Role of Electrochemical Biosensors within Sustainable Food Chains and Food Safety

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Biosensors and Biosensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2023) | Viewed by 52676

Special Issue Editors


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REQUIMTE/LAQV, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade Do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Interests: electrochemistry; biosensors; food safety and sustainability

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Guest Editor
REQUIMTE, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Interests: biosensors; food safety; public health; sustainability

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Guest Editor
Nanobiointeractions & Nanodiagnostics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova, Italy
Interests: nanotechnology; biophysics; nano-biointeractions; nanotoxicology; nanodiagnostics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Foodborne diseases related to food spoilage by emergent contaminants (chemical or biological agents) continue to be one of the biggest threats to global health and food safety. In recent years, electrochemical biosensors and bioassays have been intensively investigated, emerging as an excellent option for the rapid analysis of possible contaminations along several stages of the food chain. The fast and sensitive analysis allied to a portable, cost-effective, simple and user-friendly performance allows universal use, both on farms and in industrial environments. Therefore, the demand of electrochemical biosensing applications for the assessment of contaminants in fishery and agricultural commodities, processing food industries, water quality monitoring—namely, the rapid identification of foodborne pathogens and drugs of emerging concern—are extremely important in the development of sustainable and safe food chains with minimal food waste. So, this Special Issue " Role of electrochemical biosensors within sustainable food chains and food safety" focuses on the recent advances in the development of new platforms for on-site electrochemical biosensing transduction, within the integration of new bioreceptors, nanomaterials, signal amplification methods and innovative bioassay formats (e.g., DNA-based, LAMP, enzymatic, antibody-based).

We invite submissions of research that follow the purposed premises and present advances in meeting the demand for food sustainability, monitoring and safety.

Dr. Nádia F.D. Silva
Dr. Júlia M.C.S. Magalhães
Dr. Pier Pompa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • food safety
  • foodborne pathogens
  • emergent contaminants
  • sustainability
  • food-quality control
  • agro-defense
  • electrochemical
  • pharmaceutical nanocontaminants
  • water quality monitoring

Published Papers (20 papers)

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Research

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20 pages, 2528 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Antioxidant Capacity of Commercial Coffee Using Conventional Optical and Chromatographic Methods and an Innovative Electrochemical DNA-Based Biosensor
by Stephanie L. Morais, Diana Rede, Maria João Ramalhosa, Manuela Correia, Marlene Santos, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Manuela M. Moreira, Cristina Soares and Maria Fátima Barroso
Biosensors 2023, 13(9), 840; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13090840 - 24 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1864
Abstract
As one of the most popular beverages in the world, coffee is a rich source of non-enzymatic bioactive compounds with antioxidant capacity. In this study, twelve commercial coffee beverages found in local Portuguese markets were assessed to determine their total phenolic and flavonoid [...] Read more.
As one of the most popular beverages in the world, coffee is a rich source of non-enzymatic bioactive compounds with antioxidant capacity. In this study, twelve commercial coffee beverages found in local Portuguese markets were assessed to determine their total phenolic and flavonoid contents, as well as their antioxidant capacity, by conventional optical procedures, namely, ferric reducing antioxidant power and DPPH-radical scavenging assay, and non-conventional procedures such as a homemade DNA-based biosensor against two reactive radicals: HO and H2O2. The innovative DNA-based biosensor comprised an adenine-rich oligonucleotide adsorbed onto a carbon paste electrode. This method detects the different peak intensities generated by square-wave voltammetry based on the partial damage to the adenine layer adsorbed on the electrode surface by the free radicals in the presence/absence of antioxidants. The DNA-based biosensor against H2O2 presented a higher DNA layer protection compared with HO in the presence of the reference gallic acid. Additionally, the phenolic profiles of the twelve coffee samples were assessed by HPLC-DAD, and the main contributors to the exhibited antioxidant capacity properties were caffeine, and chlorogenic, protocatechuic, neochlorogenic and gallic acids. The DNA-based sensor used provides reliable and fast measurements of antioxidant capacity, and is also cheap and easy to construct. Full article
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12 pages, 2909 KiB  
Article
The Optimization of a Label-Free Electrochemical DNA Biosensor for Detection of Sus scrofa mtDNA as Food Adulterations
by Yeni Wahyuni Hartati, Irkham Irkham, Iis Sumiati, Santhy Wyantuti, Shabarni Gaffar, Salma Nur Zakiyyah, Muhammad Ihda H. L. Zein and Mehmet Ozsoz
Biosensors 2023, 13(6), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13060657 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1625
Abstract
Fast, sensitive, and easy-to-use methods for detecting DNA related to food adulteration, health, religious, and commercial purposes are evolving. In this research, a label-free electrochemical DNA biosensor method was developed for the detection of pork in processed meat samples. Gold electrodeposited screen-printed carbon [...] Read more.
