Materials and Techniques for Bioanalysis and Biosensing

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensor Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 December 2023) | Viewed by 32446

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Digital Biomedical Engineering, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
Interests: nanotechnology; biosensors; biomaterials; controlled drug delivery; biochips; microarrays; biomedical devices
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bioanalysis and biosensors are ever-evolving subjects, striving for rapid improvement in terms of performance and expanding the target range to meet the enormous societal and market demands. The key performance factors for a biosensor that drive the research are sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy, reproducibility, and response time, with additional requirements of its portability and inexpensive nature. These performance factors are largely governed by the materials and techniques being used in these bioanalytical platforms. The selection of materials to meet these requirements is critical, as their interaction or involvement with the biological recognition elements should initiate or improve these performance factors. The technique discussed primarily applies to transducers involved in converting a biochemical signal to optical or electrical signals. In recent years, the emergence of novel materials and techniques has drastically improved the performance of these bioanalytical systems, enabling them to expand their analytical horizons. These advanced materials and techniques are central to modern bioanalytical and biosensor research. This Special Issue offers new perspectives on the recent advance in materials and techniques for bioanalysis and biosensing.

This Research Topic will accept submissions that cover areas including, but not limited to:

  • Biosensing principles and strategies for various targets;
  • Smart materials for biosensors and other rapid, portable detection devices;
  • Nanozymes as potential catalysts for sensing applications;
  • Electrochemical, electrochemiluminescence and photoelectrochemical-based biosensors;
  • Colorimetric, fluorescence, luminescence, and SPR biosensors;
  • Biological recognition and affinity-based biosensors;
  • Paper electronics and paper-based biosensors;
  • FET-based biosensors, including ISFET and BioFET;
  • Emerging materials for bioanalysis and biosensing;
  • New technologies for signal transducers.

Prof. Dr. Nongyue He
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanomaterials
  • transducers
  • biosensing
  • enzyme sensors
  • immune sensors
  • DNA/RNA sensors
  • aptamer biosensors
  • optical sensors
  • electrochemical biosensors
  • photoelectrochemical biosensors
  • ECL biosensors
  • paper-based biosensors
  • wearable biosensors
  • FET biosensors

