Public–Private Partnerships (PPPs) for Construction Project Deliveries

A special issue of Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309). This special issue belongs to the section "Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2024 | Viewed by 12365

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
School of Engineering and Built Environment, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Southport, Australia
Interests: project delivery; project management; knowledge management; value management; human behaviour

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The concept of public–private partnership (PPP) is not new. Indeed, it has been with us for as long as private funds have been used to provide a facility or service that can be used by the general public. This arrangement has been implemented in many countries, and is used in different sectors of an economy, especially infrastructure or capital projects. PPP combines the efforts of the public and private sectors to provide a facility for use by the public. It is defined as:

“… a combination of resources of the public and private sectors in the quest for the more efficient service provision” (Akintoye et al., 2003)

“…partnerships between the public sector and the private for the purpose of designing, planning, financing, and constructing and operation of projects which would be regarded traditionally has following within their remit of the public sector” (Webb and Pulle, 2002)

“...the government and private party working together under a long term arrangements, whereby payments to the private sector depend upon its continuing to deliver the specific services to the agreed performance standards” (Pierce and Little, 2002)

“… a corporate venture between public and private sectors, built on expertise of each partner that best meets the clearly defined public need to the appropriate application of resource risks and rewards” (Allan, 1999)

Without a universally agreed definition of PPP, the World Bank in 2017 produced a holistic view of what a PPP is, and defined it as “a long-term contract between a private party and a government entity, for providing a public asset or service, in which the private party bears significant risk and management responsibility and remuneration is linked to performance” (World Bank, 2017: 1).

With the inclusion of these useful definitions of PPP, this Special Issue will invite authors, both academics and practitioners, to shed light on this very important topic through submitting high-quality papers on one or more of the following topics related to PPP:

  • Transfer of risk;
  • Value for money;
  • Management;
  • Innovation;
  • Social;
  • Legal;
  • Economic;
  • Environmental;
  • Political.

We hope that this Special Issue will become an important one-stop reference for both academics and practitioners on the topic of PPP.

Dr. Patrick S.W. Fong
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • public–private partnership
  • projects
  • risks
  • effectiveness
  • politics and economy
  • project delivery
  • decision to invest
  • value for money
  • relationships
  • legal aspects

