Advances in Invasive and Non-invasive Brain Stimulation in Movement Disorders

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This special issue belongs to the section "Systems Neuroscience".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 7 June 2024 | Viewed by 31855

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of functional Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100070, China
Interests: Parkinson disease; dystonia; Tourette syndrome and deep brain stimulation (DBS)
Norman Fixel Institute for Neurological Diseases, Program for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration, Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
Interests: Parkinson's disease; dystonia; Tourette syndrome; neuromodulation techniques, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of functional Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100070, China
Interests: deep brain stimulation; Parkinson disease; dystonia

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Movement disorders including Parkinson’s disease (PD), essential tremor (ET), and dystonia are chronic neurodegenerative diseases that are increasingly prevalent, affecting many individuals around the world. Invasive and non-Invasive Brain Stimulation, including deep brain stimulation (DBS) and transcranial magnetic stimulations, are effective treatments for common movement disorders and have been used to modulate neural activity through the delivery of electrical stimulation to key brain structures. The long-term efficacy of stimulation in treating disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and essential tremor has encouraged its application to a wide range of neurological and psychiatric conditions.

Dr. Jianguo Zhang
Dr. Wei Hu
Dr. Fangang Meng
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • movement disorders
  • Parkinson disease
  • essential tremor
  • dystonia
  • brain stimulation

Published Papers (18 papers)

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12 pages, 3005 KiB  
Article
β Oscillations of Dorsal STN as a Potential Biomarker in Parkinson’s Disease Motor Subtypes: An Exploratory Study
by Yongjie Li, Yuqi Zeng, Mangui Lin, Yingqing Wang, Qinyong Ye, Fangang Meng, Guofa Cai and Guoen Cai
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(5), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13050737 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1064
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) can be divided into postural instability and difficult gait (PIGD) and tremor dominance (TD) subtypes. However, potential neural markers located in the dorsal ventral side of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for delineating the two subtypes of PIGD and TD have [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) can be divided into postural instability and difficult gait (PIGD) and tremor dominance (TD) subtypes. However, potential neural markers located in the dorsal ventral side of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for delineating the two subtypes of PIGD and TD have not been demonstrated. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the spectral characteristics of PD on the dorsal ventral side. The differences in the β oscillation spectrum of the spike signal on the dorsal and ventral sides of the STN during deep brain stimulation (DBS) were investigated in 23 patients with PD, and coherence analysis was performed for both subtypes. Finally, each feature was associated with the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). The β power spectral density (PSD) in the dorsal STN was found to be the best predictor of the PD subtype, with 82.6% accuracy. The PSD of dorsal STN β oscillations was greater in the PIGD group than in the TD group (22.17% vs. 18.22%; p < 0.001). Compared with the PIGD group, the TD group showed greater consistency in the β and γ bands. In conclusion, dorsal STN β oscillations could be used as a biomarker to classify PIGD and TD subtypes, guide STN-DBS treatment, and relate to some motor symptoms. Full article
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13 pages, 8311 KiB  
Article
Technical Issues of Vim–PSA Double-Target DBS for Essential Tremor
by Xusheng Hou, Yixiang Mo, Zhiyuan Zhu, Huan Zhang, Xinzi Liu, Zhihao Zou, Xiaozheng He, Shan Xue, Jiangtao Li, Mengqian Li and Shizhong Zhang
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(4), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13040566 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2073
Abstract
Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective surgical treatment for essential tremor (ET), with the ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim) and posterior subthalamic area (PSA) as the most common targets. The stimulation efficacy of ET with Vim–PSA double-target DBS has been reported. Herein, [...] Read more.
Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective surgical treatment for essential tremor (ET), with the ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim) and posterior subthalamic area (PSA) as the most common targets. The stimulation efficacy of ET with Vim–PSA double-target DBS has been reported. Herein, we aim to propose surgical techniques for Vim–PSA double-target DBS surgery. Methods: This study enrolled six patients with ET who underwent Vim–PSA double-target electrode implantation from October 2019 to May 2022. The targets were located and adjusted using coordinates and multimodality MRI images. A burr hole was accurately drilled in line with the electrode trajectory under the guidance of a stereotactic frame. Novel approaches were adopted during the electrode implantation process for pneumocephalus reduction, including “arachnoid piamater welding” and “water sealing”. Electrophysiological recording was used to identify the implantation sites of the electrodes. A 3D reconstruction model of electrodes and nuclei was established to facilitate programming. Results: The combination of coordinates and multimodality MRI images for target location and adjustment enabled the alignment of Vim and PSA. Postoperative CT scanning showed that the electrode was precisely implanted. Stereotactic guidance facilitated accurate burr hole drilling. “Arachnoid piamater welding” and “water sealing” were efficient in reducing pneumocephalus. Intraoperative electrophysiological verified the efficacy of Vim–PSA double-target DBS surgery. Conclusions: The methods for target location and adjustment, accurate drilling of the burr hole, reduction in pneumocephalus, and intraoperative electrophysiological verification are key issues in DBS surgery targeting both the Vim and PSA. This study may provide technical support for Vim–PSA DBS, especially for surgeons with less experience in functional neurosurgery. Full article
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11 pages, 4686 KiB  
Article
Altered Fractional Amplitude of Low-Frequency Fluctuation in Anxious Parkinson’s Disease
by Peiyao Zhang, Yunpeng Gao, Yingying Hu, Yuan Luo, Lu Wang, Kang Wang, Hong Tian and Miao Jin
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13010087 - 02 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1406
Abstract
Objective: Anxiety symptoms are persistent in Parkinson’s disease (PD), but the underlying neural substrates are still unclear. In the current study, we aimed to explore the underlying neural mechanisms in PD patients with anxiety symptoms. Methods: 42 PD-A patients, 41 PD patients without [...] Read more.
