, it is also concluded that it is necessary to expertly adjust the results of the economic and mathematical modeling of the building materials’ price trend line under the influence of noneconomic factors of uncertainty. The statistics of the prices of building materials in Russia were analyzed, and the main causes of price dynamics (economic and noneconomic) were identified. The ARIMA model was selected to build a series of dynamics of prices of reinforcement steel, an expert adjustment of the forecast was made taking into account uncertainty factors. The method of calculation and expert forecasting of prices of building materials was proposed, and the forecast of prices of steel reinforcement in the regions of Russia was calculated on its basis. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the algorithm and practical results of forecasting the cost of building materials under the conditions of uncertainty, as well as recommendations for the implementation of predictive analytics tools in construction practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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17 pages, 2989 KiB  
Article
The Bearing Capacity of Compressed Corrosion-Damaged Reinforced Concrete Elements under Lateral Pulse Loading
by Ashot Tamrazyan
Buildings 2023, 13(9), 2133; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13092133 - 22 Aug 2023
Viewed by 720
Abstract
This article addresses the relevant problem of the stress–strain behavior of compressed reinforced concrete columns under lateral pulse loading. A simplified engineering method of analyzing the limit value of lateral pulse loading P, depending on longitudinal force N acting on the column, is [...] Read more.
This article addresses the relevant problem of the stress–strain behavior of compressed reinforced concrete columns under lateral pulse loading. A simplified engineering method of analyzing the limit value of lateral pulse loading P, depending on longitudinal force N acting on the column, is developed. The proposed method involves the construction of the P-N curve that has three portions. Portion 1 describes the plastic deformation of concrete and rebars of that part of the structure that is mostly in bending. Portion 2 describes the state of the column that can trigger the brittle failure of the concrete along the normal section, and Portion 3 describes the high compression of the column that predominantly triggers its shear failure. For Portions 1 and 2, analytical relationships are obtained using equilibrium equations. Corrosive damage is taken into account in the analytical model as a reduction in the strength and deformability characteristics of the material. A conventional local corrosion spot can be considered; it can be located both in and outside of the area of action of lateral pulse loading. The results obtained using the proposed model were compared with the results of numerical studies and a full-scale experiment. As a result of testing the developed engineering technique, it was found that it provides a safety margin for corrosion-damaged elements of 0.20–0.8 of the ultimate value of horizontal impulse at operational values of compressive force. The spot corrosion damage considered in the paper leads to a 10–60% strength reduction in compressed columns, depending on their location. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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21 pages, 5840 KiB  
Article
Ensuring the Safety of Steel Moment Frames Subjected to Uncertain Impacts
by Anatoly Victorovich Alekseytsev
Buildings 2023, 13(8), 2038; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13082038 - 10 Aug 2023
Viewed by 744
Abstract
The article addresses the problem of safety evaluation of steel moment frames of civil buildings, e.g., warehouses, shops, garages, and multistory industrial buildings on deformable soil in the relevant case of an emergency impact. The case of accidental emergency impacts is considered when [...] Read more.
The article addresses the problem of safety evaluation of steel moment frames of civil buildings, e.g., warehouses, shops, garages, and multistory industrial buildings on deformable soil in the relevant case of an emergency impact. The case of accidental emergency impacts is considered when such parameters as the point, direction, and intensity of an impact cannot be predetermined. Such impacts are not expected to trigger the progressive collapse of currently implemented design solutions and the whole structure must maintain the property of survivability. To evaluate this property, several calculations are to be made in the quasi-static statement to identify the stress–strain state under the most dangerous accidental impacts. Further, final calculations are to be made in the dynamic statement. In this case, the problem of search is solved using the criterion of minimizing the integral safety margin of structural elements in a steel moment frame design. Calculations prevent the frame stability loss. The calculation is performed in the quasi-static statement using models made in compliance with the deformation theory of plasticity, while the calculation in the dynamic statement takes into account the associated plastic flow rule. The proposed procedures allow for designing steel moment frames that are resistant to accidental emergency impacts. Impact loading is analysed as pulse loading, which is statically equivalent to the dynamic effect of an inelastic impact of a stiff body on a structural system. The design and the efficiency evaluation of a steel moment frame of a two-story building are considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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21 pages, 9265 KiB  
Article
LOD of a Computational Numerical Model for Evaluating the Mechanical Safety of Steel Structures
by Olga Tusnina and Anatoly Alekseytsev
Buildings 2023, 13(8), 1941; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13081941 - 30 Jul 2023
Viewed by 770
Abstract
The article addressed the relevant problem of building information modeling. The suggestion was to introduce a BIM-based expert system into the design process. The proposed expert system encompasses the development of three levels of detail for a calculation model and digital interactive models [...] Read more.