Fast, sensitive, and easy-to-use methods for detecting DNA related to food adulteration, health, religious, and commercial purposes are evolving. In this research, a label-free electrochemical DNA biosensor method was developed for the detection of pork in processed meat samples. Gold electrodeposited screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) were used and characterized using SEM and cyclic voltammetry. A biotinylated probe DNA sequence of the Cyt b S. scrofa gene mtDNA used as a sensing element containing guanine substituted by inosine bases. The detection of probe-target DNA hybridization on the streptavidin-modified gold SPCE surface was carried out by the peak guanine oxidation of the target using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The optimum experimental conditions of data processing using the Box–Behnken design were obtained after 90 min of streptavidin incubation time, at the DNA probe concentration of 1.0 µg/mL, and after 5 min of probe-target DNA hybridization. The detection limit was 0.135 µg/mL, with a linearity range of 0.5–1.5 µg/mL. The resulting current response indicated that this detection method was selective against 5% pork DNA in a mixture of meat samples. This electrochemical biosensor method can be developed into a portable point-of-care detection method for the presence of pork or food adulterations. Full article
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24 pages, 3195 KiB  
Article
Development of a Novel Phagomagnetic-Assisted Isothermal DNA Amplification System for Endpoint Electrochemical Detection of Listeria monocytogenes
by Cláudia Maciel, Nádia F. D. Silva, Paula Teixeira and Júlia M. C. S. Magalhães
Biosensors 2023, 13(4), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13040464 - 07 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2076
Abstract
The hitherto implemented Listeria monocytogenes detection techniques are cumbersome or require expensive non-portable instrumentation, hindering their transposition into on-time surveillance systems. The current work proposes a novel integrated system resorting to loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), assisted by a bacteriophage P100–magnetic platform, coupled to [...] Read more.
The hitherto implemented Listeria monocytogenes detection techniques are cumbersome or require expensive non-portable instrumentation, hindering their transposition into on-time surveillance systems. The current work proposes a novel integrated system resorting to loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), assisted by a bacteriophage P100–magnetic platform, coupled to an endpoint electrochemical technique, towards L. monocytogenes expeditious detection. Molybdophosphate-based optimization of the bacterial phagomagnetic separation protocol allowed the determination of the optimal parameters for its execution (pH 7, 25 °C, 32 µg of magnetic particles; 60.6% of specific capture efficiency). The novel LAMP method targeting prfA was highly specific, accomplishing 100% inclusivity (for 61 L. monocytogenes strains) and 100% exclusivity (towards 42 non-target Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria). As a proof-of-concept, the developed scheme was successfully validated in pasteurized milk spiked with L. monocytogenes. The phagomagnetic-based approach succeeded in the selective bacterial capture and ensuing lysis, triggering Listeria DNA leakage, which was efficiently LAMP amplified. Methylene blue-based electrochemical detection of LAMP amplicons was accomplished in 20 min with remarkable analytical sensitivity (1 CFU mL−1). Hence, the combined system presented an outstanding performance and robustness, providing a 2.5 h-swift, portable, cost-efficient detection scheme for decentralized on-field application. Full article
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17 pages, 8826 KiB  
Article
Agaricus bisporus Wild Mushroom Extract as Lectin Source for Engineering a Lactose Photoelectrochemical Biosensor
by André O. Santos, Vanessa E. Abrantes-Coutinho, Simone Morais and Thiago M. B. F. Oliveira
Biosensors 2023, 13(2), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13020224 - 03 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1728
Abstract
Agaricus bisporus mushroom biomass contains a lectin, ABL, with remarkable specificity for lactose biorecognition; in this work, this feature was explored to develop a photoelectrochemical biosensor. The high lectin activity found in saline extracts of this macrofungus (640 HU mL−1), even [...] Read more.