Objective: Anxiety symptoms are persistent in Parkinson’s disease (PD), but the underlying neural substrates are still unclear. In the current study, we aimed to explore the underlying neural mechanisms in PD patients with anxiety symptoms. Methods: 42 PD-A patients, 41 PD patients without anxiety symptoms (PD-NA), and 40 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited in the present study. All the subjects performed 3.0T fMRI scans. The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) analysis was used to investigate the alterations in neural activity among the three groups. A Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the altered fALFF value of the PD-A group and anxiety scores. Results: Compared with HCs, PD-A patients had higher fALFF values in the left cerebellum, cerebellum posterior lobe, bilateral temporal cortex, and brainstem and lower fALFF values in the bilateral inferior gyrus, bilateral basal ganglia areas, and left inferior parietal lobule. Moreover, between the two PD groups, PD-A patients showed higher fALFF values in the right precuneus and lower fALFF values in the bilateral inferior gyrus, bilateral basal ganglia areas, left inferior parietal lobule, and left occipital lobe. Furthermore, Pearson’s correlation analysis demonstrated that the right precuneus and left caudate were correlated with the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale scores. Conclusion: Our study found that anxiety symptoms in PD patients may be related to alterations of neurological activities in multiple brain regions. Furthermore, these may be critical radiological biomarkers for PD-A patients. Therefore, these findings can improve our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PD-A. Full article
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10 pages, 1053 KiB  
Article
Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Treats Parkinson’s Disease Patients with Cardiovascular Disease Comorbidity: A Retrospective Study of a Single Center Experience
by Changming Zhang, Jiakun Xu, Bin Wu, Yuting Ling, Qianqian Guo, Simin Wang, Lige Liu, Nan Jiang, Ling Chen and Jinlong Liu
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13010070 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1385
Abstract
Background: Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective method for treating Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, safety of STN-DBS treating PD patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) comorbidity is rarely focused and reported. The aim of this study is to investigate the [...] Read more.
Background: Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective method for treating Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, safety of STN-DBS treating PD patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) comorbidity is rarely focused and reported. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of STN-DBS treating PD patients with CVD comorbidity. Methods: We retrospectively included PD patients with CVD comorbidity who underwent STN-DBS under general anesthesia in our center from January 2019 to January 2021. Patient’s PD symptoms and cardiopulmonary function were evaluated by a multi-disciplinary team (MDT) before surgery. Post-operative clinical outcome and complications were collected until 1-year follow-up. Results: A total of 38 patients (26 men/12 women) of mean body mass index (BMI) 24.36 ± 3.11 kg/m2, with different CVD comorbidity were finally speculated in the study. These CVD include mainly hypertension, coronary artery disease, thoracic aortic aneurysm, heart valve replacement, pacemaker implantation, atrial fibrillation, patent foramen ovale, and so on. The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 38 patients at admission day, pre-operation day, and discharge day timepoint was 135.63 ± 18.08 mmHg, 137.66 ± 12.26 mmHg, and 126.87 ± 13.36 mmHg, respectively. This showed that blood pressure was controlled well under stable and normal state. The indicators of myocardial infarction Troponin T (Tn T-T) levels at pre-operation, 1 day and 7 days after operation timepoint were 0.014 ± 0.011 ng/mL, 0.015 ± 0.011 ng/mL, and 0.014 ± 0.008 ng/mL, showing no significant fluctuation (F = 0.038, p = 0.962). STN-DBS improved PD patients’ UPDRS III scores by 51.38% (t = 12.33, p < 0.0001) at 1-year follow-up compared with pre-operative baseline. A total of 11 adverse events were recorded until 1-year follow-up. No obvious cardiovascular complications such as intracranial hematoma or clot-related events occurred within 1 year after surgery except 1 case of hematuria. Conclusions: STN-DBS under general anesthesia is safe and effective for treating PD patients with CVD comorbidity. Our clinical experience and protocol of the MDT offers comprehensive perioperative evaluation for DBS surgery and mitigates bleeding and cardiovascular-associated events in PD patients with CVD comorbidity. Full article
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10 pages, 661 KiB  
Article
Risk Factors for Delirium after Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery under Total Intravenous Anesthesia in Parkinson’s Disease Patients
by Wenbin Lu, Xinning Chang, Lulong Bo, Yiqing Qiu, Mingyang Zhang, Jiali Wang, Xi Wu and Xiya Yu
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13010025 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1311
Abstract
Background: Postoperative delirium (POD) is associated with perioperative complications and mortality. Data on the risk factors for delirium after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) surgery is not clarified in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients receiving total intravenous anesthesia. We aimed to investigate the [...] Read more.