The article addressed the relevant problem of building information modeling. The suggestion was to introduce a BIM-based expert system into the design process. The proposed expert system encompasses the development of three levels of detail for a calculation model and digital interactive models of applicable regulatory documents. The proposed expert model has a modular structure, and it has a control module, a calculation scheme development module, a module for interaction with FEM solvers, and a module in charge of the database of interactive digital design standards. Standard operating conditions and non-standard emergency impacts are taken into account. The case of design standards for steel structures was used to describe the interaction between the expert system and the information model, and the characteristics and the structure of a digital model of a regulatory document. The data, calculated using the proposed LOD, were compared with the experimental findings. The structure of a real industrial building was designed, and its safety was evaluated. The proposed approach is a proven method applicable for designing safe bearing structures. In addition, their adequate deformation is most accurately taken account of at the stage of normal accident-free operation and in emergency situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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19 pages, 8105 KiB  
Article
Engineering Method for Calculating Temperature Deformations of PVC Window Profiles with a Reinforcing Steel Core
by Aleksandr Petrovich Konstantinov and Ivan Sergeevich Aksenov
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1466; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061466 - 05 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1228
Abstract
In current engineering practice, static calculation of windows for temperature loads is not performed. However, the existing experience in operating PVC windows in environmental conditions of Eastern and Northern Europe shows that the temperature deformation of such structures can reach values comparable to [...] Read more.
In current engineering practice, static calculation of windows for temperature loads is not performed. However, the existing experience in operating PVC windows in environmental conditions of Eastern and Northern Europe shows that the temperature deformation of such structures can reach values comparable to those of wind loads, which leads to a significant reduction in their technical and operational characteristics. Temperature deformations of windows can be assessed during laboratory tests. However, such tests are not representative. In this regard, it is necessary to develop an engineering method for calculating temperature deformations of windows. In this study, the authors present the results of the analysis of temperature deformations of PVC window profiles. The investigations were divided into several stages. First, the authors numerically analysed the character of temperature distribution over the cross section of PVC window profiles. Then, they theoretically substantiated the bending deformations of PVC window profiles disregarding the reinforcing steel core. Next, the authors considered the patterns of bending deformations of PVC window profiles, taking into account the presence of a reinforcing steel core in various schemes of their connection to each other. The authors also analysed the effect of the temperature dependence of the mechanical properties of PVC on the deformation of window profiles. The character of torsional temperature deformations of PVC window profiles was also studied. As a result of this investigation, the authors proposed a simplified analytical and numerical method for calculating the temperature deformations of PVC window profiles with a reinforcing steel core. The authors have used the proposed methods to calculate the temperature deformations of PVC window mullions (vertical bars that divide the window into parts). These theoretical calculations were compared with the experimental investigations data on PVC windows and showed a fine precision of results (the discrepancy was 10.6%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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23 pages, 2762 KiB  
Article
Size and Topology Optimization of Truss Structures Using Quantum-Based HS Algorithm
by Donwoo Lee, Sudeok Shon, Seungjae Lee and Junhong Ha
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1436; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061436 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1030
Abstract
With the development of various metaheuristic algorithms, research cases that perform weight optimization of truss structures are steadily progressing. In particular, due to the possibility of developing quantum computers, metaheuristic algorithms combined with quantum computation are being developed. In this paper, the QbHS [...] Read more.
With the development of various metaheuristic algorithms, research cases that perform weight optimization of truss structures are steadily progressing. In particular, due to the possibility of developing quantum computers, metaheuristic algorithms combined with quantum computation are being developed. In this paper, the QbHS (Quantum based Harmony Search) algorithm was proposed by combining quantum computation and the conventional HS (Harmony Search) algorithms, and the size and topology optimization of the truss structure was performed. The QbHS algorithm has the same repetitive computational structure as the conventional HS algorithm. However, the QbHS algorithm constructed QHM (Quantum Harmony Memory) using the probability of Q-bit and proposed to perform pitch adjusting using the basic state of Q-bit. To perform weight optimization of truss structures using the proposed QbHS algorithm, 20 bar, 24 bar, and 72-bar truss structures were adopted as examples and compared with the results of the QE (Quantum Evolutionary) algorithm. As a result, it was confirmed that the QbHS algorithm had excellent convergence performance by finding a lower weight than the QE algorithm. In addition, by expressing the weight optimization results of the truss structure with an image coordinate system, the topology of the truss structure could be confirmed only by the picture. The results of this study are expected to play an important role in future computer information systems by combining quantum computation and conventional HS algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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13 pages, 1453 KiB  
Article
Implementation of the Weak Link Problem for Trusses
by Leonid Stupishin and Vladimir Mondrus
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1230; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051230 - 07 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1024
Abstract
This article examines the application of the theory of critical strain energy levels to the determination of the limiting states of rod systems. A redundant truss is chosen to illustrate the peculiarities of changes in the self-stressing states of the structure at critical [...] Read more.