Agaricus bisporus mushroom biomass contains a lectin, ABL, with remarkable specificity for lactose biorecognition; in this work, this feature was explored to develop a photoelectrochemical biosensor. The high lectin activity found in saline extracts of this macrofungus (640 HU mL−1), even at critical pH values (4–10) and temperatures (20–100 °C), allowed its direct use as an ABL source. Theoretical and experimental evidence revealed favorable electrostatic and biocompatible conditions to immobilize ABL on a poly(methylene blue)/fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass platform, giving rise to the ABL/PMB/FTO biosensor. The conducting polymer added further photoactivity to the device, allowing the identification of lectin–carbohydrate interactions with even greater sensitivity. The dose–response curves studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed a sigmoidal profile that was well-fitted by Hill’s equation, expanding the working dynamic range (15–540 nmol L−1 lactose; 20.2 pmol L−1 detection limit) and avoiding undesirable sample dilution or preconcentration procedures. Under the optimized photoelectrochemical conditions, the ABL/PMB/FTO biosensor showed remarkable signal stability, accuracy, specificity, and selectivity to analyze lactose in commercial food products. This research raises interest in ABL-based biosensors and the added value of the crude Agaricus bisporus extract toward the development of greener and more sustainable biotechnological approaches. Full article
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12 pages, 9412 KiB  
Article
In Situ Deposition of Gold Nanoparticles and L-Cysteine on Screen-Printed Carbon Electrode for Rapid Electrochemical Determination of As(III) in Water and Tea
by Wenjing Wang, Zhijian Yi, Qiongxin Liang, Junjie Zhen, Rui Wang, Mei Li, Lingwen Zeng and Yongfang Li
Biosensors 2023, 13(1), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13010130 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2307
Abstract
In this study, a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) based on in situ deposition modification was developed for the sensitive, rapid, easy and convenient determination of As(III) in water and tea by linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry (LSASV). The screen-printed carbon electrodes were placed [...] Read more.
In this study, a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) based on in situ deposition modification was developed for the sensitive, rapid, easy and convenient determination of As(III) in water and tea by linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry (LSASV). The screen-printed carbon electrodes were placed in a solution consisting of As(III) solution, chlorauric acid and L-cysteine. Under certain electrical potential, the chloroauric acid was reduced to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the SPCE. L-cysteine was self-assembled onto AuNPs and promoted the enrichment of As(III), thus enhancing the determination specificity and sensitivity of As(III). The method achieved a limit of determination (LOD) of 0.91 ppb (µg L−1), a linear range of 1~200 µg L−1, an inter-assay coefficient of variation of 5.3% and good specificity. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of As(III) in tap water and tea samples, with a recovery rate of 93.8%~105.4%, and further validated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The developed method is rapid, convenient and accurate, holding great promise in the on-site determination of As(III) in tap water and tea leaves, and it can be extended to the detection of other samples. Full article
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12 pages, 2272 KiB  
Article
Molecularly Imprinted Polymer-Based Electrochemical Sensor for Rapid and Selective Detection of Hypoxanthine
by Diksha Garg, Neelam Verma and Monika
Biosensors 2022, 12(12), 1157; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12121157 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1933
Abstract
In this paper, we report on the coupling of an electrochemical transducer with a specifically designed biomimetic and synthetic polymeric layer that serves as a recognition surface that demonstrates the molecular memory necessary to facilitate the stable and selective identification of the meat-freshness [...] Read more.
In this paper, we report on the coupling of an electrochemical transducer with a specifically designed biomimetic and synthetic polymeric layer that serves as a recognition surface that demonstrates the molecular memory necessary to facilitate the stable and selective identification of the meat-freshness indicator hypoxanthine. Consumer preferences and the food safety of meat products are largely influenced by their freshness, so it is crucial to monitor it so as to quickly identify when it deteriorates. The sensor consists of a glassy-carbon electrode, which can be regenerated in situ continuously, functionalized with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) and a nanocomposite of curcumin-coated iron oxide magnetic nanospheres (C-IO-MNSs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) that enhance the surface area as well as the electroactive characteristics. The electrochemical behavior of the fabricated sensor was analyzed by both cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Differential pulse voltammetric studies revealed the rapid response of the proposed sol-gel-MIP/MWCNT/C-IO-MNS/GCE sensor to hypoxanthine in a concentration range of 2–50 µg/mL with a lower limit of detection at 0.165 μg/mL. Application of the newly fabricated sensor demonstrated acceptable recoveries and satisfactory accuracy when used to measure hypoxanthine in different meat samples. Full article
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13 pages, 2088 KiB  
Article
Tracking a Major Egg Allergen to Assess Commercial Food Label Compliance: Towards a Simple and Fast Immunosensing Device
by Maria Freitas, Mariana del Rio, Henri P. A. Nouws and Cristina Delerue-Matos
Biosensors 2022, 12(12), 1109; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12121109 - 01 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1680
Abstract
An amperometric immunosensor was developed for the analysis of the major egg-white allergen ovotransferrin (Gal d 3) in commercial food products because the (accidental) intake, skin contact with, and/or inhalation of eggs can lead to severe disorders in allergic individuals. Employing a sandwich-type [...] Read more.