Background: Postoperative delirium (POD) is associated with perioperative complications and mortality. Data on the risk factors for delirium after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) surgery is not clarified in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients receiving total intravenous anesthesia. We aimed to investigate the risk factors for delirium after STN-DBS surgery in PD patients. Methods:The retrospective cohort study was conducted, including 131 PD patients who underwent STN-DBS for the first time under total intravenous anesthesia from January to December 2021. Delirium assessments were performed twice daily for 7 days after surgery or until hospital discharge using the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factor of POD. Results: In total, 22 (16.8%) of 131 patients were in the POD group, while the other 109 patients were in the Non-POD group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative Mini-mental State Examination score [odds ratio = 0.855, 95% confidence interval = 0.768–0.951, p = 0.004] and unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale part 3 (on state) score (odds ratio = 1.061, 95% confidence interval = 1.02–1.104, p = 0.003) were independently associated with delirium after surgery. Conclusions: In this retrospective cohort study of PD patients, a lower Mini-mental State Examination score and a higher unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale part 3 (on state) score were the independent risk factors for delirium after STN-DBS surgery in PD patients under total intravenous anesthesia. Full article
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12 pages, 978 KiB  
Article
Optimal Contact Position of Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation for Reducing Restless Legs Syndrome in Parkinson’s Disease Patients: One-Year Follow-Up with 33 Patients
by Hongbing Lei, Chunhui Yang, Mingyang Zhang, Yiqing Qiu, Jiali Wang, Jinyu Xu, Xiaowu Hu and Xi Wu
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(12), 1645; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12121645 - 01 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1396
Abstract
Objectives: To determine the short- and medium-term therapeutic effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) on restless legs syndrome (RLS) in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and to study the optimal position of activated contacts for RLS symptoms. Methods: We preoperatively [...] Read more.
Objectives: To determine the short- and medium-term therapeutic effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) on restless legs syndrome (RLS) in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and to study the optimal position of activated contacts for RLS symptoms. Methods: We preoperatively and postoperatively assessed PD Patients with RLS undergoing STN-DBS. Additionally, we recorded the stimulation parameters that induced RLS or relieved RLS symptoms during a follow-up. Finally, we reconstructed the activated contacts’ position that reduced or induced RLS symptoms. Results: 363 PD patients were enrolled. At the 1-year follow-up, we found that the IRLS sum significantly decreased in the RLS group (preoperative 18.758 ± 7.706, postoperative 8.121 ± 7.083, p < 0.05). The results of the CGI score, MOS sleep, and RLS QLQ all showed that the STN-DBS improved RLS symptoms after one year. Furthermore, the activated contacts that relieved RLS were mainly located in the central sensorimotor region of the STN. Activated contacts in the inferior sensorimotor part of the STN or in the substantia nigra might have induced RLS symptoms. Conclusions: STN-DBS improved RLS in patients with PD in one year, which reduced their sleep disorders and increased their quality of life. Furthermore, the central sensorimotor region part of the STN is the optimal stimulation site. Full article
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13 pages, 784 KiB  
Article
Short- and Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Deep-Brain Stimulation in Parkinson’s Disease Patients aged 75 Years and Older
by Chao Jiang, Jian Wang, Tong Chen, Xuemei Li and Zhiqiang Cui
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(11), 1588; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12111588 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1909
Abstract