This article examines the application of the theory of critical strain energy levels to the determination of the limiting states of rod systems. A redundant truss is chosen to illustrate the peculiarities of changes in the self-stressing states of the structure at critical strain energy levels. The removal of ties when they reach their stress or strain limits leads to a change in the state of self-stress in the structure, which is illustrated by the removal of the rods in the trusses. The matrix notation of the governing equations for the structure allows us to visualize both the formulation of the problem and the course of its solution. We present the formulation and algorithm for solving the problem of a weak link in the structure by the example of a five-core redundant truss. The basic equations of matrix structural mechanics are given, allowing us to implement the algorithm and to determine the unknown parameters of the problem in the form of the method of displacements and the method of forces. The mathematical model of the problem is presented in the form of an eigenvalues problem, which allows us to investigate the extreme properties of the structure’s strain energy in the whole area of admissible parameter values, including the boundaries. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors make it possible to determine the extreme values of the nodal reactive forces of the structure or displacements, depending on the chosen formulation of the problem. The internal forces and deformations in the rods depend on the nodal vectors of external influences. The applied design load is balanced by the internal forces of the system and remains unchanged. This follows from the equality of the work of external forces to a part of the potential energy of the structure. The remaining part of the strain energy allows us to find the limit values of the reactive response of the structure to external actions. Additional actions on the structure can lead to the bearing capacity lost if they exceed the limits of the structure’s response. Examples show an algorithm for finding the weak link in a structure and identifying the rods that will be the first to fail under external loads. The matrices of stiffness and flexibility are formed, and the eigenvalues and vectors are found, which allow for the construction of the limit surface of allowable influences on the structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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23 pages, 4540 KiB  
Article
Finite Element Analysis of the Bearing Capacity of Beamless Floor Slabs under Punching, Taking into Account the Design Parameters of the Contacting Elements
by Tatiana Matseevich
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1221; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051221 - 05 May 2023
Viewed by 1223
Abstract
Static calculations of experimental models in an elastic formulation were carried out, and the regularities connecting the dependences of forces in the calculated cross-section of punching out from the main structural parameters of contacting elements (reinforced concrete slabs and pylons) and from the [...] Read more.
Static calculations of experimental models in an elastic formulation were carried out, and the regularities connecting the dependences of forces in the calculated cross-section of punching out from the main structural parameters of contacting elements (reinforced concrete slabs and pylons) and from the used concrete class were revealed. This article concerns the safety issues of reinforced concrete slabs under punching with different ratios and combinations of pylon and slab thickness parameters, as well as concrete strength. The objectives of the research are consideration of the fracture pattern of reinforced concrete monolithic slabs due to punching shear; comparative analysis of modern normative calculation methods and flat reinforced concrete slabs due to static punching shear; finite element modelling and analysis of the punching shear calculation results for reinforced concrete floor slabs; and the force distribution over the area of the contacting elements-saw and floor slab. The practical significance of the results lies in the use of the obtained forces in the contacting elements for the calculation and design of reliable structures of beamless floor slabs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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19 pages, 4988 KiB  
Article
Safety of Reinforced Concrete Columns: Effect of Initial Imperfections and Material Deterioration under Emergency Actions
by Anatoly Victorovich Alekseytsev and Natalia Sergeevna Kurchenko
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1054; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041054 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1448
Abstract
The effect of (1) initial imperfections and (2) material degradation of reinforced concrete columns on their safety in emergency situations was investigated. The research was limited to low- and medium-flexibility columns. Numerical modeling and proven regulatory methods of analysis were applied to determine [...] Read more.
The effect of (1) initial imperfections and (2) material degradation of reinforced concrete columns on their safety in emergency situations was investigated. The research was limited to low- and medium-flexibility columns. Numerical modeling and proven regulatory methods of analysis were applied to determine the ultimate bearing capacity, taking into account supplementary dynamic loading by a longitudinal force and a bending moment in case of emergency. The numerical model, describing the column structure, has 3D elements simulating concrete, and rebars simulating reinforcement frames (cages). Imperfections are simulated by (1) the physical loss of elements, (2) unzip of nodal elements, and (3) unzip and further zip using nonlinear elements simulating gaps and cohesion between concrete and reinforcement. Implicit dynamics and an incremental method were employed to make computations. Within the framework of this computational scheme, a nonlinear problem was solved using the Newton–Raphson method with nodal forces convergence. The effect of imperfections, such as geometrical deviations and deterioration of mechanical characteristics, on the bearing capacity of compressed bending elements was identified under emergency actions. Risks of mechanical safety loss were analyzed to find that columns in the frame structures of highly hazardous, technically complex, and unique buildings and structures, subjected to supplementary loading, need an additional safety margin in the range of 3–21%. Rectangular cross-sections of columns are the most effective in terms of the safety criterion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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21 pages, 9986 KiB  
Article
Bearing Capacity of Steel Trusses with Local Damage Considering the Exclusion Time
by Alexander Tusnin and Maria Berger
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 938; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13040938 - 01 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1200
Abstract
To ensure the safety of buildings and structures, they must maintain their bearing capacity in case of local damage. The article is devoted to the study of the robustness of damaged steel trusses, as well as the time during which local destruction of [...] Read more.
