Advances in the Study of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensory and Motor Neuroscience".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 11 May 2024 | Viewed by 4559

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Kinesiology, Nutrition, and Health, Miami University, 205G Phillips Hall, 420 S. Oak St., Oxford, OH 45056, USA
Interests: anticipatory postural adjustments; distraction; attention; gait; visual control of movement

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Postural stability is critical to the execution of almost any voluntary movement.

Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) are feed-forward mechanisms initiated by the central nervous system (CNS) in response to expected postural disturbances, and that produce preemptive muscle responses to help maintain stability. APAs occur in both self- and externally-induced perturbations to posture and stability. This Special Issue of Brain Sciences aims to present a collection of papers detailing the most recent advancements in the understanding of APAs in both self- and externally-induced perturbations. Authors are invited to submit new research reports and reviews that address a broad range of topics related to APAs including, but not limited to neuroscience, psychology, motor control, locomotion, kinesiology, rehabilitation exercise, stability training, ageing, and movement deficits. I hope that this Special Issue will serve to foster a more complete understanding of APAs as well as to encourage pioneering research on these mechanisms.

Prof. Dr. William P. Berg
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • posture
  • stability
  • anticipatory postural adjustments
  • balance
  • locomotion
  • motor control
  • neuroscience
  • rehabilitation
  • training

Published Papers (4 papers)