An amperometric immunosensor was developed for the analysis of the major egg-white allergen ovotransferrin (Gal d 3) in commercial food products because the (accidental) intake, skin contact with, and/or inhalation of eggs can lead to severe disorders in allergic individuals. Employing a sandwich-type immunosensing strategy, screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCE) were biomodified with anti-Gal d 3 (capture) antibodies, and the allergen’s detection was achieved with anti-Gal d 3 antibodies labelled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB)/H2O2 reaction with HRP was used to obtain the electrochemical (amperometric) signal. An attractive assay time of 30 min and a remarkable analytical performance was achieved. The quantification range was established between 55 and 1000 ng·mL−1, with a limit of detection of 16 ng·mL−1. The developed method demonstrated good precision (Vx0 = 5.5%) and provided precise results (CV < 6%). The sensor also detected extremely low amounts (down to 0.010%) of egg. The analysis of seven raw and/or cooked egg and egg-white samples indicated that food processing influences the amount of allergen. Furthermore, to assure the compliance of product labelling with EU legislation, 25 commercial food ingredients/products were analysed. The accuracy of the results was confirmed through an ELISA assay. The stability of the ready-to-use sensing surface for 20 days allows a reduction of the reagents’ volumes and cost. Full article
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18 pages, 5723 KiB  
Article
SnO2QDs Deposited on GO/PPy-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for Efficient Electrochemical Hydrogen Peroxide Sensor
by Vandana Molahalli, Aman Sharma, Apoorva Shetty and Gurumurthy Hegde
Biosensors 2022, 12(11), 983; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12110983 - 07 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1861
Abstract
In this present work, we demonstrate an efficient electrochemical sensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a ternary nanocomposite of tin oxide QDs/GO/PPy (SGP2). An in situ chemical oxidative polymerization [...] Read more.
In this present work, we demonstrate an efficient electrochemical sensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a ternary nanocomposite of tin oxide QDs/GO/PPy (SGP2). An in situ chemical oxidative polymerization method was used to create the SGP2 nanocomposite. FTIR, XRD, HR TEM, CV, DPV, and impedance analysis were used to characterize the nanocomposite. The SGP2 nanocomposite modified GCE can be used to create an effective H2O2 electrochemical sensor with high sensitivity and a low detection limit (LOD). With SGP2 modified GCE, the electrochemical detection test for H2O2 was carried out using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric methods. The SGP2 modified GCE shows improved sensing capabilities, resulting in considerable sensitivity of 11.69 µA mM cm−2 and a very low limit of detection (LOD) of 0.758 µM for a broad linear range of H2O2 concentration from 0.1 mM to 0.8 mM with a correlation coefficient R2 = 0.9886. Additionally, the performance of the SGP2-modified GCE electrode is on par with or nonetheless superior to that of the other functional materials that have been reported for H2O2. As a result, our findings suggest that combining conductive polymer with metal oxide may be a useful method for producing sophisticated and affordable electrochemical sensors. Full article
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18 pages, 3278 KiB  
Article
Simple Preparation and Characterization of Hierarchical Flower-like NiCo2O4 Nanoplates: Applications for Sunset Yellow Electrochemical Analysis
by Hadi Beitollahi, Somayeh Tajik, Zahra Dourandish and Fariba Garkani Nejad
Biosensors 2022, 12(11), 912; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12110912 - 22 Oct 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1633
Abstract
The current work was performed to construct a novel electrochemical sensing system for determination of sunset yellow via the modification of screen-printed graphite electrode modified with hierarchical flower-like NiCo2O4 nanoplates (NiCo2O4/SPGE). The prepared material (hierarchical flower-like [...] Read more.
The current work was performed to construct a novel electrochemical sensing system for determination of sunset yellow via the modification of screen-printed graphite electrode modified with hierarchical flower-like NiCo2O4 nanoplates (NiCo2O4/SPGE). The prepared material (hierarchical flower-like NiCo2O4 nanoplates) was analyzed by diverse microscopic and spectroscopic approaches for the crystallinity, composition, and morphology. Chronoamperometry, differential pulse voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, and cyclic voltammetry were used for determination of the electrochemical behavior of sunset yellow. The as-fabricated sensor had appreciable electro-catalytic performance and current sensitivity in detecting the sunset yellow. There were some advantages for NiCo2O4/SPGE under the optimized circumstances of sunset yellow determination, including a broad dynamic linear between 0.02 and 145.0 µM, high sensitivity of 0.67 μA/(μM.cm2), and a narrow limit of detection of 0.008 μM. The practical applicability of the proposed sensor was verified by determining the sunset yellow in real matrices, with satisfactory recoveries. Full article
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12 pages, 2809 KiB  
Article
A High-Performance Self-Supporting Electrochemical Biosensor to Detect Aflatoxin B1
by Yunfei Zhang, Tingting Lin, Yi Shen and Hongying Li
Biosensors 2022, 12(10), 897; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12100897 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1884
Abstract
High-performance electrochemical biosensors for the rapid detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are urgently required in the food industry. Herein, a multi-scaled electrochemical biosensor was fabricated by assembling carboxylated polystyrene nanospheres, an aptamer and horseradish peroxidase into a free-standing carbon nanofiber/carbon felt [...] Read more.