To ensure the safety of buildings and structures, they must maintain their bearing capacity in case of local damage. The article is devoted to the study of the robustness of damaged steel trusses, as well as the time during which local destruction of the trusses occurs. Finding a solution to this problem is one of the key stages in the development of a practical methodology for calculating steel trusses’ resistance to the local destruction of elements. The time from the beginning of destruction to the complete failure of the element is proposed to be called the exclusion time. Based on the performed theoretical and numerical studies, for the quasi-static calculation it is recommended to use the values of the dynamic coefficient for the considered steel trusses. In the numerical formulation, the work of steel trusses as part of the building frame was investigated along with local destruction of individual elements of the truss. Numerical studies have shown that the shorter the failure time of the truss element, the greater the dynamic forces arising in the structure. The frame of the building is considered as a spatial system. A numerical dynamic analysis of the spatial coverage is carried out, taking into account the local failure of one of the truss elements. The distribution of the dynamic coefficient over the steel trusses is obtained. This made it possible to study the effect of local failure on the intact load-bearing structures. The article presents the results of a series of experimental studies of flat trusses aimed at determining the time of failure of a steel truss element. Based on the results obtained, the failure time of the damaged rod and the redistribution of efforts to the neighboring elements of the truss were calculated. In accordance with the calculated failure time, recommendations were formulated to reduce the value of the dynamic coefficient used in the static calculation, depending on the types of damage to the truss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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36 pages, 5484 KiB  
Article
Physico-Chemical Substantiation of Obtaining an Effective Cement Composite with Ultrafine GGBS Admixture
by Irina Kozlova, Svetlana Samchenko and Olga Zemskova
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 925; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13040925 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1200
Abstract
To solve a number of problems in construction materials science, composites with nano and ultrafine admixtures were analyzed. Their properties were studied, taking into account the variants of homogenization and stabilization of the system. To characterize the processes of the structure formation of [...] Read more.
To solve a number of problems in construction materials science, composites with nano and ultrafine admixtures were analyzed. Their properties were studied, taking into account the variants of homogenization and stabilization of the system. To characterize the processes of the structure formation of a new material, mathematical methods were also applied. According to the literature review, the aim of the work was formulated. The subject of this research is to conduct physico-chemical studies that characterize the processes occurring during the homogenization and stabilization of the cement system with GGBS components and to establish the effect of the admixture on the properties of the composite. To achieve this goal, an ultrafine admixture based on GGBS was obtained, and the possibility of its introduction into the cement system in the form of a stabilized suspension instead of mixing water was considered. To provide increased characteristics of cement stone modified with the ultrafine admixture, a number of tests were carried out to study homogenization and stabilization of fine slag particles in suspension. The ultrasonic processing parameters were defined to provide uniform distribution of fine slag additive in the suspension: the processing time is 15–20 min, the frequency of ultrasonic vibrations is 44 kHz, the temperature of the dispersed medium is 25 ± 2 °C. To define physical and chemical processes appearing during the introduction of fine slag into water and water-polymer dispersed medium, the mechanism of interaction between fine slag and water was studied. In addition, the mechanism of chemisorption on the surface of fine slag particles and the stabilization mechanism of ultrafine slag particles with a plasticizer was studied to form the concept of aggregate and sedimentation stability of slag particles in suspension. It was found that the stabilization of fine slag particles by a plasticizer is significantly influenced by the hardness of water. The higher the water hardness, the more plasticizer required to stabilize the fine slag particles. At the same time, it was established that the concentration of the plasticizer should not exceed the critical micelle concentration value. If it is exceeded, the plasticizer solution transforms into the micellar colloidal system, and the stabilization of fine slag suspension will not occur. The studies of homogenization and stabilization of the slag suspension allowed the authors to substantiate the possibility of uniform distribution of fine particles in the cement matrix, followed by the formation of a denser and stronger cement stone structure. Cement-sand samples based on Portland cement (OPC) and slag-Portland cement (SPC) with GGBFS admixture showed higher compressive and flexural strength characteristics in the initial hardening periods and at 28 days. It was found that modified samples are more stable in an aggressive medium. On the 90th day of exposure, the resistance coefficient was 0.9 for a modified sample based on OPC and 0.98 for a modified sample based on SPC. The increased sulfate attack resistance of the samples is due to the formation of a dense stone with reduced porosity. It is noted that the porosity of modified OPC samples decreases by 14% and by 18% for SPC-based modified samples compared to the control sample at 28 days. Due to the fact that pores in the cement stone are blocked with hydration products, which make the structure of the cement stone denser, the filtration of aggressive solutions deep into its structure is difficult. Thus, the obtained concrete based on a cement composite with ultrafine slag can be applied as a protective layer of steel reinforcement in a reinforced concrete structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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19 pages, 6931 KiB  
Article
Optimization of the Temperature and Thermo-Stressed State of a Concrete Dam Constructed from Particularly Lean Roller-Compacted Concrete
by Nikolai Alekseevich Aniskin and Alexey Mikhailovich Shaytanov
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13040914 - 30 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1013
Abstract
In this paper, we consider the optimization of temperature conditions and the thermo-stressed state of a concrete gravity dam made of extra lean roller-compacted concrete constructed in climate conditions corresponding to the Pskem HPP in the Republic of Uzbekistan. We show the need [...] Read more.