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 13826 KiB  
Article
Ultrasensitive, Label-Free Voltammetric Detection of Dibutyl Phthalate Based on Poly-l-lysine/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-porous Graphene Nanocomposite and Molecularly Imprinted Polymers
by Chuanxiang Zhang, Song Li, Lingxiao Tang, Shuo Li, Changchun Hu, Dan Zhang, Long Chao, Xueying Liu, Yimin Tan and Yan Deng
Biosensors 2024, 14(3), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14030121 - 23 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1068
Abstract
Development of an efficient technique for accurate and sensitive dibutyl phthalate (DBP) determination is crucial for food safety and environment protection. An ultrasensitive molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) voltammetric sensor was herein engineered for the specific determination of DBP using poly-l-lysine/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/porous graphene [...] Read more.
Development of an efficient technique for accurate and sensitive dibutyl phthalate (DBP) determination is crucial for food safety and environment protection. An ultrasensitive molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) voltammetric sensor was herein engineered for the specific determination of DBP using poly-l-lysine/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/porous graphene nanocomposite (PLL/PEDOT−PG) and poly(o-phenylenediamine)-imprinted film as a label-free and sensing platform. Fabrication of PEDOT−PG nanocomposites was achieved through a simple liquid–liquid interfacial polymerization. Subsequently, poly-l-lysine (PLL) functionalization was employed to enhance the dispersibility and stability of the prepared PEDOT−PG, as well as promote its adhesion on the sensor surface. In the presence of DBP, the imprinted poly(o-phenylenediamine) film was formed on the surface of PLL/PEDOT−PG. Investigation of the physical properties and electrochemical behavior of the MIP/PLL/PEDOT−PG indicates that the incorporation of PG into PEDOT, with PLL uniformly wrapping its surface, significantly enhanced conductivity, carrier mobility, stability, and provided a larger surface area for specific recognition sites. Under optimal experimental conditions, the electrochemical response exhibited a linear relationship with a logarithm of DBP concentration within the range of 1 fM to 5 µM, with the detection limit as low as 0.88 fM. The method demonstrated exceptional stability and repeatability and has been successfully applied to quantify DBP in plastic packaging materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Techniques for Bioanalysis and Biosensing)
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10 pages, 1859 KiB  
Article
Ultrasensitive Electrochemical Aptasensing of Malathion Based on Hydroxylated Black Phosphorus/Poly-L-Lysine Composite
by Tingting Ma, Jie Zhou, Dan Wei, Hongquan Peng, Xun Liu, Wenfei Guo, Chuanxiang Zhang, Xueying Liu, Song Li and Yan Deng
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070735 - 16 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1035
Abstract
A highly sensitive unlabeled electrochemical aptasensor based on hydroxylated black phosphorus/poly-L-lysine (hBP/PLL) composite is introduced herein for the detection of malathion. Poly-L-lysine (PLL) with adhesion and coating properties adhere to the surface of the nanosheets by noncovalent interactions with underlying hydroxylated black phosphorus [...] Read more.
A highly sensitive unlabeled electrochemical aptasensor based on hydroxylated black phosphorus/poly-L-lysine (hBP/PLL) composite is introduced herein for the detection of malathion. Poly-L-lysine (PLL) with adhesion and coating properties adhere to the surface of the nanosheets by noncovalent interactions with underlying hydroxylated black phosphorus nanosheets (hBP) to produce the hBP/PLL composite. The as-synthesized hBP/PLL composite bonded to Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) firmly by assembling and using them as a substrate for the aptamer with high specificity as a probe to fabricate the sensor. Under optimal conditions, the linear range of the electrochemical aptasensor was 0.1 pM~1 μM, and the detection limit was 2.805 fM. The electrochemical aptasensor has great selectivity, a low detection limit, and anti-interference, which has potential application prospects in the field of rapid trace detection of pesticide residues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Techniques for Bioanalysis and Biosensing)
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15 pages, 2906 KiB  
Article
Wearable Sensors to Evaluate Autonomic Response to Olfactory Stimulation: The Influence of Short, Intensive Sensory Training
by Lucia Billeci, Chiara Sanmartin, Alessandro Tonacci, Isabella Taglieri, Lorenzo Bachi, Giuseppe Ferroni, Gian Paolo Braceschi, Luigi Odello and Francesca Venturi
Biosensors 2023, 13(4), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13040478 - 16 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1321
Abstract
In the last few decades, while the sensory evaluation of edible products has been leveraged to make strategic decisions about many domains, the traditional descriptive analysis performed by a skilled sensory panel has been seen to be too complex and time-consuming for the [...] Read more.
In the last few decades, while the sensory evaluation of edible products has been leveraged to make strategic decisions about many domains, the traditional descriptive analysis performed by a skilled sensory panel has been seen to be too complex and time-consuming for the industry needs, making it largely unsustainable in most cases. In this context, the study of the effectiveness of different methods for sensory training on panel performances represents a new trend in research activity. With this purpose, wearable sensors are applied to study physiological signals (ECG and skin conductance) concerned with the emotions in a cohort of volunteers undergoing a short, two-day (16 h) sensory training period related to wine tasting. The results were compared with a previous study based on a conventional three-month (65 h) period of sensory training. According to what was previously reported for long panel training, it was seen that even short, intensive sensory training modulated the ANS activity toward a less sympathetically mediated response as soon as odorous compounds become familiar. A large-scale application of shorter formative courses in this domain appears possible without reducing the effectiveness of the training, thus leading to money saving for academia and scientific societies, and challenging dropout rates that might affect longer courses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Techniques for Bioanalysis and Biosensing)
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11 pages, 2709 KiB  
