New and Improved Nanomaterials and Approaches for Optical Bio- and Immunosensors

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensors and Healthcare".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2022) | Viewed by 25518

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Guest Editor
A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Research Center of Biotechnology Russian Academy of Sciences, 119071 Moscow, Russia
Interests: immunochemistry; immunoassays; bio- and immunosensors; engineering nanoparticles; nanosafety
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The current priorities for development in the field of bio- and immunosensors are highly sensitive detection and increased information output. An important resource for achieving these goals is provided by new nanomaterials and their functionalized derivatives. The use of such carriers and labels combined with optical registration has good prospects for advancement into practice due to the availability of simple inexpensive detectors and the possibility of non-instrumental (visual) assessment of the analysis results. Approaches to highly sensitive assays based on the use of fluorescent nanoparticles, the transformation of chromogenic substrates by nanozymes, the aggregation of modified nanoparticles, or, conversely, the release of multiple labels from nanocontainers are extremely successful. The use of various receptors (antibodies, aptamers, etc.) and additional functional molecules provides approaches to modulate selectivity, productivity, detection limits, and other important parameters of novel biosensors. However, many possibilities of using nanomaterials in biosensors remain uncharacterized. There is a lack of compelling comparisons to select the best preparations and assay techniques.

This Special Issue is aimed at considering new approaches to highly sensitive bio- and immunosensoric analysis using nanodispersed labels and their optical registration. We are interested in both descriptions of original ideas and comparisons of different approaches. We are welcoming papers describing the development of such sensors and their application in various practically demanded areas—medical diagnostics, biosafety, quality control of foods and other consumer products, and environmental monitoring.

Prof. Dr. Boris B. Dzantiev
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • biosensors
  • immunosensors
  • rapid tests
  • nanosized labels
  • functionalized nanoparticles
  • high-sensitive detection
  • signal amplification
  • cascade enhancement of signal
  • aggregates of nanoparticles
  • nanozymes
  • fluorescent nanoparticles
  • switchable optical sensors
  • energy transfer in biosensors

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 168 KiB  
Editorial
New and Improved Nanomaterials and Approaches for Optical Bio- and Immunosensors
by Boris B. Dzantiev
Biosensors 2023, 13(4), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13040443 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 959
Abstract
The current state in the development of biosensors is largely associated with the search for new approaches to simplify measurements and lower detection limits [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

15 pages, 4070 KiB  
Article
Plier Ligands for Trapping Neurotransmitters into Complexes for Sensitive Analysis by SERS Spectroscopy
by Olga E. Eremina, Olesya O. Kapitanova, Alexei V. Medved'ko, Alexandra S. Zelenetskaya, Bayirta V. Egorova, Tatyana N. Shekhovtsova, Sergey Z. Vatsadze and Irina A. Veselova
Biosensors 2023, 13(1), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13010124 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1652
Abstract
Catecholamines–dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline are important biomarkers of neurotransmitter metabolism, indicating neuroendocrine tumors and neurodegenerative diseases. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a promising analytical technique with unprecedented multiplexing capabilities. However, not all important analytes exhibit strong SERS signals on stable and robust nanostructured [...] Read more.
Catecholamines–dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline are important biomarkers of neurotransmitter metabolism, indicating neuroendocrine tumors and neurodegenerative diseases. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a promising analytical technique with unprecedented multiplexing capabilities. However, not all important analytes exhibit strong SERS signals on stable and robust nanostructured substrates. In this work, we propose a novel indicator system based on the formation of mixed ligand complexes with bispidine-based bis-azole ligands which can serve as pliers to trap Cu(II) ions and stabilize its complexes with catecholamines. Four synthesized ligands with different functional groups: carboxyl, amino, benzyl, and methoxybenzyl, were applied for forming stable complexes to shift maximum absorbance of catecholamines from the ultraviolet region to 570–600 nm. A new absorbance band in the visible range resonates with the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band of metal nanoparticles and most used laser wavelengths. This match allowed use of Molecular Immobilization and Resonant Raman Amplification by Complex-Loaded Enhancers (MIRRACLE) methodology to measure intense Raman signals on a nanostructured silver-based SERS-active substrate. The synthesized plier-like ligands fixed and stabilized catecholamine complexes with Cu(II) on the SERS sensor surface, which facilitated the determination of dopamine in a 3.2 × 10−12–1 × 10−8 M concentration range. Full article
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12 pages, 2697 KiB  
Article
Detection of A and B Influenza Viruses by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Spectroscopy and Machine Learning
by Artem Tabarov, Vladimir Vitkin, Olga Andreeva, Arina Shemanaeva, Evgeniy Popov, Alexander Dobroslavin, Valeria Kurikova, Olga Kuznetsova, Konstantin Grigorenko, Ivan Tzibizov, Anton Kovalev, Vitaliy Savchenko, Alyona Zheltuhina, Andrey Gorshkov and Daria Danilenko
Biosensors 2022, 12(12), 1065; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12121065 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2421
Abstract
We demonstrate the possibility of applying surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) combined with machine learning technology to detect and differentiate influenza type A and B viruses in a buffer environment. The SERS spectra of the influenza viruses do not possess specific peaks that allow [...] Read more.