In this paper, we consider the optimization of temperature conditions and the thermo-stressed state of a concrete gravity dam made of extra lean roller-compacted concrete constructed in climate conditions corresponding to the Pskem HPP in the Republic of Uzbekistan. We show the need to take into account the effect of solar radiation on the heating of the concrete mass during the layer-by-layer construction of a gravity dam. A methodology was used to estimate solar radiation, considering cloud cover and the use of field and satellite observations. The seasonality of the concrete work and the terrain surrounding the construction site were also examined. We assessed the degree of influence of the factors acting on the formation of the temperature regime and the thermo-stressed state using the factor experiment technique. Regression equations, which allowed us to estimate the values of temperature and thermal stress arising in the structure during the construction period, were obtained. The created numerical model has been used for the estimation and optimization of the thermo-stressed state of the Pskem HPP dam option made of low-cement roller-compacted concrete. On the basis of calculations of the stress–strain state in elastic and elastic-plastic formulations, the possible cracking of concrete was evaluated. The competitiveness of the considered concrete option of the dam with the ground one is shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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23 pages, 12491 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Numerical Investigations of RC Frame Stability Failure under a Corner Column Removal Scenario
by Sergey Savin, Vitaly Kolchunov, Natalia Fedorova and Ngoc Tuyen Vu
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 908; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13040908 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1522
Abstract
In recent decades, interest in the resistance of buildings and structures to progressive collapse has been increasingly sparked in research communities. Although several experimental, numerical, and analytical research projects on the robustness of building frames under a column removal scenario have been implemented, [...] Read more.
In recent decades, interest in the resistance of buildings and structures to progressive collapse has been increasingly sparked in research communities. Although several experimental, numerical, and analytical research projects on the robustness of building frames under a column removal scenario have been implemented, some aspects of this problem remain understudied. These aspects encompass failure mechanisms of reinforced concrete frames with slender columns, as well as criteria used to evaluate such failures. This paper focuses on experimental and numerical investigations of the structural behavior and failure of a scale reinforced concrete frame with slender columns under a sudden corner column removal scenario. In addition, we analyze the stability failure mechanism of a reinforced concrete frame with slender columns and the tangent stiffness criterion, which allow for evaluation of the ultimate state of a structure subjected to an accidental impact. A scale physical model of a reinforced concrete frame of a multistory building was designed and tested using the theory of functional similarity. For numerical study purposes, a finite element model was made that exactly the same as the test frame. We validated the findings by comparing simulation results and experimental data. The studies on the behavior of a reinforced concrete frame subjected to quasistatic loading with unequal concentrated loads identified the load transfer between columns through beams. Although these effects were minor in the frame under consideration, they can become more significant in cases of long-term loading. Numerical simulation and physical modeling of an accidental impact allowed for identification of the mechanism of load capacity exhaustion triggered by stability failure. Such failure was fragile. The moment of stability failure of the column of the experimental frame corresponded to the extremum on the force–displacement curve, indicating that zero tangent stiffness was reached. Hence, a criterion of tangent stiffness can be proposed for evaluation of the ultimate state of a structure subjected to an accidental impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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16 pages, 5904 KiB  
Article
Modifying the Sand Concrete with Recycled Tyre Polymer Fiber to Increase the Crack Resistance of Building Structures
by Svetlana V. Samchenko and Oksana A. Larsen
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 897; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13040897 - 29 Mar 2023
Viewed by 982
Abstract
Recently, the use of recycled tyre polymer fiber derived from waste tires as a concrete reinforcement has received a great deal of attention. The recycled tyre polymer fiber is a promising additive to concrete for building materials which require resistance against cracking. In [...] Read more.
