Biosensors for Point-of-Care Diagnostics

Editor


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Collection Editor
1. School of Life and Health Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen 518172, China
2. Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
Interests: biosensors; point-of-care diagnostics; microfluidic-paper-based analytical devices µPADs; intelligent nanoparticles; medical devices
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear colleagues,

Diagnostics plays an essential role in the healthcare realm. The reliability and accuracy of diagnostics has a great impact on clinical decision-making, treatment, and patient survival rate. Infectious diseases such as immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), tuberculosis (TB), and the current COVID-19 pandemic, and different types of cancer cause a huge burden to the economy, especially in developing countries due to the low survival rate and the cause of disability. Additionally, the lack of laboratories and modern equipment makes it difficult for patients in rural areas to be treated fast and wisely. The current diagnostic technologies, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), etc., require trained personnel and expensive instruments, which are not suitable for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics, especially in resource-limited settings. POC diagnostic technologies (such as paper lateral flow assay, disposbaible biosensors, µPADs, wearable biosensors, etc.) provide rapid testing at or near patients and are attractive in healthcare delivery due to their fast, user-friendly, and cost-efficient characteristics. The global market of POC diagnostics was valued at USD23.71 Billion in 2017 and is estimated to increase to USD38.13 Billion by 2022, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10% during the forecast period.

Prof. Dr. Guozhen Liu
Collection Editor

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Keywords

  • point-of-care diagnostics
  • biosensors
  • microfluidic-paper-based analytical devices
  • paper lateral flow assay
  • smartphone-based diagnostics
  • disposable biosensors
  • microfluidic sensing chips
  • printable biosensors
  • werable biosensors
  • biomarker deteciton

Published Papers (7 papers)

2022

Jump to: 2021, 2020

19 pages, 4183 KiB  
Article
Development of a Rapid Gold Nanoparticle-Based Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Detection of Dengue Virus
by Cynthia Martinez-Liu, Carlos Machain-Williams, Natalia Martinez-Acuña, Sonia Lozano-Sepulveda, Kame Galan-Huerta, Daniel Arellanos-Soto, Mayra Meléndez-Villanueva, Diana Ávalos-Nolazco, Katya Pérez-Ibarra, Sergio Galindo-Rodríguez, Aurora de Jesús Garza-Juarez and Ana María Rivas-Estilla
Biosensors 2022, 12(7), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12070495 - 7 Jul 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3410
Abstract
Flavivirus detection in humans and mosquito reservoirs has been an important issue since it can cause a variety of illnesses and could represent a health problem in geographical zones where the vector is endemic. In this work, we designed and characterized a biosensor [...] Read more.
Flavivirus detection in humans and mosquito reservoirs has been an important issue since it can cause a variety of illnesses and could represent a health problem in geographical zones where the vector is endemic. In this work, we designed and characterized a biosensor based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and antibody 4G2 for the detection of dengue virus (DENV) in vitro, obtaining different conjugates (with different antibody concentrations). The AuNP–4G2 conjugates at concentrations of 1, 3, and 6 µg/mL presented an increase in the average hydrodynamic diameter compared to the naked AuNPs. Also, as part of the characterization, differences in the UV-Vis absorbance spectrum and electrophoretic migration were observed between the conjugated AuNPs (with BSA or antibody) and naked AuNPs. Additionally, we used this biosensor (AuNP–4G2 conjugate with 3 µg/mL antibody) in the assembly of a competitive lateral flow assay (LFA) for the development of an alternative test to detect the flavivirus envelope protein in isolated DENV samples as a future tool for dengue detection (and other flaviviruses) in the mosquito vector (Aedesaegypti) for the identification of epidemic risk regions. Functionality tests were performed using Dengue virus 2 isolated solution (TCID50/mL = 4.58 × 103) as a positive sample and PBS buffer as a negative control. The results showed that it is possible to detect Dengue virus in vitro with this gold nanoparticle-based lateral flow assay with an estimated detection limit of 5.12 × 102 PFU. We suggest that this biosensor could be used as an additional detection tool by coupling it to different point-of-care tests (POCT) for the easy detection of other flaviviruses. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2022, 2020