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of deep-brain stimulation (DBS) in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease aged 75 years and older. Methods: From March 2013 to June 2021, 27 patients with Parkinson’s disease (≥75 [...] Read more.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of deep-brain stimulation (DBS) in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease aged 75 years and older. Methods: From March 2013 to June 2021, 27 patients with Parkinson’s disease (≥75 years old) who underwent DBS surgery at the First Medical Center of the PLA General Hospital were selected. The Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale Part 3 (UPDRS-III), 39-item Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39), and Barthel Index for Activities of Daily Living (BI) scores were used to evaluate motor function and quality of life before surgery and during on and off periods of DBS at 1 year post operation and at the final follow-up. A series of non-motor scales were used to evaluate sleep, cognition, and mood, and the levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD) was also assessed. Adverse events related to surgery were noted. Results: The average follow-up time was 55.08 (21–108) months. Symptoms were significantly improved at 1 year post operation. The median UPDRS-III score decreased from 35 points (baseline) to 19 points (improvement of 45.7%) in the stimulation-on period at 1 year post operation (t = 19.230, p < 0.001) and to 32 points (improvement of 8.6%) at the final follow-up (t = 3.456, p = 0.002). In the stimulation-off period, the median score of UPDRS-III increased from 35 points to 39 points (deterioration of −11.4%) at 1 year post operation (Z = −4.030, p < 0.001) and 45 points (deterioration of −28.6%) at the final follow-up (Z = −4.207, p < 0.001). The PDQ-39 overall scores decreased from 88 points (baseline) to 55 points (improvement of 37.5%) in the stimulation-on period at 1 year post operation (t = 11.390, p < 0.001) and 81 points (improvement of 8.0%) at the final follow-up (t = 2.142, p = 0.044). In the stimulation-off period, the median PDQ-39 score increased from 88 points to 99 points (deterioration of −12.5%) at the final follow-up (Z = −2.801, p = 0.005). The ADL-Barthel Index score increased from 25 points (baseline) to 75 points (improvement of 66.7%) at 1 year post operation (Z = −4.205, p < 0.001) and to 35 points (improvement of 28.6%) at the final follow-up (Z = −4.034, p < 0.001). In the stimulation-off period, BI scores decreased from 25 points to 15 points (deterioration of −40%) at 1 year post operation (Z = −3.225, p = 0.01) and to 15 points (deterioration of −40%) at the final follow-up (Z = −3.959, p = 0.001). Sleep, cognition, and mood were slightly improved at 1 year post operation (p < 0.05), and LEDD was reduced from 650 mg (baseline) to 280 mg and 325 mg at 1 year post operation and the final follow-up, respectively (p < 0.05). One patient had a cortical hemorrhage in the puncture tract on day 2 after surgery, five patients had hallucinations in the acute stage after surgery, and one patient had an exposed left-brain electrode lead at 4 months post operation; there were no infections or death. Conclusion: DBS showed efficacy and safety in treating older patients (≥75 years old) with Parkinson’s disease. Motor function, quality of life, activities of daily living, LEDD, and sleep all showed long-term improvements with DBS; short-term improvements in emotional and cognitive function were also noted. Full article
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10 pages, 1917 KiB  
Article
Risk Factors for Hiccups after Deep Brain Stimulation of Subthalamic Nucleus for Parkinson’s Disease
by Bin Wu, Yuting Ling, Changming Zhang, Yi Liu, Ruoheng Xuan, Jiakun Xu, Yongfu Li, Qianqian Guo, Simin Wang, Lige Liu, Lulu Jiang, Zihuan Huang, Jianping Chu, Ling Chen, Nan Jiang and Jinlong Liu
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(11), 1447; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12111447 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1637
Abstract
Background: After deep brain stimulation (DBS), hiccups as a complication may lead to extreme fatigue, sleep deprivation, or affected prognosis. Currently, the causes and risk factors of postoperative hiccups are unclear. In this study, we investigated the risk factors for hiccups after DBS [...] Read more.
