Stroke and Acute Stroke Care: Looking Ahead

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This special issue belongs to the section "Neurorehabilitation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 May 2024 | Viewed by 2731

Special Issue Editor

Department of Physical & Rehabilitation Medicine, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan 31151, Republic of Korea
Interests: stroke; rehabilitation; neuromodulation; physical therapy; robotics; artificial intel-ligence; neuroimaging; acute stroke care; exercise

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability in millions worldwide each year. Because stroke leaves patients with significant sequelae such as motor impairment, speech impairment, cognitive impairment, and swallowing disorders and places a heavy burden on the patient's family, the development of acute care and rehabilitation techniques is a significant topic for researchers. This Special Issue will cover various aspects related to innovative approaches in stroke acute care and rehabilitation, including:

  • Acute stroke care: exploration of new intervention techniques and protocols for acute stroke care and the potential of neuroprotective agents.
  • Neurotechnology and artificial intelligence-based interventions: exploration of using virtual reality, robotics, sensors, wearables, and artificial intelligence in acute stroke care and rehabilitation.
  • Non-invasive brain stimulation: investigation of transcranial magnetic and electrical stimulation's effectiveness in promoting neural plasticity.
  • Rehabilitation exercise technique: innovative approaches to restore functional disability and improve cardiorespiratory fitness for stroke survivors.

By exploring cutting-edge technologies, techniques, and interventions, we aim to contribute to developing innovative, evidence-based strategies that can optimize stroke care and rehabilitation and improve the lives of stroke survivors.

Dr. Min Su Kim
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Brain Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • stroke
  • rehabilitation
  • neuromodulation
  • physical therapy
  • robotics
  • artificial intelligence
  • neuroimaging
  • acute stroke care
  • exercise

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 543 KiB  
Article
Toe Grip Strength Is Associated with Improving Gait Function in Patients with Subacute Stroke
by Jin-Whan Ryu, In-Su Hwang, Sol Jin, Soo-A Kim and Min-Su Kim
Brain Sci. 2024, 14(3), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci14030215 - 26 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Toe grip strength has recently been suggested to play an essential role in maintaining balance and postural stability for ambulatory function in older populations. This study aimed to investigate its association with improving gait function three months after onset in patients with subacute [...] Read more.
Toe grip strength has recently been suggested to play an essential role in maintaining balance and postural stability for ambulatory function in older populations. This study aimed to investigate its association with improving gait function three months after onset in patients with subacute stroke. This longitudinal cohort study included 98 first-ever stroke patients (67 ± 9 years, 56% female) within one month from the onset who could not ambulate independently. Functional outcome indicators, including toe grip strength, hand grip strength, knee extensor strength, Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Lower Extremity (FMA_LE), and the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke (PASS), were assessed before and three months after the intervention. We analyzed the correlation between participants’ gait function using a 10-meter walk test time and various functional indicators. Then, multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate whether toe grip strength was related to the improvement of gait function. Correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between the 10MWT time and toe grip strength ratio (affected/unaffected side), with a moderate effect size (r = −0.61, p <0.001). Multiple regression analysis with covariates showed a significant relationship between 10MWT time and toe grip strength ratio (β = −0.113, p < 0.001), FMA_LE (β = −1.315, p = 0.004), PASS (β = −3.275, p <0.001), and age (β = −0.159, p = 0.004). In conclusion, toe grip strength was an essential factor associated with ambulatory function improvement in subacute stroke patients three months after onset. Additional toe grip muscle strengthening rehabilitation treatment can be expected to help improve the ambulatory function of subacute stroke patients in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stroke and Acute Stroke Care: Looking Ahead)
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13 pages, 2222 KiB  
Article
Overactivity of the Less Affected Side as a Possible Pattern of Asymmetry in Sitting in Patients Suffering from First-Time Ischemic Stroke—An Observational Study
by Agata Zdrowowicz-Doroz, Jakub Stolarski, Karolina Krzysztoń, Izabela Domitrz and Jan Kochanowski
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(12), 1716; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13121716 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 879
Abstract
It has been observed that in some people in the acute phase of ischemic stroke (IS) there is a tendency to shift the body weight towards the side more affected by the disease and a tendency to spontaneous movements of the upper and/or [...] Read more.
It has been observed that in some people in the acute phase of ischemic stroke (IS) there is a tendency to shift the body weight towards the side more affected by the disease and a tendency to spontaneous movements of the upper and/or lower limbs (not covered by the neurological syndrome). The purposes of this study were: to define the kind of behavior observed, and to select symptoms which can predict its occurrence. Participants (n = 222) hospitalized due to first-time IS were assigned to three groups. A: 78 patients with no lateralization of the neurological syndrome (lateralization of the neurological syndrome—LoNS); B: 109 patients with LoNS; O+ group: 35 patients, who at the beginning of hospitalization presented, apart from LoNS, characteristic motor symptoms performed by the less affected side. Patients underwent therapy depending on the neurological symptoms. If the patient showed potential symptoms of a new phenomenon, overactivity of the less affected side (OLAS), a trial therapy (focused on this behavior) was used to confirm it. The predictive symptoms, selected among these from the index day, for the occurrence of OLAS in sitting were distinguished: asymmetry in supine posture and simple, repetitive movements of the nonparetic upper extremity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stroke and Acute Stroke Care: Looking Ahead)
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12 pages, 1737 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional Magnetic Rehabilitation, Robot-Enhanced Hand-Motor Recovery after Subacute Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Sung-Hoon Kim, Dong-Min Ji, In-Su Hwang, Jinwhan Ryu, Sol Jin, Soo-A Kim and Min-Su Kim
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(12), 1685; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13121685 - 07 Dec 2023
Viewed by 894
Abstract
We developed an end-effector-type rehabilitation robot that can uses electro- and permanent magnets to generate a three-way magnetic field to assist hand movements and perform rehabilitation therapy. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of a rehabilitation program using a three-dimensional (3D) [...] Read more.
We developed an end-effector-type rehabilitation robot that can uses electro- and permanent magnets to generate a three-way magnetic field to assist hand movements and perform rehabilitation therapy. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of a rehabilitation program using a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic force-based hand rehabilitation robot on the motor function recovery of the paralyzed hands of patients with stroke. This was a double-blind randomized controlled trial in which 36 patients with subacute stroke were assigned to intervention and control groups of 18 patients each. The intervention group received 30 min of rehabilitation therapy per day for a month using a 3D magnetic force-driven hand rehabilitation robot, whereas the control group received 30 min of conventional occupational therapy to restore upper-limb function. The patients underwent three behavioral assessments at three time points: before starting treatment (T0), after 1 month of treatment (T1), and at the follow-up 1-month after treatment completion (T2). The primary outcome measure was the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), and secondary outcome measures included the Fugl–Meyer Assessment of the Upper Limb (FMA_U), Modified Barthel Index (MBI), and European Quality of Life Five Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire. No participant safety issues were reported during the intervention. Analysis using repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant interaction effects between time and group for both the WMFT score (p = 0.012) and time (p = 0.010). In post hoc analysis, the WMFT scores and time improved significantly more in the patients who received robotic rehabilitation at T1 than in the controls (p = 0.018 and p = 0.012). At T2, we also consistently found improvements in both the WMFT scores and times for the intervention group that were superior to those in the control group (p = 0.024 and p = 0.018, respectively). Similar results were observed for FMA_U, MBI, and EQ-5D. Rehabilitation using the 3D hand-rehabilitation robot effectively restored hand function in the patients with subacute stroke, contributing to improvement in daily independence and quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stroke and Acute Stroke Care: Looking Ahead)
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