We demonstrate the possibility of applying surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) combined with machine learning technology to detect and differentiate influenza type A and B viruses in a buffer environment. The SERS spectra of the influenza viruses do not possess specific peaks that allow for their straight classification and detection. Machine learning technologies (particularly, the support vector machine method) enabled the differentiation of samples containing influenza A and B viruses using SERS with an accuracy of 93% at a concentration of 200 μg/mL. The minimum detectable concentration of the virus in the sample using the proposed approach was ~0.05 μg/mL of protein (according to the Lowry protein assay), and the detection accuracy of a sample with this pathogen concentration was 84%. Full article
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13 pages, 1817 KiB  
Article
Model of the SARS-CoV-2 Virus for Development of a DNA-Modified, Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Sensor with a Novel Hybrid Plasmonic Platform in Sandwich Mode
by Mariia V. Samodelova, Olesya O. Kapitanova, Nadezda F. Meshcheryakova, Sergey. M. Novikov, Nikita R. Yarenkov, Oleg A. Streletskii, Dmitry I. Yakubovsky, Fedor I. Grabovenko, Gleb A. Zhdanov, Aleksey V. Arsenin, Valentyn S. Volkov, Elena G. Zavyalova, Irina A. Veselova and Maria I. Zvereva
Biosensors 2022, 12(9), 768; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12090768 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2420
Abstract
The recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has posed a great challenge for the development of ultra-fast methods for virus identification based on sensor principles. We created a structure modeling surface and size of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and used it [...] Read more.
The recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has posed a great challenge for the development of ultra-fast methods for virus identification based on sensor principles. We created a structure modeling surface and size of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and used it in comparison with the standard antigen SARS-CoV-2—the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the S-protein of the envelope of the SARS-CoV-2 virus from the Wuhan strain—for the development of detection of coronaviruses using a DNA-modified, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based aptasensor in sandwich mode: a primary aptamer attached to the plasmonic surface—RBD-covered Ag nanoparticle—the Cy3-labeled secondary aptamer. Fabricated novel hybrid plasmonic structures based on “Ag mirror-SiO2-nanostructured Ag” demonstrate sensitivity for the detection of investigated analytes due to the combination of localized surface plasmons in nanostructured silver surface and the gap surface plasmons in a thin dielectric layer of SiO2 between silver layers. A specific SERS signal has been obtained from SERS-active compounds with RBD-specific DNA aptamers that selectively bind to the S protein of synthetic virion (dissociation constants of DNA-aptamer complexes with protein in the range of 10 nM). The purpose of the study is to systematically analyze the combination of components in an aptamer-based sandwich system. A developed virus size simulating silver particles adsorbed on an aptamer-coated sensor provided a signal different from free RBD. The data obtained are consistent with the theory of signal amplification depending on the distance of the active compound from the amplifying surface and the nature of such a compound. The ability to detect the target virus due to specific interaction with such DNA is quantitatively controlled by the degree of the quenching SERS signal from the labeled compound. Developed indicator sandwich-type systems demonstrate high stability. Such a platform does not require special permissions to work with viruses. Therefore, our approach creates the promising basis for fostering the practical application of ultra-fast, amplification-free methods for detecting coronaviruses based on SARS-CoV-2. Full article
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14 pages, 1798 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the “Antigen Hook Effect” in Lateral Flow Sandwich Immunoassay: The Case of Lumpy Skin Disease Virus Detection
by Simone Cavalera, Giulia Pezzoni, Santina Grazioli, Emiliana Brocchi, Stefano Baselli, Davide Lelli, Barbara Colitti, Thea Serra, Fabio Di Nardo, Matteo Chiarello, Valentina Testa, Sergio Rosati, Claudio Baggiani and Laura Anfossi
Biosensors 2022, 12(9), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12090739 - 08 Sep 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2980
Abstract
Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an infectious disease affecting bovine with severe symptomatology. The implementation of effective control strategies to prevent infection outbreak requires rapid diagnostic tools. Two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), targeting different epitopes of the LSDV structural protein p32, and gold nanoparticles [...] Read more.
Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an infectious disease affecting bovine with severe symptomatology. The implementation of effective control strategies to prevent infection outbreak requires rapid diagnostic tools. Two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), targeting different epitopes of the LSDV structural protein p32, and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were used to set up a colorimetric sandwich-type lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). Combinations including one or two mAbs, used either as the capture or detection reagent, were explored to investigate the hook effect due to antigen saturation by the detector antibody. The mAb-AuNP preparations were optimized by a full-factorial design of experiment to achieve maximum sensitivity. Opposite optimal conditions were selected when one Mab was used for capture and detection instead of two mAbs; thus, two rational routes for developing a highly sensitive LFIA according to Mab availability were outlined. The optimal LFIA for LSDV showed a low limit of detection (103.4 TCID50/mL), high inter- and intra-assay repeatability (CV% < 5.3%), and specificity (no cross-reaction towards 12 other viruses was observed), thus proving to be a good candidate as a useful tool for the point-of-need diagnosis of LSD. Full article
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14 pages, 2263 KiB  
Article
In Situ SERS Sensing by a Laser-Induced Aggregation of Silver Nanoparticles Templated on a Thermoresponsive Polymer
by Larisa V. Sigolaeva, Natalia L. Nechaeva, Anton I. Ignatov, Lyubov Y. Filatova, Timur Z. Sharifullin, Jonas Eichhorn, Felix H. Schacher, Dmitry V. Pergushov, Alexander M. Merzlikin and Ilya N. Kurochkin
Biosensors 2022, 12(8), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12080628 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2012
Abstract
A stimuli-responsive (pH- and thermoresponsive) micelle-forming diblock copolymer, poly(1,2-butadiene)290-block-poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate)240 (PB-b-PDMAEMA), was used as a polymer template for the in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) through Ag+ complexation with PDMAEMA [...] Read more.
A stimuli-responsive (pH- and thermoresponsive) micelle-forming diblock copolymer, poly(1,2-butadiene)290-block-poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate)240 (PB-b-PDMAEMA), was used as a polymer template for the in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) through Ag+ complexation with PDMAEMA blocks, followed by the reduction of the bound Ag+ with sodium borohydride. A successful synthesis of the AgNPs on a PB-b-PDMAEMA micellar template was confirmed by means of UV–Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, wherein the shape and size of the AgNPs were determined. A phase transition of the polymer matrix in the AgNPs/PB-b-PDMAEMA metallopolymer hybrids, which results from a collapse and aggregation of PDMAEMA blocks, was manifested by changes in the transmittance of their aqueous solutions as a function of temperature. A SERS reporting probe, 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (4-MPBA), was used to demonstrate a laser-induced enhancement of the SERS signal observed under constant laser irradiation. The local heating of the AgNPs/PB-b-PDMAEMA sample in the laser spot is thought to be responsible for the triggered SERS effect, which is caused by the approaching of AgNPs and the generation of “hot spots” under a thermo-induced collapse and the aggregation of the PDMAEMA blocks of the polymer matrix. The triggered SERS effect depends on the time of a laser exposure and on the concentration of 4-MPBA. Possible mechanisms of the laser-induced heating for the AgNPs/PB-b-PDMAEMA metallopolymer hybrids are discussed. Full article
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12 pages, 17760 KiB  
Article
Complementary Strategy Enhancing Broad-Specificity for Multiplexed Immunoassay of Adulterant Sulfonylureas in Functional Food
by Zhaodong Li, Haihuan Xie, Tingdan Fu, Yingying Li, Xing Shen, Xiangmei Li, Yi Lei, Xiaojun Yao, Anastasios Koidis, Yingju Liu, Xinan Huang and Hongtao Lei
Biosensors 2022, 12(8), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12080591 - 02 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1537
Abstract
Sulfonylureas, a family of anti-diabetic drugs widely used in the clinical treatment of type 2 diabetes, have recently emerged as an illegal adulterant in functional foods, to enhance the claimed anti-diabetic activity. To establish a screening assay method against their adulteration, with the [...] Read more.