Recently, the use of recycled tyre polymer fiber derived from waste tires as a concrete reinforcement has received a great deal of attention. The recycled tyre polymer fiber is a promising additive to concrete for building materials which require resistance against cracking. In this work, the effect of treated and untreated fiber on the properties of sand concrete was studied. It was shown that recycled tyre polymer fiber consists mainly of different fractions of crumb rubber, fiber, and metal fiber. The main polymer components in the fiber are polyamide and polyester threads of 6.5 mm length (l) and 0.05 mm diameter (d); the ratio l/d = 150; and the average fiber density is 0.923 g/cm3. It was established that the addition of untreated recycled tyre polymer fiber in the amounts of 11 and 19 kg/m3 into sand concrete leads to a decrease in compressive and flexural strengths by 15% and 21%, respectively. The reinforcement of concrete with the treated fiber in the amounts of 5 and 10 kg/m3 increases the flexural strength by 14% and 23.4%, respectively. The prismatic strength of the concrete which contents 5 and 10 kg/m3 of the treated polymer fiber was lower than that of ordinary concrete by 10.8% and 4.6%, respectively. The obtained results showed that the use of recycled tyre polymer fiber increases the crack resistance of concrete. The recycled tyre polymer fiber can be used as a cost-effective alternative to other types of low-modulus fibers to produce durable building materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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16 pages, 4938 KiB  
Article
Optimization of the Composition of Cement Pastes Using Combined Additives of Alumoferrites and Gypsum in Order to Increase the Durability of Concrete
by Svetlana V. Samchenko, Irina V. Kozlova and Andrey V. Korshunov
Buildings 2023, 13(2), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13020565 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1472
Abstract
The reliability of concrete structures is closely related to the durability of the concrete materials stable under external environmental conditions. The present study is aimed at analysing the effect of a prospective hardening additive containing calcium alumoferrites and calcium sulfate (AFCS) as a [...] Read more.
The reliability of concrete structures is closely related to the durability of the concrete materials stable under external environmental conditions. The present study is aimed at analysing the effect of a prospective hardening additive containing calcium alumoferrites and calcium sulfate (AFCS) as a substitute (5–15%) for Portland cement. The hardened cement pastes were characterized by water absorption, shrinkage, strength and corrosion resistance. It was shown that replacing a part of Portland cement with the AFCS additive results in an increase in the strength of fine-grained concrete and in the water resistance grade of concrete. The use of the AFCS additive in the mixed cements reduces the shrinkage of cement stone, resulting in shrinkage-free fine-grained concretes. The increased corrosion resistance of the hardened cement paste is caused by a chemical (saturation) equilibrium between corrosive medium and a cement stone. Penetration of sulphate ions from corrosive solution into the hardened cement paste is much lower, unlike Portland cement. Following saturation of the hardened cement paste with sulphate ions, their further penetration into the cement stone does not occur. Based on the results of the study, recommendations were developed for the use of the hardening alumoferrite-gypsum additive to Portland cement, which allows to improve the mechanical and corrosion characteristics of concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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20 pages, 3097 KiB  
Article
The Structural Behaviour of Tension Steel Rods Strengthened with Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials
by Alexander Tusnin and Evgeniy Shchurov
Buildings 2023, 13(2), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13020375 - 29 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1470
Abstract
Strengthening can increase or recover the bearing capacity of steel constructions of buildings and structures in operation. Besides well-known strengthening techniques, including an increase in the sectional area by means of attaching steel plates, angles, channels, pipes etc. to a strengthened element, other [...] Read more.
Strengthening can increase or recover the bearing capacity of steel constructions of buildings and structures in operation. Besides well-known strengthening techniques, including an increase in the sectional area by means of attaching steel plates, angles, channels, pipes etc. to a strengthened element, other methods, that involve the use of carbon fiber-reinforced composite materials, have strong prospects. So far, the structural behaviour of steel constructions, strengthened with carbon fiber-reinforced composite materials, is understudied, and this fact restrains the practical application of this strengthening method. The article presents the results of complex experimental, theoretical and numerical studies of the features of the operation of steel-stretched elements reinforced with glued carbon fiber. The emphasis is on the load-bearing capacity of the reinforced element, and not on the mechanism of destruction of the glue. This is due to the use of an adhesive joint performed using the glue and gluing technology recommended by the manufacturer of carbon fiber. It has been experimentally established that, in this case, the stresses in carbon fiber cannot exceed a certain value. Theoretical dependences for the calculation of CFRP-reinforced steel stretched elements are proposed. The scientific novelty of this research project is a set of basic principles and methods, developed to identify the bearing capacity of steel rods, strengthened with carbon fiber-reinforced composite materials, taking into account the joint strength performance of a steel rod and adhesively bonded carbon-fiber-reinforced composite material, as well as the new findings thus obtained, such as the theoretical dependencies needed to identify the bearing capacity of steel rods strengthened with carbon-fiber-reinforced composite materials; experimental data on the joint strength performance of carbon-fiber-reinforced composite lamellas attached to a steel rod by an adhesive; experimental data on the performance and the bearing capacity of steel rods strengthened with carbon-fiber-reinforced composite lamellas; development of finite element models of steel rods strengthened with carbon-fiber-reinforced composite materials, and computational studies of steel rods strengthened with carbon fiber-reinforced composite materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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23 pages, 6436 KiB  
Article
Structural Design Optimization of Flat Slab Hospital Buildings Using Genetic Algorithms
by Ahmed Aidy, Mohammed Rady, Ibrahim Mohsen Mashhour and Sameh Youssef Mahfouz
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2195; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122195 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3903
Abstract
The construction costs of hospital buildings are relatively high due to the need to fulfill their complex functions and avoid mishaps. In this context, this study aims to minimize the total construction costs of hospitals while still satisfying the special architectural, practical, and [...] Read more.