High-performance electrochemical biosensors for the rapid detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are urgently required in the food industry. Herein, a multi-scaled electrochemical biosensor was fabricated by assembling carboxylated polystyrene nanospheres, an aptamer and horseradish peroxidase into a free-standing carbon nanofiber/carbon felt support. The resulting electrochemical biosensor possessed an exceptional performance, owing to the unique structures as well as the synergistic effects of the components. The 3D porous carbon nanofiber/carbon felt support served as an ideal substrate, owing to the excellent conductivity and facile diffusion of the reactants. The integration of carboxylated polystyrene nanospheres with horseradish peroxidase was employed as a signal amplification probe to enhance the electrochemical responses via catalyzing the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. With the aid of the aptamer, the prepared sensors could quantitatively detect AFB1 in wine and soy sauce samples via differential pulse voltammetry. The recovery rates of AFB1 in the samples were between 87.53% and 106.71%. The limit of detection of the biosensors was 0.016 pg mL−1. The electrochemical biosensors also had excellent sensitivity, reproducibility, specificity and stability. The synthetic strategy reported in this work could pave a new route to fabricate high-performance electrochemical biosensors for the detection of mycotoxins. Full article
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13 pages, 2390 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Sensing of Favipiravir with an Innovative Water-Dispersible Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Based on the Bimetallic Metal-Organic Framework: Comparison of Morphological Effects
by Nevin Erk, Mohammad Mehmandoust and Mustafa Soylak
Biosensors 2022, 12(9), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12090769 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2442
Abstract
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are widely used as modifiers in electrochemical sensors due to their high sensitivity and promise of inexpensive mass manufacturing. Here, we propose and demonstrate a novel MIP-sensor that can measure the electrochemical activity of favipiravir (FAV) as an antiviral [...] Read more.
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are widely used as modifiers in electrochemical sensors due to their high sensitivity and promise of inexpensive mass manufacturing. Here, we propose and demonstrate a novel MIP-sensor that can measure the electrochemical activity of favipiravir (FAV) as an antiviral drug, thereby enabling quantification of the concentration of FAV in biological and river water samples and in real-time. MOF nanoparticles’ application with various shapes to determine FAV at nanomolar concentrations was described. Two different MOF nanoparticle shapes (dodecahedron and sheets) were systematically compared to evaluate the electrochemical performance of FAV. After carefully examining two different morphologies of MIP-Co-Ni@MOF, the nanosheet form showed a higher performance and efficiency than the nanododecahedron. When MIP-Co/Ni@MOF-based and NIP-Co/Ni@MOF electrodes (nanosheets) were used instead, the minimum target concentrations detected were 7.5 × 10−11 (MIP-Co-Ni@MOF) and 8.17 × 10−9 M (NIP-Co-Ni@MOF), respectively. This is a significant improvement (>102), which is assigned to the large active surface area and high fraction of surface atoms, increasing the amount of greater analyte adsorption during binding. Therefore, water-dispersible MIP-Co-Ni@MOF nanosheets were successfully applied for trace-level determination of FAV in biological and water samples. Our findings seem to provide useful guidance in the molecularly imprinted polymer design of MOF-based materials to help establish quantitative rules in designing MOF-based sensors for point of care (POC) systems. Full article
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13 pages, 2792 KiB  
Article
Tracking Arachis hypogaea Allergen in Pre-Packaged Foodstuff: A Nanodiamond-Based Electrochemical Biosensing Approach
by Maria Freitas, André Carvalho, Henri P. A. Nouws and Cristina Delerue-Matos
Biosensors 2022, 12(6), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12060429 - 18 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2121
Abstract
The present work reports a nanodiamond-based voltammetric immunosensing platform for the analysis of a food allergen (Ara h 1) present in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea). The possibility of the usage of nanodiamonds (d = 11.2 ± 0.9 nm) on screen-printed carbon [...] Read more.