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18 pages, 1807 KiB  
Article
Mesencephalic Locomotor Region and Presynaptic Inhibition during Anticipatory Postural Adjustments in People with Parkinson’s Disease
by Carla Silva-Batista, Jumes Lira, Daniel Boari Coelho, Andrea Cristina de Lima-Pardini, Mariana Penteado Nucci, Eugenia Casella Tavares Mattos, Fernando Henrique Magalhaes, Egberto Reis Barbosa, Luis Augusto Teixeira, Edson Amaro Junior, Carlos Ugrinowitsch and Fay B. Horak
Brain Sci. 2024, 14(2), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci14020178 - 15 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and freezing of gait (FOG) have a loss of presynaptic inhibition (PSI) during anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) for step initiation. The mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) has connections to the reticulospinal tract that mediates inhibitory interneurons responsible for modulating [...] Read more.
Individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and freezing of gait (FOG) have a loss of presynaptic inhibition (PSI) during anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) for step initiation. The mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) has connections to the reticulospinal tract that mediates inhibitory interneurons responsible for modulating PSI and APAs. Here, we hypothesized that MLR activity during step initiation would explain the loss of PSI during APAs for step initiation in FOG (freezers). Freezers (n = 34) were assessed in the ON-medication state. We assessed the beta of blood oxygenation level-dependent signal change of areas known to initiate and pace gait (e.g., MLR) during a functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol of an APA task. In addition, we assessed the PSI of the soleus muscle during APA for step initiation, and clinical (e.g., disease duration) and behavioral (e.g., FOG severity and APA amplitude for step initiation) variables. A linear multiple regression model showed that MLR activity (R2 = 0.32, p = 0.0006) and APA amplitude (R2 = 0.13, p = 0.0097) explained together 45% of the loss of PSI during step initiation in freezers. Decreased MLR activity during a simulated APA task is related to a higher loss of PSI during APA for step initiation. Deficits in central and spinal inhibitions during APA may be related to FOG pathophysiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Study of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments)
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12 pages, 1669 KiB  
Article
Effect of Laterally Moving Tactile Stimuli to Sole on Anticipatory Postural Adjustment of Gait Initiation in Healthy Males
by Hiroshi Kunimura, Hitoshi Oda, Taku Kawasaki, Ryo Tsujinaka, Naoki Hamada, Shiho Fukuda, Masakazu Matsuoka and Koichi Hiraoka
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(10), 1411; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13101411 - 04 Oct 2023
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Abstract
This present study examined the effect of the laterally moving tactile stimuli (LMTS) to the sole on the anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) of the gait initiation. Thirteen healthy males participated in this study. A sound cue was provided at the beginning of each [...] Read more.
This present study examined the effect of the laterally moving tactile stimuli (LMTS) to the sole on the anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) of the gait initiation. Thirteen healthy males participated in this study. A sound cue was provided at the beginning of each trial. The participants took three steps forward from a quiet stance at their preferred time after the start cue. The LMTS were delivered to the sole after the start cue. The loci of the tactile stimuli moved from the left- to the right-most side of the sole and then moved from the right- to the left-most side of that in a stimuli cycle. The duration of one stimuli cycle was 960 ms, and this cycle was repeated 16 times in a trial. The APA did not onset at the specific direction or phase of the LMTS, indicating that they did not use any specific phase of the stimuli as a trigger for initiating the gait. The LMTS decreased the amplitude and increased the duration of the APA. Simultaneously, the LMTS increased the time between the APA onset and toe-off of the initial support leg, indicating that they moved slowly when initiating gait during the LMTS. Those findings are explained by the view that the suppression of the APA induced via the LMTS to the sole is caused by the slowing down of the gait initiation due to masking the tactile sensation of the sole. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Study of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments)
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13 pages, 1608 KiB  
Article
Pediatric Slow-Progressive, but Not Non-Progressive Cerebellar Ataxia Delays Intra-Limb Anticipatory Postural Adjustments in the Upper Arm
by Silvia Maria Marchese, Roberto Esposti, Veronica Farinelli, Claudia Ciaccio, Arianna De Laurentiis, Stefano D’Arrigo and Paolo Cavallari
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(4), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13040620 - 05 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1374
Abstract
We recently investigated the role of the cerebellum during development, reporting that children with genetic slow-progressive ataxia (SlowP) show worse postural control during quiet stance and gait initiation compared to healthy children (H). Instead, children with genetic non-progressive ataxia (NonP) recalled the behavior [...] Read more.
We recently investigated the role of the cerebellum during development, reporting that children with genetic slow-progressive ataxia (SlowP) show worse postural control during quiet stance and gait initiation compared to healthy children (H). Instead, children with genetic non-progressive ataxia (NonP) recalled the behavior of H. This may derive from compensatory networks, which are hindered by disease progression in SlowP while free to develop in NonP. In the aim of extending our findings to intra-limb postural control, we recorded, in 10 NonP, 10 SlowP and 10 H young patients, Anticipatory Postural Adjustments (APAs) in the proximal muscles of the upper-limb and preceding brisk index finger flexions. No significant differences in APA timing occurred between NonP and H, while APAs in SlowP were delayed. Indeed, the excitatory APA in Triceps Brachii was always present but significantly delayed with respect to both H and NonP. Moreover, the inhibitory APAs in the Biceps Brachii and Anterior Deltoid, which are normally followed by a late excitation, could not be detected in most SlowP children, as if inhibition was delayed to the extent where there was overlap with a late excitation. In conclusion, disease progression seems to be detrimental for intra-limb posture, supporting the idea that inter- and intra-limb postures seemingly share the same control mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Study of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments)
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14 pages, 596 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effect of Chronic Ankle Instability on the Biomechanical Organization of Gait Initiation: A Systematic Review
by Mohammad Yousefi, Shaghayegh Zivari, Eric Yiou and Teddy Caderby
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(11), 1596; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13111596 - 17 Nov 2023
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Abstract
This systematic review was conducted to provide an overview of the effects of chronic ankle instability (CAI) on the biomechanical organization of gait initiation. Gait initiation is a classical model used in the literature to investigate postural control in healthy and pathological individuals. [...] Read more.
This systematic review was conducted to provide an overview of the effects of chronic ankle instability (CAI) on the biomechanical organization of gait initiation. Gait initiation is a classical model used in the literature to investigate postural control in healthy and pathological individuals. PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched for relevant articles. Eligible studies were screened and data extracted by two independent reviewers. An evaluation of the quality of the studies was performed using the Downs and Black checklist. A total of 878 articles were found in the initial search, but only six studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings from the literature suggest that CAI affects the characteristics of gait initiation. Specifically, individuals with CAI exhibit notable differences in reaction time, the spatiotemporal parameters of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and step execution, ankle–foot kinematics, and muscle activation compared to healthy controls. In particular, the observed differences in APA patterns associated with gait initiation suggest the presence of supraspinal motor control alterations in individuals with CAI. These findings may provide valuable information for the rehabilitation of these patients. However, the limited evidence available calls for caution in interpreting the results and underscores the need for further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Study of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments)
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