Background: After deep brain stimulation (DBS), hiccups as a complication may lead to extreme fatigue, sleep deprivation, or affected prognosis. Currently, the causes and risk factors of postoperative hiccups are unclear. In this study, we investigated the risk factors for hiccups after DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for Parkinson’s disease (PD) under general anesthesia. Methods: We retrospectively included patients who underwent STN DBS in the study, and collected data of demographic characteristics, clinical evaluations, and medications. According to the occurrence of hiccups within seven days after operation, the patients were divided into a hiccups group and non-hiccups group. The potentially involved risk factors for postoperative hiccups were statistically analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 191 patients were included in the study, of which 34 (17.80%) had postoperative transient persistent hiccups. Binary univariate logistic regression analysis showed that male, higher body mass index (BMI), smoker, Hoehn and Yahr stage (off), preoperative use of amantadine, hypnotic, Hamilton anxiety scale and Hamilton depression scale scores, and postoperative limited noninfectious peri-electrode edema in deep white matter were suspected risk factors for postoperative hiccups (p < 0.1). In binary multivariate logistic regression analysis, male (compared to female, OR 14.00; 95% CI, 1.74–112.43), postoperative limited noninfectious peri-electrode edema in deep white matter (OR, 7.63; 95% CI, 1.37–42.37), preoperative use of amantadine (OR, 3.64; 95% CI, 1.08–12.28), and higher BMI (OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 1.46–8.36) were independent risk factors for postoperative hiccups. Conclusions: This study is the first report about the risk factors of hiccups after STN DBS under general anesthesia for PD patients. The study suggests that male, higher BMI, preoperative use of amantadine, and postoperative limited noninfectious peri-electrode edema in deep white matter are independent risk factors for postoperative hiccups of STN-DBS for PD patients. Most hiccups after STN-DBS for PD patients were transient and self-limiting. Full article
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9 pages, 918 KiB  
Article
Effects of High Cervical Spinal Cord Stimulation on Gait Disturbance and Dysarthropneumophonia in Parkinson’s Disease and Parkinson Variant of Multiple System Atrophy: A Case Series
by Linbin Wang, Rui Zhu, Yixin Pan, Peng Huang, Yuyan Tan, Boyan Fang, Jun Liu and Dianyou Li
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(9), 1222; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12091222 - 10 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1584
Abstract
High cervical spinal cord stimulation (HCSCS) was found to have therapeutic effects on Parkinsonian gait disturbance. However, the results were inconsistent and confounded with symptoms of pain. This study aimed to reveal the gait and dysarthric effects of HCSCS in PD (Parkinson’s disease) [...] Read more.
High cervical spinal cord stimulation (HCSCS) was found to have therapeutic effects on Parkinsonian gait disturbance. However, the results were inconsistent and confounded with symptoms of pain. This study aimed to reveal the gait and dysarthric effects of HCSCS in PD (Parkinson’s disease) and MSA-P (Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy) patients without pain. Three PD and five MSA-P patients without painful comorbidities were assessed for gait performance and speech before SCS surgery and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. Stride length and the time spent in the Timed Up-and-Go task showed little change after HCSCS surgery. Overall voice quality (measured by dysphonia severity index) and perceptual speech intelligence improved significantly at 3 months, but improvements slightly diminished at 6 months postoperatively. Change in quality of life (measured by 8-item Parkinson’s disease questionnaire) was also notable at 3 months but narrowed over time following HCSCS. In conclusion, HCSCS showed therapeutic effects in improving the dysarthria but not gait disturbance in pain-free PD and MSA-P patients. Full article
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9 pages, 1200 KiB  
Article
Retrospective Multicenter Study on Outcome Measurement for Dyskinesia Improvement in Parkinson’s Disease Patients with Pallidal and Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation
by Fangang Meng, Shanshan Cen, Zhiqiang Yi, Weiguo Li, Guoen Cai, Feng Wang, Stephan S. Quintin, Grace E. Hey, Jairo S. Hernandez, Chunlei Han, Shiying Fan, Yuan Gao, Zimu Song, Junfei Yi, Kailiang Wang, Liangwen Zhang, Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora and Jianguo Zhang
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(8), 1054; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12081054 - 09 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1904
Abstract
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), among which the therapeutic targets commonly used include the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the globus pallidus internus (GPi). Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is one of the common motor [...] Read more.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), among which the therapeutic targets commonly used include the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the globus pallidus internus (GPi). Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is one of the common motor complications arising in PD patients on chronic treatment with levodopa. In this article, we retrospectively evaluated the outcomes of LID with the Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS) in patients who underwent DBS in multiple centers with a GPi or an STN target. Meanwhile, the Med off MDS-Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS-Ⅲ) and the levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD) were also observed as secondary indicators. PD patients with a GPi target showed a more significant improvement in the UDysRS compared with an STN target (92.9 ± 16.7% vs. 66.0 ± 33.6%, p < 0.0001). Both the GPi and the STN showed similar improvement in Med off UPDRS-III scores (49.8 ± 22.6% vs. 52.3 ± 29.5%, p = 0.5458). However, the LEDD was obviously reduced with the STN target compared with the GPi target (44.6 ± 28.1% vs. 12.2 ± 45.8%, p = 0.006). Full article
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16 pages, 49902 KiB  
Article
Optimized Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery to Avoid Vascular Damage: A Single-Center Retrospective Analysis of Path Planning for Various Deep Targets by MRI Image Fusion
by Xin Wang, Nan Li, Jiaming Li, Huijuan Kou, Jing Wang, Jiangpeng Jing, Mingming Su, Yang Li, Liang Qu and Xuelian Wang
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(8), 967; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12080967 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1624
Abstract
Co-registration of stereotactic and preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images can serve as an alternative for trajectory planning. However, the role of this strategy has not yet been proven by any control studies, and the trajectories of commonly used targets have not been [...] Read more.