The construction costs of hospital buildings are relatively high due to the need to fulfill their complex functions and avoid mishaps. In this context, this study aims to minimize the total construction costs of hospitals while still satisfying the special architectural, practical, and structural requirements specified by design codes. To this end, 48 design alternatives with two floor systems (flat slabs with and without drop panels), three column spacings, and eight concrete grades were optimized using genetic algorithms provided by Palisade Evolver. The objective function included the materials and labor costs per square meter of the floor plan. The decision variables involved the concrete dimensions and steel bars of floors and columns. The hospital buildings were subjected to gravity, earthquake, and wind loads to thoroughly examine the realistic loading conditions. The design was performed in accordance with the Egyptian code for the design and construction of concrete structures and the Egyptian guidelines for hospitals and healthcare facilities. The results revealed that using low-strength concrete, and flat slabs without drop panels could achieve the best design. The slab thickness had a governing impact on the total cost of both floor systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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19 pages, 5194 KiB  
Article
Scheduling Optimization Using an Adapted Genetic Algorithm with Due Regard for Random Project Interruptions
by Anatoly V. Alekseytsev and Sodiqjon H. Nadirov
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2051; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122051 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1865
Abstract
Current socio-economic conditions impose certain requirements on construction and renovation projects that need new methods making evaluations of construction work performance schedules more reliable. Towards this end, the authors propose a consolidated methodology of construction work scheduling based on the interval estimation technique. [...] Read more.
Current socio-economic conditions impose certain requirements on construction and renovation projects that need new methods making evaluations of construction work performance schedules more reliable. Towards this end, the authors propose a consolidated methodology of construction work scheduling based on the interval estimation technique. The boundaries of the interval, as well as determining minimum and maximum construction time, are obtained by minimizing and maximizing the term of construction work performance by introducing random interruptions into successions of critical and subcritical works. Such reasons for interruptions as the failure of key construction machines, unavailability of labor resources, and accidental man-induced or natural impacts are considered. Risk calculations are employed to devise an approach to evaluating the reliability of construction schedules, including minor schedules designated for single-facility projects and major schedules developed for projects that encompass the construction of groups of buildings and structures. Projects on construction of monolithic reinforced concrete frames of buildings were used to verify the efficiency of the proposed approaches to work performance scheduling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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14 pages, 4151 KiB  
Article
Ensuring the Durability of Buildings through the Use of Insulation Systems Based on Polyethylene Foam
by Aleksey Zhukov, Irina Stepina and Sofia Bazhenova
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 1937; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12111937 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3011
Abstract
In modern polymer composite technology, the use of waste products from other industries or processed waste is reasonable, but this requires more research. The purpose of the research presented in the article was to develop a methodology for selecting the composition of modified [...] Read more.
In modern polymer composite technology, the use of waste products from other industries or processed waste is reasonable, but this requires more research. The purpose of the research presented in the article was to develop a methodology for selecting the composition of modified polyethylene foam and to assess the flammability of the materials obtained. In these studies, the content of recycled polyethylene, as a result of solving optimization problems, was taken to be equal to 23% of the mass of the polymer. CO2 was used as the foaming gas. The structure of the polymer was modified with flame retardant. This made it possible to obtain materials belonging to the group of flammable, self-extinguishing materials, which significantly expanded the field of application of products based on polyethylene foam. Taking into account the possibilities of seamless insulation casings, the following systems of application of products based on polyethylene foam are considered: floors under mechanical load on the ground; permafrost soil insulation; insulation of external building elements in harsh climatic conditions; floating floors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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19 pages, 4240 KiB  
Article
The Criteria for Assessing the Safety of Buildings with a Reinforced Concrete Frame during an Earthquake after a Fire
by Ashot Tamrazyan and Tatiana Matseevich
Buildings 2022, 12(10), 1662; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12101662 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1601
Abstract
In the paper, there was researched sensitivity of the criteria for evaluation of seismic resistance of reinforced structures (modes and frequencies of oscillations, displacements, and strains) in relation to various position of fire impact as exemplified by three-span five-storey reinforced concrete space frame. [...] Read more.