The present work reports a nanodiamond-based voltammetric immunosensing platform for the analysis of a food allergen (Ara h 1) present in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea). The possibility of the usage of nanodiamonds (d = 11.2 ± 0.9 nm) on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCE/ND) in a single-use two-monoclonal antibody sandwich assay was studied. An enhanced electroactive area (~18%) was obtained and the biomolecule binding ability was improved when the 3D carbon-based nanomaterial was used. The antibody-antigen interaction was recognized through the combination of alkaline phosphatase with 3-indoxyl phosphate and silver ions. Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV) was applied for fast signal acquisition and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) support the voltammetric approach and confirm the presence of silver particles on the electrode surface. The proposed immunosensor provided a low limit of detection (0.78 ng·mL−1) and highly precise (RSD < 7.5%) and accurate results. Quantification of Ara h 1 in commercial foodstuffs (e.g., crackers, cookies, protein bars) that refer to the presence of peanuts (even traces) on the product label was successfully achieved. The obtained data were in accordance with recovery results (peanut addition, %) and the foodstuff label. Products with the preventive indication “may contain traces” revealed the presence of peanuts lower than 0.1% (m/m). The method’s results were validated by comparison with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This allows confident information about the presence of allergens (even at trace levels) that leads to profitable conditions for both industry and consumers. Full article
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Review

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17 pages, 1240 KiB  
Review
Multivariate Optimization of Electrochemical Biosensors for the Determination of Compounds Related to Food Safety—A Review
by Héctor Fernández, María Alicia Zon, Sabrina Antonella Maccio, Rubén Darío Alaníz, Aylen Di Tocco, Roodney Alberto Carrillo Palomino, Jose Alberto Cabas Rodríguez, Adrian Marcelo Granero, Fernando J. Arévalo, Sebastian Noel Robledo and Gastón Darío Pierini
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070694 - 30 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1139
Abstract
We summarize the application of multivariate optimization for the construction of electrochemical biosensors. The introduction provides an overview of electrochemical biosensing, which is classified into catalytic-based and affinity-based biosensors, and discusses the most recent published works in each category. We then explore the [...] Read more.
We summarize the application of multivariate optimization for the construction of electrochemical biosensors. The introduction provides an overview of electrochemical biosensing, which is classified into catalytic-based and affinity-based biosensors, and discusses the most recent published works in each category. We then explore the relevance of electrochemical biosensors for food safety analysis, taking into account analytes of different natures. Then, we describe the chemometrics tools used in the construction of electrochemical sensors/biosensors and provide examples from the literature. Finally, we carefully discuss the construction of electrochemical biosensors based on design of experiments, including the advantages, disadvantages, and future perspectives of using multivariate optimization in this field. The discussion section offers a comprehensive analysis of these topics. Full article
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28 pages, 3884 KiB  
Review
Three-Dimensional Electrochemical Sensors for Food Safety Applications
by Chi Zhang, Qingteng Lai, Wei Chen, Yanke Zhang, Long Mo and Zhengchun Liu
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050529 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2502
Abstract
Considering the increasing concern for food safety, electrochemical methods for detecting specific ingredients in the food are currently the most efficient method due to their low cost, fast response signal, high sensitivity, and ease of use. The detection efficiency of electrochemical sensors is [...] Read more.
Considering the increasing concern for food safety, electrochemical methods for detecting specific ingredients in the food are currently the most efficient method due to their low cost, fast response signal, high sensitivity, and ease of use. The detection efficiency of electrochemical sensors is determined by the electrode materials’ electrochemical characteristics. Among them, three-dimensional (3D) electrodes have unique advantages in electronic transfer, adsorption capacity and exposure of active sites for energy storage, novel materials, and electrochemical sensing. Therefore, this review begins by outlining the benefits and drawbacks of 3D electrodes compared to other materials before going into more detail about how 3D materials are synthesized. Next, different types of 3D electrodes are outlined together with common modification techniques for enhancing electrochemical performance. After this, a demonstration of 3D electrochemical sensors for food safety applications, such as detecting components, additives, emerging pollutants, and bacteria in food, was given. Finally, improvement measures and development directions of electrodes with 3D electrochemical sensors are discussed. We think that this review will help with the creation of new 3D electrodes and offer fresh perspectives on how to achieve extremely sensitive electrochemical detection in the area of food safety. Full article
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26 pages, 1734 KiB  
Review
Application of Electrochemical Biosensors for Determination of Food Spoilage
by Krisztina Majer-Baranyi, András Székács and Nóra Adányi
Biosensors 2023, 13(4), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13040456 - 03 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3303
Abstract
Food security is significantly affected by the mass production of agricultural produce and goods, the growing number of imported foods, and new eating and consumption habits. These changed circumstances bring food safety issues arising from food spoilage to the fore, making food safety [...] Read more.