Co-registration of stereotactic and preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images can serve as an alternative for trajectory planning. However, the role of this strategy has not yet been proven by any control studies, and the trajectories of commonly used targets have not been systematically studied. The purpose of this study was to analyze the trajectories for various targets, and to assess the role of trajectories realized on fused images in preventing intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Data from 1019 patients who underwent electrode placement for deep brain stimulation were acquired. Electrode trajectories were not planned for 396 patients, whereas trajectories were planned for 623 patients. Preoperative various MRI sequences and frame-placed MRI images were fused for trajectory planning. The patients’ clinical characteristics, the stereotactic systems, intracranial hemorrhage cases, and trajectory angles were recorded and analyzed. No statistically significant differences in the proportions of male patients, patients receiving local anesthesia, and diseases or target distributions (p > 0.05) were found between the trajectory planning group and the non-trajectory planning group, but statistically significant differences were observed in the numbers of both patients and leads associated with symptomatic ICH (p < 0.05). Regarding the ring and arc angle values, statistically significant differences were found among various target groups (p < 0.05). The anatomic structures through which leads passed were found to be diverse. Trajectory planning based on MRI fusion is a safe technique for lead placement. The electrode for each given target has its own relatively constant trajectory. Full article
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11 pages, 2499 KiB  
Article
Techniques of Frameless Robot-Assisted Deep Brain Stimulation and Accuracy Compared with the Frame-Based Technique
by Shanshan Mei, Kaijia Yu, Zhiwei Ren, Yongsheng Hu, Song Guo, Yongjie Li and Jianyu Li
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(7), 906; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12070906 - 11 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1788
Abstract
Background: Frameless robot-assisted deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an innovative technique for leads implantation. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and precision of this technique using the Sinovation SR1 robot. Methods: 35 patients with Parkinson’s disease who accepted conventional frame-based DBS surgery [...] Read more.
Background: Frameless robot-assisted deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an innovative technique for leads implantation. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and precision of this technique using the Sinovation SR1 robot. Methods: 35 patients with Parkinson’s disease who accepted conventional frame-based DBS surgery (n = 18) and frameless robot-assisted DBS surgery (n = 17) by the same group of neurosurgeons were analyzed. The coordinate of the tip of the intended trajectory was recorded as xi, yi, and zi. The actual position of lead implantation was recorded as xa, ya, and za. The vector error was calculated by the formula of √(xi − xa)2 + (yi − ya)2 + (zi − za)2 to evaluate the accuracy. Results: The vector error was 1.52 ± 0.53 mm (range: 0.20–2.39 mm) in the robot-assisted group and was 1.77 ± 0.67 mm (0.59–2.98 mm) in the frame-based group with no significant difference between two groups (p = 0.1301). In 10.7% (n = 3) frameless robot-assisted implanted leads, the vector error was greater than 2.00 mm with a maximum offset of 2.39 mm, and in 35.5% (n = 11) frame-based implanted leads, the vector error was larger than 2.00 mm with a maximum offset of 2.98 mm. Leads were more posterior than planned trajectories in the robot-assisted group and more medial and posterior in the conventional frame-based group. Conclusions: Awake frameless robot-assisted DBS surgery was comparable to the conventional frame-based technique in the accuracy and precision for leads implantation. Full article
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12 pages, 1216 KiB  
Article
The Long-Term Efficacy, Prognostic Factors, Safety, and Hospitalization Costs Following Denervation and Myotomy of the Affected Muscles and Deep Brain Stimulation in 94 Patients with Spasmodic Torticollis
by Zhiqiang Cui, Tong Chen, Jian Wang, Chao Jiang, Qingyao Gao, Zhiqi Mao, Longsheng Pan, Zhipei Ling, Jianning Zhang and Xuemei Li
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(7), 881; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12070881 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1528
Abstract
The surgical methods for treating spasmodic torticollis include the denervation and myotomy (DAM) of the affected muscles and deep brain stimulation (DBS). This study reports on the long-term efficacy, prognostic factors, safety, and hospitalization costs following these two procedures. We collected data from [...] Read more.