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 3901 KiB  
Article
Why Are PPP Projects Stagnating in China? An Evolutionary Analysis of China’s PPP Policies
by Yougui Li, Erman Xu, Zhuoyou Zhang, Shuxian He, Xiaoyan Jiang and Martin Skitmore
Buildings 2024, 14(4), 1160; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14041160 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 429
Abstract
The Public–Private Partnership (PPP) model has significantly contributed to global infrastructure and public service provision. The evolution of the PPP model closely aligns with policy directives. China’s PPP policy evolution has included five stages: budding (1986–2000), fluctuating (2001–2008), steady (2009–2012), expanding (2013–2018), and [...] Read more.
The Public–Private Partnership (PPP) model has significantly contributed to global infrastructure and public service provision. The evolution of the PPP model closely aligns with policy directives. China’s PPP policy evolution has included five stages: budding (1986–2000), fluctuating (2001–2008), steady (2009–2012), expanding (2013–2018), and stagnating (2019–present). This study employs bibliometric analysis and co-word analysis to examine 407 policies enacted by the Chinese government from 1986 to 2018. By extracting policy text keywords at various stages and constructing a co-word network matrix, this study delineates the distinctive characteristics of Chinese PPP policies across different epochs. It can be found that critical areas such as “government credit”, “contract spirit”, and “power supervision” are still underappreciated. The challenges confronting China’s PPP model are multifaceted, stemming from policy gaps that have led to substantial project difficulties. Although the government proposed a new mechanism for franchising in 2023, the new mechanism is only for new PPP projects, and the difficulties of existing PPP projects have not been solved. This study advocates for enhancements in project bankability, regulatory clarity, institutional environment improvement, contract spirit defense, and the development of the PPP-REITs model to address these issues. Full article
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36 pages, 13879 KiB  
Article
Riesgo: A Knowledge-Based Qualitative Risk Assessment System for PPP Projects
by Kadir Kuru and Deniz Artan
Buildings 2024, 14(4), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14040953 - 30 Mar 2024
Viewed by 636
Abstract
A successful public-private partnership (PPP) relies heavily on effective risk assessment, given the intricate risk factors and contractual arrangements involved. While quantitative risk assessment methods have received significant attention in the PPP literature, qualitative risk assessment, the sector’s predominant preference, remains underexplored, causing [...] Read more.
A successful public-private partnership (PPP) relies heavily on effective risk assessment, given the intricate risk factors and contractual arrangements involved. While quantitative risk assessment methods have received significant attention in the PPP literature, qualitative risk assessment, the sector’s predominant preference, remains underexplored, causing a low level of applicability of academic studies and indicating a noticeable research gap. A qualitative risk assessment tool prototype, Riesgo, is developed in this paper as a customizable, knowledge-based digital risk register incorporating a pre-defined template that guides users using PPP risk factors, compensation and mitigation options, project information requirements, and risk register items. This paper presents the proposed system architecture, explains the research steps adopted in determining the system elements, and delineates the system functions through a use case developed to illustrate the process and information flows. The prototype was verified by 13 PPP experts who employed it for risk assessment, and their feedback was utilized for further development. A validation survey of 21 professionals affirmed Riesgo’s usability and applicability in the industry. The customizable and knowledge-based prototype has the potential to streamline effective risk assessment and guide the users across various PPP phases, such as early risk assessment, feasibility studies, contract preparation, and monitoring. Full article
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20 pages, 707 KiB  
Article
Determining the Critical Risk Factors of Implementing Public–Private Partnership in Water and Wastewater Infrastructure Facilities: Perspectives of Private and Public Partners in Iran
by Leila Moradi Shahdadi, Babak Aminnejad, Hadi Sarvari and Daniel W. M. Chan
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2735; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112735 - 30 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1331
Abstract
Due to the fact that risks can cause project delays and increase project implementation costs, successful construction project completion requires effective and holistic risk management. Identification and evaluation of critical risk factors (CRFs) associated with different types of projects are the most significant [...] Read more.
Due to the fact that risks can cause project delays and increase project implementation costs, successful construction project completion requires effective and holistic risk management. Identification and evaluation of critical risk factors (CRFs) associated with different types of projects are the most significant components of accurate risk management. This study aims to identify and evaluate the CRFs inherent with private–public partnership (PPP) projects specifically for the development of water and wastewater infrastructure (WWI) facilities in the developing country of Iran. In this line, a comprehensive literature analysis was undertaken to extract the CRFs in applying PPP projects for the development of infrastructure projects in developing countries in general. Then, four rounds of a Delphi survey were conducted to consolidate the major risks to the circumstances of Iran and WWI facilities. There were a total of 35 risks that were grouped into six categories. The main risks were then analyzed and ranked using the Measurement Alternatives and Ranking according to the Compromise Solution (MARCOS) technique. The overall ranking results of the various CRFs revealed that “lack of trust in government’s economic programs” risk was ranked first in terms of importance, followed by the risk of “delay in timely fund payment for project financing and credits,” and the risk of “delay in finalizing bank negotiations.” The overall ranking of the risks placed “economic changes, such as inflation, increase or decrease in prices, and exchange rate” risk in the bottom position. According to the risk ranking findings based on the opinions of private experts, “lack of commitment to the project schedule” was placed first. Conversely, experts from the public sector considered “choosing the wrong financing method” to be the most CRF. It is anticipated that the key research findings and effective recommendations of this study will considerably contribute to the smooth development and remarkable improvement of risk management in applying PPP for WWI facilities in developing countries while enhancing different stakeholders’ understanding of the CRFs for PPP projects, particularly towards WWI services in Iran. Full article
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15 pages, 1082 KiB  
Article
Driving Factors of Concession Period in Healthcare Public Private Partnerships
by Gabriel Castelblanco, Pourya Safari and Alberto De Marco
Buildings 2023, 13(10), 2452; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13102452 - 27 Sep 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 966
Abstract
Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) play a vital role in infrastructure development and public service delivery, with government entities collaborating with private sector organizations to achieve shared goals in the long term. An essential aspect of PPP contracts is the concession period, during which [...] Read more.
Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) play a vital role in infrastructure development and public service delivery, with government entities collaborating with private sector organizations to achieve shared goals in the long term. An essential aspect of PPP contracts is the concession period, during which Special Purpose Vehicles (SPVs) are responsible for financing, building, operating, and maintaining public assets. The concession period has significant implications, associated with project risk, revenue, operations expenses, profitability, and bankability. While numerous studies focus on determining “optimal” concession periods, fewer explore the factors driving concession periods in national PPP programs, especially for social infrastructure projects relying primarily on availability payments. To fill this gap, this research aims to identify and analyze the effect of various potential factors on the length of the concession period, using linear regression analysis on a data set of healthcare PPP projects in Italy. This research theoretically contributes to understanding the driving factors of concession periods in PPP projects and provides insights for a balanced approach to PPP project planning and regulation and related strategies. On the practical side, decision makers can negotiate optimized concession periods, ensuring successful and sustainable public infrastructure projects. Full article
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31 pages, 2897 KiB  
Article
Exploring Risk Factors Affecting Sustainable Outcomes of Global Public–Private Partnership (PPP) Projects: A Stakeholder Perspective
by Zilin Li and Haotian Wang
Buildings 2023, 13(9), 2140; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13092140 - 23 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1986
Abstract
As a model for delivering infrastructure initiatives, public–private partnerships (PPPs) have gained significant popularity in recent years. The globalization of PPP has exposed them to elevated risks emanating from the international real economy and financial market, which can ultimately result in project cancellations [...] Read more.
As a model for delivering infrastructure initiatives, public–private partnerships (PPPs) have gained significant popularity in recent years. The globalization of PPP has exposed them to elevated risks emanating from the international real economy and financial market, which can ultimately result in project cancellations or distress. This study analyzes risk factors affecting the sustainable outcomes of global PPP projects from a stakeholder perspective. After identifying the interests of key stakeholders and examining how various risks influence stakeholders’ interests, a two-step binomial probit model is used to investigate domestic and international risk factors in PPP arrangements based on the World Bank PPI database. The empirical results indicate that inflation has a substantially positive effect on project failure, while factors such as PPP experience, central government involvement, exchange rate fluctuations, etc., significantly contribute to PPP success. In addition, the study demonstrates that trade openness and net foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow are crucial for the transmission of global risks. The study also provides policy implications and recommendations from a risk allocation–stakeholder relationship perspective to enhance the resilience of PPP initiatives based on these findings. Full article
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26 pages, 4620 KiB  
Article
Identification of Various Execution Modes and Their Respective Risks for Public–Private Partnership (PPP) Infrastructure Projects
by Muhammad Akhtar, Nadeem Ahmad Mufti, Sajjad Mubin, Muhammad Qaiser Saleem, Sadaf Zahoor and Sanna Ullah
Buildings 2023, 13(8), 1889; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13081889 - 25 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2680
Abstract
The public–private partnership (PPP) based model for the execution of infrastructure projects originated from Anglo-Saxon countries and was initially used in 1977 by the United Kingdom (U.K). Since then, its popularity has increased worldwide. Earlier studies by researchers and many other professional sectors [...] Read more.
The public–private partnership (PPP) based model for the execution of infrastructure projects originated from Anglo-Saxon countries and was initially used in 1977 by the United Kingdom (U.K). Since then, its popularity has increased worldwide. Earlier studies by researchers and many other professional sectors and departments have introduced PPP contracts into different execution modes like Build, Operate, and Transfer (BOT); Build, Own, Operate, and Transfer (BOOT); and Build, Lease, and Transfer (BLT), etc. All definitions of PPP contracts are different but have a few common characteristics and risks. Previously, numerous pieces of literature were available on these common risks for various execution modes of PPP contracts. However, each PPP mode still has unique risks that must be identified to understand and successfully implement the PPP projects properly. This paper fills the gap mentioned above and aims to identify various commonly used PPP execution modes in infrastructure projects and their corresponding risks after placing the different PPP execution modes into four (04) different categories. Identified risks for the corresponding PPP categories were also divided into seven (07) stages of the PPP life cycle. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to gather information from thirty-four (34) PPP experts worldwide. Accordingly, interviews are transcribed and processed for thematic analysis in academic NVIVO software. These identified risks are further placed in the respective PPP category for the convenience and better understanding of the study’s outcome to the users and for the subsequent prioritization and allocation of these identified risks accordingly to the PPP parties during the finalization of the PPP execution mode. Full article
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Review