In the paper, there was researched sensitivity of the criteria for evaluation of seismic resistance of reinforced structures (modes and frequencies of oscillations, displacements, and strains) in relation to various position of fire impact as exemplified by three-span five-storey reinforced concrete space frame. The relevance of the study is justified, the degree of the problem’s development is grounded. There were analyzed the main lines of the research connected with experimental and numerical testing of both discrete structures and full-sized buildings. Numerical analysis was conducted by means of the software complex Ansys, the linear-spectral method was used. Fire impact is simulated by means of damages to reinforced concrete members in one of the building’s units. 16 variants of points of fire outbreak were considered. According to the calculation results, it was stated that for all the variants of fire outbreak frequencies of self-oscillations for reinforced concrete frames after the fire had been found lower than for the non-damaged frame. The modal analysis has shown that the type of longitudinal and bending oscillations had undergone changes. The maximum amplitude of frames’ oscillations after the fire was found insignificantly lower than for the non-damaged frame. Within the floor of fire outbreak location, the displacement increased immensely so that led to failure to comply with the value of inter-floor shifts and the increase of the 2nd order effects. Redistribution of bending moments in reinforced concrete framings was observed. The loading in damaged members decreased due to the members’ strain capacity whereas the extra loading is added to the adjacent members. If compared with the case of the frame non-damaged by fire, overloading of columns can reach up to 20%. Conceptual description of fracture behavior of the frame is outlined assuming its non-linear behavior. The possible lines of further development are set for the methods of seismic analysis of the buildings with reinforced concrete frame after the event of fire. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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29 pages, 24499 KiB  
Article
Features of Assessment and Formation of the Aeration Regime of Residential Development on the Sloping Lands of the Russian Arctic
by Nina Danilina and Anna Korobeynikova
Buildings 2022, 12(10), 1627; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12101627 - 07 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1382
Abstract
The urban development of areas in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation is a relevant and important task to be tackled by contemporary urban planners. This focus is largely explained by the development of the Northern Sea Route (NSR) and its port [...] Read more.
The urban development of areas in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation is a relevant and important task to be tackled by contemporary urban planners. This focus is largely explained by the development of the Northern Sea Route (NSR) and its port cities. Last but not least, to develop these cities means to ensure a comfortable living environment for local residents and visiting specialists. However, given the harsh climate in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, this task requires a more elaborate approach. Current building techniques, designed for flatlands with relatively comfortable climates, cannot be applied to this territory without degrading the quality of the living environment. Environmental comfort is influenced by many factors, and one of them is the aeration regime. This study is aimed at researching the aeration regime of built-up areas on the sloping lands of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation and identifying the features of its formation. The object of this study is a residential development on the sloping lands of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. The subject of the study is the external aeration regime at the level of 1.2 m from the ground level of the residential development on the sloping lands of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. These parameters were explored, and the aeration regime was assessed using such advanced software packages as QG for the GIS analysis of the area and ANSYS Fluent for the mathematical modeling of the aeration regime. The results of the research are presented in the form of graphs, dependency tables, and petal diagrams visually demonstrating the distribution of discomfortable zones for different morphotypes of development on various slopes most widely spread in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. The theoretical research was pilot-tested in the existing residential development area in Murmansk. The results of the study are usable in practice if respective land use documents are drafted for residential areas of settlements in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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Review

Jump to: Research

20 pages, 348 KiB  
Review
A Review of Concrete Carbonation and Approaches to Its Research under Irradiation
by Vyacheslav Medvedev and Andrey Pustovgar
Buildings 2023, 13(8), 1998; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13081998 - 05 Aug 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2468
Abstract
The current state of knowledge on concrete carbonation has proven that this phenomenon is one of the key factors influencing the reinforced concrete durability reduction during the operational period. To date, the carbonation process has been researched quite deeply; however, the dependence of [...] Read more.
The current state of knowledge on concrete carbonation has proven that this phenomenon is one of the key factors influencing the reinforced concrete durability reduction during the operational period. To date, the carbonation process has been researched quite deeply; however, the dependence of its course on a variety of external and internal factors poses a significant problem in service life predictions for concrete constructions. The development of nuclear infrastructure around the world in recent years has set scientists the task of investigating such processes in conditions different from those usual for industrial and civil construction. In particular, information in open sources on the course of the carbonation process under irradiation conditions is insufficient. The manuscript analyzes the existing data on concrete carbonation, including a review of the main methods for studying the carbonation process, key factors influencing the course of this process, applied methods of mathematical analysis, predictive models of service life, dynamics of carbonation development, and the application of such analytical models in practice. The available information about the carbonation process under various types of irradiations on the causes, dynamics, and mechanisms of carbonation and corrosion processes occurring in reinforced concrete during operation is also considered. Based on the results of the analysis carried out in the study, recommendations are given for further development in the research field of carbonation process in concrete structures of nuclear power plants in order to comprehensively predict their service life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Optimization of Building Structures)
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