The surgical methods for treating spasmodic torticollis include the denervation and myotomy (DAM) of the affected muscles and deep brain stimulation (DBS). This study reports on the long-term efficacy, prognostic factors, safety, and hospitalization costs following these two procedures. We collected data from 94 patients with spasmodic torticollis, of whom 41 and 53 were treated with DAM and DBS, respectively, from June 2008 to December 2020 at the Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital. We used the Tsui scale and the global outcome score of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) to evaluate the preoperative and postoperative clinical conditions in all patients. We also determined the costs of hospitalization, prognostic factors, and serious adverse events following the two surgical procedures. The mean follow-up time was 68.83 months (range = 13–116). Both resection surgery and DBS showed good results in terms of Tsui (Z = −5.103, p = 0.000; Z = −6.210, p = 0.000) and TWSTRS scores (t = 8.762, p = 0.000; Z = −6.308, p = 0.000). Compared with the DAM group, the preoperative (47.71, range 24–67.25) and postoperative (18.57, range 0–53) TWSTRS scores in the DBS group were significantly higher (Z = −3.161, p = 0.002). We found no correlation between prognostic factors and patient age, gender, or disease duration for either surgical procedure. However, prognostic factors were related to the length of the postoperative follow-up period in the DBS surgery group (Z = −2.068, p = 0.039; Z = −3.287, p = 0.001). The mean hospitalization cost in the DBS group was 6.85 times that found in the resection group (Z = −8.284, p = 0.000). The total complication rate was 4.26%. We found both resection surgery and DBS showed good results in the patients with spasmodic torticollis. Compared with DAM, DBS had a greater improvement in TWSTRS score; however, it was more expensive. Prognostic factors were related to the length of the postoperative follow-up period in patients who underwent DBS surgery. Full article
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10 pages, 1942 KiB  
Article
Correlation between Electrode Location and Anxiety Depression of Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson’s Disease
by Feng Zhang, Feng Wang, Yu-Jing Xing, Man-Man Yang, Ji-Wei Wang, Cong-Hui Li, Chun-Lei Han, Shi-Ying Fan, Dong-Mei Gao, Chen Yang, Jian-Guo Zhang and Fan-Gang Meng
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 755; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060755 - 08 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1895
Abstract
Objectives: our group explored the correlation between postoperative coordinates of the electrode contacts, VTA, and anxiety and depression symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS). Methods: STN-DBS was conducted on PD patients (n = 57) for six [...] Read more.
Objectives: our group explored the correlation between postoperative coordinates of the electrode contacts, VTA, and anxiety and depression symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS). Methods: STN-DBS was conducted on PD patients (n = 57) for six months with follow-up. Clinical outcomes were explored using the unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale Part III (UPDRS-III), the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) before and after surgery. At the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI), the location of active contacts and the volume of tissue activated (VTA) were calculated. Results: patient evaluations took place preoperatively and follow-ups took place at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. The average patient improvement rates for HAM-A and HAM-D scores at the 6-month follow-up were 41.7% [interquartile range (IQR) 34.9%] and 37.5% (IQR 33.4%), respectively (both p < 0.001). In medication-off, there were negative correlations between the HAM-A improvement rate and the Z-axis coordinate of the active contact (left side: r = −0.308, p = 0.020; right side: r = −0.390, p = 0.003), and negative correlations between the HAM-D improvement rate and the Z-axis coordinate of the active contact (left side: r = −0.345, p = 0.009; right side: r = −0.521, p = 0.001). There were positive correlations between the HAM-A and HAM-D scores improvement rate at 6 months after surgery and bilateral VTA in the right STN limbic subregion (HAM-A: r = 0.314, p = 0.018; HAM-D: r = 0.321, p = 0.015). Conclusion: bilateral STN-DBS can improve anxiety and depression symptoms in PD patients. The closer the stimulation to the ventral limbic region of the STN, the more significant the improvement in anxiety and depression symptoms of PD patients. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

9 pages, 441 KiB  
Review
Music Therapy for Gait and Speech Deficits in Parkinson’s Disease: A Mini-Review
by Leon Fan, Ellen Y. Hu, Grace E. Hey and Wei Hu
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(7), 993; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13070993 - 25 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2095
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive central nervous system disease with a common motor symptom of gait disturbance in PD, which is more pronounced in the later stages. Although FDA-approved treatments, including dopaminergic pharmacotherapy, deep brain stimulation, and rehabilitation, have some benefits in [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive central nervous system disease with a common motor symptom of gait disturbance in PD, which is more pronounced in the later stages. Although FDA-approved treatments, including dopaminergic pharmacotherapy, deep brain stimulation, and rehabilitation, have some benefits in improving gait dysfunction, a fair amount of advanced PD patients can develop a disability, social isolation, and high mortality and morbidity. Recently, clinicians and scientists have applied music to clinical therapy, namely music therapy. It has been used as a unique rehabilitation tool to improve PD-induced gait and speech disorders. Based on relevant studies in recent years, this paper reviews the published literature about music in treating gait disorders and speech problems in PD patients. Additionally, we discuss current studies’ limitations and emphasize the future potential research fields. Full article
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23 pages, 6789 KiB  
Review
A Brief History of Stereotactic Atlases: Their Evolution and Importance in Stereotactic Neurosurgery
by Alfredo Conti, Nicola Maria Gambadauro, Paolo Mantovani, Canio Pietro Picciano, Vittoria Rosetti, Marcello Magnani, Sebastiano Lucerna, Constantin Tuleasca, Pietro Cortelli and Giulia Giannini
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(5), 830; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13050830 - 21 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1904
Abstract
Following the recent acquisition of unprecedented anatomical details through state-of-the-art neuroimaging, stereotactic procedures such as microelectrode recording (MER) or deep brain stimulation (DBS) can now rely on direct and accurately individualized topographic targeting. Nevertheless, both modern brain atlases derived from appropriate histological techniques [...] Read more.