Sulfonylureas, a family of anti-diabetic drugs widely used in the clinical treatment of type 2 diabetes, have recently emerged as an illegal adulterant in functional foods, to enhance the claimed anti-diabetic activity. To establish a screening assay method against their adulteration, with the aid of molecular simulation of hapten, two antibodies were raised and complementarily used to enhance the broad-specificity of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which demonstrated simultaneous detection capability to 6 sulfonylureas; the detection limits ranged from 0.02 to 1.0 ng/mL, and recoveries were between 78.3% to 104.5%. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) confirmed the reliability of the proposed ELISA, based on real samples. These results suggest that the proposed ELISA could be an ideal method for screening to monitor for illicit adulteration of sulfonylureas in functional pill products. Full article
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11 pages, 1804 KiB  
Article
Quantitation of MicroRNA-155 in Human Cells by Heterogeneous Enzyme-Linked Oligonucleotide Assay Coupled with Mismatched Catalytic Hairpin Assembly Reaction
by Oleg L. Bodulev, Ivan I. Galkin, Shulin Zhao, Olga Y. Pletyushkina and Ivan Y. Sakharov
Biosensors 2022, 12(8), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12080570 - 26 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1615
Abstract
In the present work, we describe the development of a chemiluminescent enzyme-linked oligonucleotide assay coupled with mismatched catalytic hairpin assembly (mCHA) amplification for the quantitative determination of microRNA-155. To improve its sensitivity, a polymerase-free mCHA reaction was applied as an isothermal amplification method. [...] Read more.
In the present work, we describe the development of a chemiluminescent enzyme-linked oligonucleotide assay coupled with mismatched catalytic hairpin assembly (mCHA) amplification for the quantitative determination of microRNA-155. To improve its sensitivity, a polymerase-free mCHA reaction was applied as an isothermal amplification method. The detection limit of the proposed assay was 400 fM. In addition, the high specificity of the assay was demonstrated. The proposed assay allowed assessment of the content of microRNA-155 in human cancer lines such as HepG2, Caco2, MCF7, and HeLa. The quantitation of microRNA-155 was performed after purification of short RNAs (less than 200 nt) from cell lysates since a high matrix effect was observed without this pre-treatment. The results of the quantitative determination of the microRNA content in cells were normalized using nematode microRNA-39, the concentration of which was determined using a heterogeneous assay developed by us using a strategy identical to that of the microRNA-155 assay. Full article
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14 pages, 21780 KiB  
Article
Silent Antibodies Start Talking: Enhanced Lateral Flow Serodiagnosis with Two-Stage Incorporation of Labels into Immune Complexes
by Dmitriy V. Sotnikov, Nadezhda A. Byzova, Anatoly V. Zherdev, Youchun Xu and Boris B. Dzantiev
Biosensors 2022, 12(7), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12070434 - 21 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2605
Abstract
The presence of pathogen-specific antibodies in the blood is widely controlled by a serodiagnostic technique based on the lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). However, its common one-stage format with an antigen immobilized in the binding zone of a test strip and a nanodispersed label [...] Read more.
The presence of pathogen-specific antibodies in the blood is widely controlled by a serodiagnostic technique based on the lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). However, its common one-stage format with an antigen immobilized in the binding zone of a test strip and a nanodispersed label conjugated with immunoglobulin-binding proteins is associated with risks of very low analytical signals. In this study, the first stage of the immunochromatographic serodiagnosis was carried out in its traditional format using a conjugate of gold nanoparticles with staphylococcal immunoglobulin-binding protein A and an antigen immobilized on a working membrane. At the second stage, a labeled immunoglobulin-binding protein was added, which enhanced the coloration of the bound immune complexes. The use of two separated steps, binding of specific antibodies, and further coloration of the formed complexes, allowed for a significant reduction of the influence of non-specific immunoglobulins on the assay results. The proposed approach was applied for the serodiagnosis using a recombinant RBD protein of SARS-CoV-2. As a result, an increase in the intensity of test zone coloration by more than two orders of magnitude was demonstrated, which enabled the significant reduction of false-negative results. The diagnostic sensitivity of the LFIA was 62.5% for the common format and 100% for the enhanced format. Moreover, the diagnostic specificity of both variants was 100%. Full article
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16 pages, 5000 KiB  
Article
Multiplex Digital Quantification of β-Lactamase Genes in Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria by Counting Gold Nanoparticle Labels on Silicon Microchips
by Galina V. Presnova, Denis E. Presnov, Anna A. Filippova, Ilia I. Tsiniaikin, Mariya M. Ulyashova and Maya Yu. Rubtsova
Biosensors 2022, 12(4), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12040226 - 09 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1845
Abstract
Digital quantification based on counting of individual molecules is a promising approach for different biomedical applications due to its enhanced sensitivity. Here, we present a method for the digital detection of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) on silicon microchips based on the counting [...] Read more.