11 pages, 1966 KiB  
Article
Paper-Based Test for Rapid On-Site Screening of SARS-CoV-2 in Clinical Samples
by Wen Ren and Joseph Irudayaraj
Biosensors 2021, 11(12), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11120488 - 30 Nov 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2756
Abstract
Detection methods for monitoring infectious pathogens has never been more important given the need to contain the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Herein we propose a highly sensitive magnetic-focus-enhanced lateral flow assay (mLFA) for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. The proposed mLFA is simple [...] Read more.
Detection methods for monitoring infectious pathogens has never been more important given the need to contain the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Herein we propose a highly sensitive magnetic-focus-enhanced lateral flow assay (mLFA) for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. The proposed mLFA is simple and requires only lateral flow strips and a reusable magnet to detect very low concentrations of the virus particles. The magnetic focus enhancement is achieved by focusing the SARS-CoV-2 conjugated magnetic probes in the sample placed in the lateral flow (LF) strips for improved capture efficiency, while horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used to catalyze the colorimetric reaction for the amplification of the colorimetric signal. With the magnetic focus enhancement and HRP-based amplification, the mLFA could yield a highly sensitive technology for the recognition of SARS-CoV-2. The developed methods could detect as low as 400 PFU/mL of SARS-CoV-2 in PBS buffer based on the visible blue dots on the LF strips. The mLFA could recognize 1200 PFU/mL of SARS-CoV-2 in saliva samples. With clinical nasal swab samples, the proposed mLFA could achieve 66.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Full article
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13 pages, 3106 KiB  
Article
A Customized Microfluidic Paper-Based Platform for Colorimetric Immunosensing: Demonstrated via hCG Assay for Pregnancy Test
by Mohammad Rahbar, Siyi Zou, Mahroo Baharfar and Guozhen Liu
Biosensors 2021, 11(12), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11120474 - 25 Nov 2021
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 4580
Abstract
Over the past decades, paper-based lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) have been extensively developed for rapid, facile, and low-cost detection of a wide array of target analytes in a point-of-care manner. Conventional home pregnancy tests are the most significant example of LFAs, which detect [...] Read more.
Over the past decades, paper-based lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) have been extensively developed for rapid, facile, and low-cost detection of a wide array of target analytes in a point-of-care manner. Conventional home pregnancy tests are the most significant example of LFAs, which detect elevated concentrations of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) in body fluids to identify early pregnancy. In this work, we have upgraded these platforms to a higher version by developing a customized microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD), as the new generation of paper-based point-of-care platforms, for colorimetric immunosensing. This will offer a cost-efficient and environmentally friendly alternative platform for paper-based immunosensing, eliminating the need for nitrocellulose (NC) membrane as the substrate material. The performance of the developed platform is demonstrated by detection of hCG (as a model case) in urine samples and subsequently indicating positive or negative pregnancy. A dual-functional silane-based composite was used to treat filter paper in order to enhance the colorimetric signal intensity in the detection zones of μPADs. In addition, microfluidic pathways were designed in a manner to provide the desired regulated fluid flow, generating sufficient incubation time (delays) at the designated detection zones, and consequently enhancing the obtained signal intensity. The presented approaches allow to overcome the existing limitations of μPADs in immunosensing and will broaden their applicability to a wider range of assays. Although, the application of the developed hCG μPAD assay is mainly in qualitative (i.e., positive or negative) detection of pregnancy, the semi-quantitative measurement of hCG was also investigated, indicating the viability of this assay for sensitive detection of the target hCG analyte within the related physiological range (i.e., 10–500 ng/mL) with a LOD value down to 10 ng/mL. Full article
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46 pages, 8366 KiB  
Review
Paper and Other Fibrous Materials—A Complete Platform for Biosensing Applications
by Domingo R. Flores-Hernandez, Vivian J. Santamaria-Garcia, Elda M. Melchor-Martínez, Juan Eduardo Sosa-Hernández, Roberto Parra-Saldívar and Jaime Bonilla-Rios
Biosensors 2021, 11(5), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11050128 - 21 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4438
Abstract
Paper-based analytical devices (PADs) and Electrospun Fiber-Based Biosensors (EFBs) have aroused the interest of the academy and industry due to their affordability, sensitivity, ease of use, robustness, being equipment-free, and deliverability to end-users. These features make them suitable to face the need for [...] Read more.
Paper-based analytical devices (PADs) and Electrospun Fiber-Based Biosensors (EFBs) have aroused the interest of the academy and industry due to their affordability, sensitivity, ease of use, robustness, being equipment-free, and deliverability to end-users. These features make them suitable to face the need for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics, monitoring, environmental, and quality food control applications. Our work introduces new and experienced researchers in the field to a practical guide for fibrous-based biosensors fabrication with insight into the chemical and physical interaction of fibrous materials with a wide variety of materials for functionalization and biofunctionalization purposes. This research also allows readers to compare classical and novel materials, fabrication techniques, immobilization methods, signal transduction, and readout. Moreover, the examined classical and alternative mathematical models provide a powerful tool for bioanalytical device designing for the multiple steps required in biosensing platforms. Finally, we aimed this research to comprise the current state of PADs and EFBs research and their future direction to offer the reader a full insight on this topic. Full article
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Graphical abstract