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24 pages, 3548 KiB  
Review
Public-Private Partnership: A Bibliometric Analysis and Historical Evolution
by Mathew Azarian, Asmamaw Tadege Shiferaw, Tor Kristian Stevik, Ola Lædre and Paulos Abebe Wondimu
Buildings 2023, 13(8), 2035; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13082035 - 9 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2312
Abstract
The broad and extensive application of public-private partnership (PPP), as well as the divergent documented definitions and experiences, have led to a translucent perspective of PPP and strained academia and industry to reach a consensus on the major practice of this concept. Early [...] Read more.
The broad and extensive application of public-private partnership (PPP), as well as the divergent documented definitions and experiences, have led to a translucent perspective of PPP and strained academia and industry to reach a consensus on the major practice of this concept. Early contractor involvement (ECI), governance tools, and relational contracting are only a few of the frameworks attributed to PPP. This issue has received limited attention from researchers, despite the focus of review studies on different disciplines of PPP. Hence, this paper puts forward the idea of conducting a comprehensive review to not only shed light on the major practice of PPP but also provide a wider outlook on this concept based on the research carried out since 1979. A narrative review is initially accomplished to identify the major drivers and milestones that have contributed to the evolution of PPP. Employing bibliometric analysis in the following phase assists in conducting a multi-dimensional assessment of studies published within the last five decades. The economic and societal practices of PPP throughout its evolution path signified the dominant application of this concept as a business model. The bibliometric analysis revealed that PPP has contributed to various sectors, i.e., urban development, public infrastructure, transportation, health, and education, just to name a few. In addition, economic and organizational management of PPP was revealed as a major research stream that was accompanied by sustainable development. As a matter of fact, economic and environmental sustainability are the major cross-disciplinary elements that form an interplay between the drivers and attributes of PPP. Value for money (VfM), technology, and innovation, along with smart infrastructure (SI) and smart cities (SCs), are identified as the major directions for the future research agenda associated with PPP. Full article
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