Neurostimulation Techniques and Physical Exercise

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This special issue belongs to the section "Behavioral Neuroscience".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2023) | Viewed by 3325

Special Issue Editors

1. School of Sports and Leisure, Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo, 4900-347 Viana do Castelo, Portugal
2. Research Center in Sports Performance, Recreation, Innovation and Technology—SPRINT, 4900-347 Viana do Castelo, Portugal
3. The Research Centre in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences and Human Development (CIDESD), 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: motor control; youth sports performance; cognitive performance in sports
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Mohammad Nami
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Neurocognitivist, Sleep Disorders Fellow, Neuroscience Director, BrainHub, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
2. Harvard Alumni Entrepreneurs, Boston, MA, USA
3. Adj. Distinguished Professor at ITM Baroda University, Baroda, India
4. SBMT, Brain Mapping Foundation, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Interests: neuroscience of sleep; neurological aspects of sleep disorders and related interventions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Enhancing performance and improving individual skills is the biggest concern as well as motivation for athletes in the professional level, which requires continuous effort and high perseverance (Kellmann et al., 2018). In the majority of cases, to achieve this goal, the athlete has to regularly devote a lot of time to both physical exercise and mental training on a daily basis (Øktedalen et al., 2001, Ungerleider, 2005). Over the past two decades, transcranial and transcutaneous stimulation techniques have been increasingly used, and the interest in their probable benefits in competitive sports, especially at professional levels, has expanded. Also, their usage is accepted by the Food and Drug Administration (the federal U.S. agency, responsible for protecting and promoting public health), and they are not considered “prohibited methods” by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Therefore, as an ergogenic aid, neurostimulation tools such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation tVNS and their potential in modifying cerebral, mental, and physical performance is under consideration by clinical, basic, and applied researchers, including sport professionals.Therefore, the optimal application of these tools and techniques in various sports fields will lead to the achievement of valuable and important practical findings and promises a new horizon for coaches and professional athletes. Current research suggests that these technologies could be a viable option to further improve the positive effects of physical and mental training on sport performance via various neurostimulation interventions.Despite some evidence regarding the contributions of brain stimulation to performance enhancement in different sports disciplines (de Sousa Fortes et al., 2022, Albuquerque et al., 2022, Park et al., 2022b, Park et al., 2022a, Chaieb and Fell, 2017, Stagg et al., 2011, Behrendt et al., 2016, Gangitano et al., 2001, Berger et al., 2018, Chaieb et al., 2011, Chaieb et al., 2009, Kamali et al., 2021, Hazime et al., 2017, Kamali et al., 2019, Liu et al., 2019, Mesquita et al., 2019, Garner et al., 2021, Moreira et al., 2021), there are many increasing numbers of original research papers and systematic reviews with or without meta-analysis that may not help professionals to identify which types of neurostimulation protocols are suitable and adequate for specific improvements in such activities or it is difficult to suggest specific guidelines for their correct use. In addition, the effects of neurostimulation techniques consisting of tDCS, tRNS, tACS, TMS, and tVNS on exercise training remain unclear due to the little evidence about neurostimulation techniques applied to sports and the inconsistent results of previous publications. This Special Issue thus aims to examine the efficacy of all of the methodologies on the exercise training, physical performance, and motor and cognitive function in populations without any major neurological diseases by critically evaluating and comparing the results in the publications, which will ultimately provide important knowledge to this field and informing the design of future studies. Therefore, the Special Issue “Neurostimulation and Exercise Training" will include contributions from different areas of knowledge that may assist in improving our understanding of the relationships between brain stimulation intervention and improving exercise performance.Original studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analysis on the following main topics are welcome (but not exclusively): (i) the effect of brain stimulation (tDCS) on exercise performance; (ii) the effect of brain stimulation on motor tasks of elite athletes (iii) role of brain stimulation in physical exercise; (iv) the effect of brain stimulation on cognitive tasks of professional athletes.

Dr. Ana Filipa Silva
Prof. Dr. Mohammad Nami
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • neurostimulation techniques
  • ergogenic aids
  • brain stimulation
  • exercise training
  • physical activity
  • performance enhancement
  • motor and cognitive function

Published Papers (2 papers)

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16 pages, 3607 KiB  
Article
Corticospinal Adaptation to Short-Term Horizontal Balance Perturbation Training
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(8), 1209; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13081209 - 15 Aug 2023
Viewed by 862
Abstract
Sensorimotor training and strength training can improve balance control. Currently, little is known about how repeated balance perturbation training affects balance performance and its neural mechanisms. This study investigated corticospinal adaptation assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and Hoffman-reflex (H-reflex) measurements during balance [...] Read more.
Sensorimotor training and strength training can improve balance control. Currently, little is known about how repeated balance perturbation training affects balance performance and its neural mechanisms. This study investigated corticospinal adaptation assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and Hoffman-reflex (H-reflex) measurements during balance perturbation induced by perturbation training. Fourteen subjects completed three perturbation sessions (PS1, PS2, and PS3). The perturbation system operated at 0.25 m/s, accelerating at 2.5 m/s2 over a 0.3 m displacement in anterior and posterior directions. Subjects were trained by over 200 perturbations in PS2. In PS1 and PS3, TMS and electrical stimulation elicited motor evoked potentials (MEP) and H-reflexes in the right leg soleus muscle, at standing rest and two time points (40 ms and 140 ms) after perturbation. Body sway was assessed using the displacement and velocity of the center of pressure (COP), which showed a decrease in PS3. No significant changes were observed in MEP or H-reflex between sessions. Nevertheless, Δ MEP at 40 ms demonstrated a positive correlation with Δ COP, while Δ H-reflex at 40 ms demonstrated a negative correlation with Δ COP. Balance perturbation training led to less body sway and a potential increase in spinal-level involvement, indicating that movement automaticity may be suggested after perturbation training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurostimulation Techniques and Physical Exercise)
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17 pages, 2283 KiB  
Article
High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Improves Decision-Making Ability: A Study Based on EEG
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(4), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13040640 - 08 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1650
Abstract
High-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) has been shown to modulate decision-making; however, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. To further explore the neurophysiological processes of decision-making modulated by HD-tDCS, health participants underwent ten anodal (n = 16)/sham (n [...] Read more.
High-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) has been shown to modulate decision-making; however, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. To further explore the neurophysiological processes of decision-making modulated by HD-tDCS, health participants underwent ten anodal (n = 16)/sham (n = 17) HD-tDCS sessions targeting the left DLPFC. Iowa gambling task was performed simultaneously with electroencephalography (EEG) before and after HD-tDCS. Iowa gambling task performance, the P300 amplitude, and the power of theta oscillation as an index of decision-making were compared. Behavioral changes were found that showed anodal HD-tDCS could improve the decision-making function, in which participants could make more advantageous choices. The electrophysiological results showed that the P300 amplitude significantly increased in CZ, CPZ electrode placement site and theta oscillation power significantly activated in FCZ, CZ electrode placement site after anodal HD-tDCS. Significant positive correlations were observed between the changes in the percent use of negative feedback and the changes in theta oscillation power before and after anodal HD-tDCS. This study showed that HD-tDCS is a promising technology in improving decision-making and theta oscillation induced by may be a predictor of improved decision-making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurostimulation Techniques and Physical Exercise)
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