10 pages, 3191 KiB  
Communication
Embedded Immunodetection System for Fecal Occult Blood
by Kai-Wen Lin and Yu-Chi Chang
Biosensors 2021, 11(4), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11040106 - 3 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2818
Abstract
In this paper, a rapid test system with high sensitivity, linearity, and stability is presented for fecal occult blood (FOB) detection. The coloration results of the immune response are used as the basis for the determination of the detection target in combination with [...] Read more.
In this paper, a rapid test system with high sensitivity, linearity, and stability is presented for fecal occult blood (FOB) detection. The coloration results of the immune response are used as the basis for the determination of the detection target in combination with an immunochromatographic strip. The rapid test system can be used to detect and calculate the concentration of the sample, so detection of the immune coloration response is more accurate in a quantitative analysis. The system is composed of both hardware and software. The programs used for the analysis and programmed by Python include the main program, polarization calibration, QR Code decoding, Bluetooth transmission, and image processing. After verification of each part of the system, it was found that the rapid test system successfully detects from 0 ng/mL to 400 ng/mL of FOB with coefficients of variation (CV) below 3.7% and 1000 ng/mL with a CV only at 7.41%. Full article
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19 pages, 3966 KiB  
Review
Food Safety in Post-COVID-19 Pandemic: Challenges and Countermeasures
by Weimin Zhang, Huiyu He, Lin Zhu, Guozhen Liu and Long Wu
Biosensors 2021, 11(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11030071 - 4 Mar 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 7359
Abstract
Understanding food safety hazard risks is essential to avoid potential negative heath impacts in the food supply chain in a post-COVID-19 pandemic era. Development of strategies for virus direction in foods plays an important role in food safety and verification. Early warning, tracing, [...] Read more.
Understanding food safety hazard risks is essential to avoid potential negative heath impacts in the food supply chain in a post-COVID-19 pandemic era. Development of strategies for virus direction in foods plays an important role in food safety and verification. Early warning, tracing, and detection should be implemented as an integrated system in order to mitigate thecoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, in which the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is critical as it not only concerns screening of populations but also monitoring of possible contaminated sources such as the food supply chain. In this review, we point out the consequences in different aspects of our daily life in the post-COVID-19 pandemic from the perspective of the food supply chain and the food industry. We summarize the possible transmission routes of COVID-19 in the food supply chain before exploring the development of corresponding detection tools of SARS-CoV-2. Accordingly, we compare different detection methods for the virus in foods, including different pretreatments of food matrices in the virus detection. Finally, the future perspectives are proposed. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2022, 2021

12 pages, 3977 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional Paper-Based Microfluidic Analysis Device for Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Biomarkers with a Smartphone
by Seung Ho Baek, Chanyong Park, Jaehyung Jeon and Sungsu Park
Biosensors 2020, 10(11), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10110187 - 21 Nov 2020
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 4769
Abstract
Paper-based microfluidic analysis devices (μPADs) have attracted attention as a cost-effective platform for point-of-care testing (POCT), food safety, and environmental monitoring. Recently, three-dimensional (3D)-μPADs have been developed to improve the performance of μPADs. For accurate diagnosis of diseases, however, 3D-μPADs need to be [...] Read more.
Paper-based microfluidic analysis devices (μPADs) have attracted attention as a cost-effective platform for point-of-care testing (POCT), food safety, and environmental monitoring. Recently, three-dimensional (3D)-μPADs have been developed to improve the performance of μPADs. For accurate diagnosis of diseases, however, 3D-μPADs need to be developed to simultaneously detect multiple biomarkers. Here, we report a 3D-μPADs platform for the detection of multiple biomarkers that can be analyzed and diagnosed with a smartphone. The 3D-μPADs were fabricated using a 3D digital light processing printer and consisted of a sample reservoir (300 µL) connected to 24 detection zones (of 4 mm in diameter) through eight microchannels (of 2 mm in width). With the smartphone application, eight different biomarkers related to various diseases were detectable in concentrations ranging from normal to abnormal conditions: glucose (0–20 mmol/L), cholesterol (0–10 mmol/L), albumin (0–7 g/dL), alkaline phosphatase (0–800 U/L), creatinine (0–500 µmol/L), aspartate aminotransferase (0–800 U/L), alanine aminotransferase (0–1000 U/L), and urea nitrogen (0–7.2 mmol/L). These results suggest that 3D-µPADs can be used as a POCT platform for simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers. Full article
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