Food security is significantly affected by the mass production of agricultural produce and goods, the growing number of imported foods, and new eating and consumption habits. These changed circumstances bring food safety issues arising from food spoilage to the fore, making food safety control essential. Simple and fast screening methods have been developed to detect pathogens and biomarkers indicating the freshness of food for safety. In addition to the traditional, sequential, chemical analytical and microbiological methods, fast, highly sensitive, automated methods suitable for serial tests have appeared. At the same time, biosensor research is also developing dynamically worldwide, both in terms of the analytes to be determined and the technical toolkit. Consequently, the rapid development of biosensors, including electrochemical-based biosensors, has led to significant advantages in the quantitative detection and screening of food contaminants. These techniques show great specificity for the biomarkers tested and provide adequate analytical accuracy even in complex food matrices. In our review article, we summarize, in separate chapters, the electrochemical biosensors developed for the most important food groups and the food safety issues they can ensure, with particular respect to meat and fish products, milk and dairy products, as well as alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. Full article
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31 pages, 6807 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Recognition Receptors for Electrochemical Biosensing of Mycotoxins—A Review
by Manpreet Kaur, Jyoti Gaba, Komal Singh, Yashika Bhatia, Anoop Singh and Narinder Singh
Biosensors 2023, 13(3), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13030391 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2250
Abstract
Mycotoxins are naturally occurring toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi in cereals and foodstuffs during the stages of cultivation and storage. Electrochemical biosensing has emerged as a rapid, efficient, and economical approach for the detection and quantification of mycotoxins in different sample media. [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are naturally occurring toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi in cereals and foodstuffs during the stages of cultivation and storage. Electrochemical biosensing has emerged as a rapid, efficient, and economical approach for the detection and quantification of mycotoxins in different sample media. An electrochemical biosensor consists of two main units, a recognition receptor and a signal transducer. Natural or artificial antibodies, aptamers, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP), peptides, and DNAzymes have been extensively employed as selective recognition receptors for the electrochemical biosensing of mycotoxins. This article affords a detailed discussion of the recent advances and future prospects of various types of recognition receptors exploited in the electrochemical biosensing of mycotoxins. Full article
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22 pages, 4067 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Microfluidics-Based Electrochemical Sensors for Foodborne Pathogen Detection
by Madhusudan B. Kulkarni, Narasimha H. Ayachit and Tejraj M. Aminabhavi
Biosensors 2023, 13(2), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13020246 - 09 Feb 2023
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3637
Abstract
Using pathogen-infected food that can be unhygienic can result in severe diseases and an increase in mortality rate among humans. This may arise as a serious emergency problem if not appropriately restricted at this point of time. Thus, food science researchers are concerned [...] Read more.
Using pathogen-infected food that can be unhygienic can result in severe diseases and an increase in mortality rate among humans. This may arise as a serious emergency problem if not appropriately restricted at this point of time. Thus, food science researchers are concerned with precaution, prevention, perception, and immunity to pathogenic bacteria. Expensive, elongated assessment time and the need for skilled personnel are some of the shortcomings of the existing conventional methods. Developing and investigating a rapid, low-cost, handy, miniature, and effective detection technology for pathogens is indispensable. In recent times, there has been a significant scope of interest for microfluidics-based three-electrode potentiostat sensing platforms, which have been extensively used for sustainable food safety exploration because of their progressively high selectivity and sensitivity. Meticulously, scholars have made noteworthy revolutions in signal enrichment tactics, measurable devices, and portable tools, which can be used as an allusion to food safety investigation. Additionally, a device for this purpose must incorporate simplistic working conditions, automation, and miniaturization. In order to meet the critical needs of food safety for on-site detection of pathogens, point-of-care testing (POCT) has to be introduced and integrated with microfluidic technology and electrochemical biosensors. This review critically discusses the recent literature, classification, difficulties, applications, and future directions of microfluidics-based electrochemical sensors for screening and detecting foodborne pathogens. Full article
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34 pages, 5210 KiB  
Review
Recent Progress in Electrochemical Nano-Biosensors for Detection of Pesticides and Mycotoxins in Foods
by Zhaoyuan Gong, Yueming Huang, Xianjing Hu, Jianye Zhang, Qilei Chen and Hubiao Chen
Biosensors 2023, 13(1), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13010140 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3179
Abstract
Pesticide and mycotoxin residues in food are concerning as they are harmful to human health. Traditional methods, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for such detection lack sensitivity and operation convenience. Efficient, accurate detection approaches are needed. With the recent development of nanotechnology, [...] Read more.