Digital quantification based on counting of individual molecules is a promising approach for different biomedical applications due to its enhanced sensitivity. Here, we present a method for the digital detection of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) on silicon microchips based on the counting of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in DNA duplexes by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Biotin-labeled DNA is hybridized with capture oligonucleotide probes immobilized on the microchips. Then biotin is revealed by a streptavidin–GNP conjugate followed by the detection of GNPs. Sharp images of each nanoparticle allow the visualization of hybridization results on a single-molecule level. The technique was shown to provide highly sensitive quantification of both short oligonucleotide and long double-strand DNA sequences up to 800 bp. The lowest limit of detection of 0.04 pM was determined for short 19-mer oligonucleotide. The method’s applicability was demonstrated for the multiplex quantification of several β-lactamase genes responsible for the development of bacterial resistance against β-lactam antibiotics. Determination of nucleic acids is effective for both specific DNA in lysates and mRNA in transcripts. The method is also characterized by high selectivity for single-nucleotide polymorphism discrimination. The proposed principle of digital quantification is a perspective for studying the mechanisms of bacterial antibiotic resistance and bacterial response to drugs. Full article
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14 pages, 2299 KiB  
Article
Profiles of Sterigmatocystin and Its Metabolites during Traditional Chinese Rice Wine Processing
by Jia Zhang, Liwei Xu, Xinxin Xu, Xiaoling Wu, Hua Kuang and Chuanlai Xu
Biosensors 2022, 12(4), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12040212 - 01 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2073
Abstract
Mycotoxin pollution is widespread in cereal, which greatly threatens food security and human health. In this study, the migration and transformation of sterigmatocystin (STG) mycotoxin during the contaminated rice wine processing was systematically assessed. QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) coupled [...] Read more.
Mycotoxin pollution is widespread in cereal, which greatly threatens food security and human health. In this study, the migration and transformation of sterigmatocystin (STG) mycotoxin during the contaminated rice wine processing was systematically assessed. QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) coupled with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC−MS/MS) method was firstly established for STG analysis in rice wine. It was found that high levels of rice leaven caused a significant reduction in STG in the fermented rice and wine, which was mainly due to the adsorption of yeast cells and Rhizopus biological degradation. However, compared with rice, the levels of STG in separated fermented wine was significantly decreased by 88.6%, possibly attributed to its high log Kow (3.81) and low water solubility (1.44 mg/L). The metabolites of STG (i.e., monohydroxy STG) were identified in rice wine fermentation for the first time. Moreover, STG disturbed the metabolic profile rice wine composition mainly by glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, purine metabolism pathway, particularly with regard to eight amino acids and sixteen lipids. This study elucidated the STG migration and transformation mechanism during the rice wine processing. The finding provided new analytical method for mycotoxin exposure and pollutant in food production, which may support agricultural production and food security. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

15 pages, 2070 KiB  
Review
Luminescent Composite Carbon/SiO2 Structures: Synthesis and Applications
by Yuliya A. Podkolodnaya, Alina A. Kokorina, Tatiana S. Ponomaryova, Olga A. Goryacheva, Daniil D. Drozd, Mikhail S. Khitrov, Lingting Huang, Zhichao Yu, Dianping Tang and Irina Yu. Goryacheva
Biosensors 2022, 12(6), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12060392 - 06 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2330
Abstract
Luminescent carbon nanostructures (CNSs) have attracted great interest from the scientific community due to their photoluminescent properties, structural features, low toxicity, and a great variety of possible applications. Unfortunately, a few problems hinder their further development. These include the difficulties of separating a [...] Read more.
Luminescent carbon nanostructures (CNSs) have attracted great interest from the scientific community due to their photoluminescent properties, structural features, low toxicity, and a great variety of possible applications. Unfortunately, a few problems hinder their further development. These include the difficulties of separating a mixture of nanostructures after synthesis and the dependence of their properties on the environment and the aggregate state. The application of a silica matrix to obtain luminescent composite particles minimizes these problems and improves optical properties, reduces photoluminescence quenching, and leads to wider applications. We describe two methods for the formation of silica composites containing CNSs: inclusion of CNSs into silica particles and their grafting onto the silica surface. Moreover, we present approaches to the synthesis of multifunctional particles. They combine the unique properties of silica and fluorescent CNSs, as well as magnetic, photosensitizing, and luminescent properties via the combination of functional nanoparticles such as iron oxide nanoparticles, titanium dioxide nanoparticles, quantum dots (QDs), and gold nanoclusters (AuNCs). Lastly, we discuss the advantages and challenges of these structures and their applications. The novelty of this review involves the detailed description of the approaches for the silica application as a matrix for the CNSs. This will support researchers in solving fundamental and applied problems of this type of carbon-based nanoobjects. Full article
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