Following the recent acquisition of unprecedented anatomical details through state-of-the-art neuroimaging, stereotactic procedures such as microelectrode recording (MER) or deep brain stimulation (DBS) can now rely on direct and accurately individualized topographic targeting. Nevertheless, both modern brain atlases derived from appropriate histological techniques involving post-mortem studies of human brain tissue and the methods based on neuroimaging and functional information represent a valuable tool to avoid targeting errors due to imaging artifacts or insufficient anatomical details. Hence, they have thus far been considered a reference guide for functional neurosurgical procedures by neuroscientists and neurosurgeons. In fact, brain atlases, ranging from the ones based on histology and histochemistry to the probabilistic ones grounded on data derived from large clinical databases, are the result of a long and inspiring journey made possible thanks to genial intuitions of great minds in the field of neurosurgery and to the technical advancement of neuroimaging and computational science. The aim of this text is to review the principal characteristics highlighting the milestones of their evolution. Full article
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

5 pages, 2732 KiB  
Case Report
Acute Visual Impairment in a Patient with Parkinson’s Disease after Successful Bilateral Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation with Low-Dose Levodopa: A Case Report
by Chao Zhang, Jinxing Sun, Zhenke Li, Na Liu and Chao Li
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(1), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13010103 - 05 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1154
Abstract
Background: Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is widely used for the treatment of primary motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Further, recent evidence suggests that STN-DBS may relieve a few ophthalmic symptoms in PD, such as eye-blink rate and the [...] Read more.
Background: Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is widely used for the treatment of primary motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Further, recent evidence suggests that STN-DBS may relieve a few ophthalmic symptoms in PD, such as eye-blink rate and the flexibility of eye saccades. However, its exact effect on visual function remains unknown. Herein, we report the case of a patient with PD who underwent STN-DBS and experienced visual symptoms following levodopa reduction. Case presentation: A 63-year-old male patient with PD developed severe visual impairment after six months of high-frequency STN-DBS. His symptoms resolved after adjusting the levodopa dose prescribed to the patient. Conclusions: This case report suggests that DBS is beneficial in patients with PD in terms of eye-blink rate. However, the rapid reduction of medication after STN-DBS may lead to retinal atrophy and the shrinkage of vessel density in the ocular fundus. Thus, neurosurgeons should pay close attention to patients with visual symptoms when adjusting levodopa dosages. Full article
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11 pages, 2527 KiB  
Case Report
Subdural Effusion Evolves into Chronic Subdural Hematoma after Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery: Case Report and Review of the Literature
by Dongdong Wu, Yuanyuan Dang, Jian Wang and Zhiqiang Cui
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(10), 1375; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12101375 - 10 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2215
Abstract
Background: Although chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) has been known for over several hundred years, the etiology and pathogenesis of it are still not completely understood. Neurosurgical procedures resulting in CSDH are a rare clinical complication, and there was no report about how subdural [...] Read more.
Background: Although chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) has been known for over several hundred years, the etiology and pathogenesis of it are still not completely understood. Neurosurgical procedures resulting in CSDH are a rare clinical complication, and there was no report about how subdural effusion (SDE) evolves into CSDH after deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. The formation mechanism of CSDH after surgery, especially in DBS surgery, and the effect of recovery, need to be explored. Methods: We present two cases, complicated with SDE after DBS surgery, serious dysfunction complications such as hemiplegia and aphasia occurred on the postoperative day 36 and 49 individually, and images showed CSDH. Fusion image showed the bilateral electrodes were significantly shifted. Then, they were performed to drill craniotomy with a closed system drainage. Result: The symptoms of hemiplegia and aphasia caused by CSDH were completely recovered, and the follow-up images showed CSDH was disappeared. However, DBS stimulation is poorly effective, it cannot reach the preoperative level, especially in the ipsilateral side of CSDH. Conclusions: The iatrogenic SDE that evolved into CSDH in the present two cases shows that SDE is one of the causes of CSDH. Patients develop SDE after DBS, which increases the risk of developing CSDH. CSDH after DBS can be successfully treated. however, the postoperative efficacy of DBS will decline. Full article
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