Pesticide and mycotoxin residues in food are concerning as they are harmful to human health. Traditional methods, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for such detection lack sensitivity and operation convenience. Efficient, accurate detection approaches are needed. With the recent development of nanotechnology, electrochemical biosensors based on nanomaterials have shown solid ability to detect trace pesticides and mycotoxins quickly and accurately. In this review, English articles about electrochemical biosensors in the past 11 years (2011–2022) were collected from PubMed database, and various nanomaterials are discussed, including noble metal nanomaterials, magnetic metal nanoparticles, metal–organic frameworks, carbon nanotubes, as well as graphene and its derivatives. Three main roles of such nanomaterials in the detection process are summarized, including biomolecule immobilization, signal generation, and signal amplification. The detection targets involve two types of pesticides (organophosphorus and carbamate) and six types of mycotoxins (aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisin, ochratoxin A, and patulin). Although significant achievements have been made in the evolution of electrochemical nano-biosensors, many challenges remain to be overcome. Full article
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22 pages, 2333 KiB  
Review
Paper-Based Electrochemical Biosensors for Food Safety Analysis
by Bambang Kuswandi, Mochammad Amrun Hidayat and Eka Noviana
Biosensors 2022, 12(12), 1088; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12121088 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3447
Abstract
Nowadays, foodborne pathogens and other food contaminants are among the major contributors to human illnesses and even deaths worldwide. There is a growing need for improvements in food safety globally. However, it is a challenge to detect and identify these harmful analytes in [...] Read more.
Nowadays, foodborne pathogens and other food contaminants are among the major contributors to human illnesses and even deaths worldwide. There is a growing need for improvements in food safety globally. However, it is a challenge to detect and identify these harmful analytes in a rapid, sensitive, portable, and user-friendly manner. Recently, researchers have paid attention to the development of paper-based electrochemical biosensors due to their features and promising potential for food safety analysis. The use of paper in electrochemical biosensors offers several advantages such as device miniaturization, low sample consumption, inexpensive mass production, capillary force-driven fluid flow, and capability to store reagents within the pores of the paper substrate. Various paper-based electrochemical biosensors have been developed to enable the detection of foodborne pathogens and other contaminants that pose health hazards to humans. In this review, we discussed several aspects of the biosensors including different device designs (e.g., 2D and 3D devices), fabrication techniques, and electrode modification approaches that are often optimized to generate measurable signals for sensitive detection of analytes. The utilization of different nanomaterials for the modification of electrode surface to improve the detection of analytes via enzyme-, antigen/antibody-, DNA-, aptamer-, and cell-based bioassays is also described. Next, we discussed the current applications of the sensors to detect food contaminants such as foodborne pathogens, pesticides, veterinary drug residues, allergens, and heavy metals. Most of the electrochemical paper analytical devices (e-PADs) reviewed are small and portable, and therefore are suitable for field applications. Lastly, e-PADs are an excellent platform for food safety analysis owing to their user-friendliness, low cost, sensitivity, and a high potential for customization to meet certain analytical needs Full article
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32 pages, 5680 KiB  
Review
Two-Dimensional Material-Based Electrochemical Sensors/Biosensors for Food Safety and Biomolecular Detection
by Tao Li, Dawei Shang, Shouwu Gao, Bo Wang, Hao Kong, Guozheng Yang, Weidong Shu, Peilong Xu and Gang Wei
Biosensors 2022, 12(5), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12050314 - 09 May 2022
Cited by 113 | Viewed by 8089
Abstract
Two-dimensional materials (2DMs) exhibited great potential for applications in materials science, energy storage, environmental science, biomedicine, sensors/biosensors, and others due to their unique physical, chemical, and biological properties. In this review, we present recent advances in the fabrication of 2DM-based electrochemical sensors and [...] Read more.
Two-dimensional materials (2DMs) exhibited great potential for applications in materials science, energy storage, environmental science, biomedicine, sensors/biosensors, and others due to their unique physical, chemical, and biological properties. In this review, we present recent advances in the fabrication of 2DM-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors for applications in food safety and biomolecular detection that are related to human health. For this aim, firstly, we introduced the bottom-up and top-down synthesis methods of various 2DMs, such as graphene, transition metal oxides, transition metal dichalcogenides, MXenes, and several other graphene-like materials, and then we demonstrated the structure and surface chemistry of these 2DMs, which play a crucial role in the functionalization of 2DMs and subsequent composition with other nanoscale building blocks such as nanoparticles, biomolecules, and polymers. Then, the 2DM-based electrochemical sensors/biosensors for the detection of nitrite, heavy metal ions, antibiotics, and pesticides in foods and drinks are introduced. Meanwhile, the 2DM-based sensors for the determination and monitoring of key small molecules that are related to diseases and human health are presented and commented on. We believe that this review will be helpful for promoting 2DMs to construct novel electronic sensors and nanodevices for food safety and health monitoring. Full article
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