Article
A New Hematocrit Measurement Method Using a Chemiluminescence Biosensor and Its Application in a Chemiluminescence Immunoassay Platform for Myocardial Markers Detection with Whole Blood Samples
by Huan Zhao, Hao Han, Qifeng Lin, Li Huang, Xiangyi Su, Yile Fang, Yuanying Zhang, Enben Su, Zhu Chen, Song Li, Yan Deng and Nongyue He
Biosensors 2023, 13(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13010003 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2066
Abstract
The accuracy and precision of analyte concentrations measured in whole blood by chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) have been significantly affected by erythrocytes, which leads to poor application of whole blood CLIA in clinical practice. In this work, a chemiluminescence biosensing optical platform for blood [...] Read more.
The accuracy and precision of analyte concentrations measured in whole blood by chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) have been significantly affected by erythrocytes, which leads to poor application of whole blood CLIA in clinical practice. In this work, a chemiluminescence biosensing optical platform for blood hematocrit (HCT) analysis using MAGICL 6000 (Getein Biotechnology, Nanjing, China) was designed, implemented, and fully characterized. The developed method was successfully applied to determine various HCT levels of human blood from 0% to 65%, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9885 compared with the conventional method (Sysmex XE 5000, Kobe, Japan). A mathematical model was developed to quantitatively evaluate the impact of HCT on the results of two sample types (whole blood vs. plasma). Combining the established HCT method and mathematical model with CLIA on MAGICL 6000, the precision was significantly improved by almost 20%. Comparison studies using whole blood samples and corresponding plasma samples showed that the square of the correlation coefficients of troponin I (cTnI), myoglobin (MYO), creatine kinase MB (CK-MB), and N-terminal pro-hormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were increased to 0.9992, 0.9997, 0.9996, and 0.9994, respectively, showing a great potential for clinical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Techniques for Bioanalysis and Biosensing)
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12 pages, 3085 KiB  
Article
Label-Free Aptasensor for Detection of Fipronil Based on Black Phosphorus Nanosheets
by Hao Huang, Chuanxiang Zhang, Jie Zhou, Dan Wei, Tingting Ma, Wenfei Guo, Xueying Liu, Song Li and Yan Deng
Biosensors 2022, 12(10), 775; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12100775 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1587
Abstract
A label-free fipronil aptasensor was built based on Polylysine-black phosphorus nanosheets composition (PLL-BPNSs) and Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). A PLL-BP modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was fabricated by combining BP NSs and PLL, which included a considerable quantity of -NH2. Au nanoparticles [...] Read more.
A label-free fipronil aptasensor was built based on Polylysine-black phosphorus nanosheets composition (PLL-BPNSs) and Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). A PLL-BP modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was fabricated by combining BP NSs and PLL, which included a considerable quantity of -NH2. Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) were placed onto the GCE, and PLL-BPNSs bonded to Au NPs firmly by assembling. The thiolated primers were then added and fixed using an S-Au bond, and competitive binding of the fipronil aptamer was utilized for fipronil quantitative assessment. The sensor’s performance was evaluated using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method. The linear equation is ΔI (μA) = 13.04 logC + 22.35, while linear correlation coefficient R2 is 0.998, and detection limit is 74 pg/mL (0.17 nM) when the concentration of fipronil is 0.1 ng/mL–10 μg/mL. This aptasensor can apply to quantitative detection of fipronil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Techniques for Bioanalysis and Biosensing)
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13 pages, 3200 KiB  
Article
A Highly Integrated and Diminutive Fluorescence Detector for Point-of-Care Testing: Dual Negative Feedback Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Drive and Photoelectric Processing Circuits Design and Implementation
by Yue Wang, Yile Fang, Haoran Liu, Xiangyi Su, Zhu Chen, Song Li and Nongyue He
Biosensors 2022, 12(9), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12090764 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2023
Abstract
As an important detection tool in biochemistry, fluorescence detection has wide applications. Quantitative detection can be achieved by detecting fluorescence signals excited by excitation light at a specific wavelength range. Therefore, the key to fluorescence detection is the stable control of the excitation [...] Read more.
As an important detection tool in biochemistry, fluorescence detection has wide applications. Quantitative detection can be achieved by detecting fluorescence signals excited by excitation light at a specific wavelength range. Therefore, the key to fluorescence detection is the stable control of the excitation light and the accurate acquisition of weak photoelectric signals. Moreover, to improve portability and instantaneity, devices are developing in miniaturization and integration. As the core of such devices, fluorescence detectors should also have these features. Under this circumstance, we designed a highly integrated and diminutive fluorescence detector and focused on its excitation light driving and photoelectric signal processing. A current–light dual negative feedback light-emitting diode (LED) driving circuit was proposed to obtain constant current and luminance. In addition, a silicon photodiode (PD) was used to receive and convert the fluorescence signal to an electric signal. Then, amplifying, filtering, and analog-to-digital (A/D) converting were applied to make the detection of weak fluorescence signals possible. The test results showed that the designed circuit has wonderful performance, and the detector shows good linearity (R2 = 0.9967) and sensitivity (LOD = 0.077 nM) in the detection of fluorescein sodium solution. Finally, a real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) of Legionella pneumophila was carried out on a homemade platform equipped with this detector, indicating that the detector met the requirements of real-time PCR detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Techniques for Bioanalysis and Biosensing)
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Review

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21 pages, 4279 KiB  
Review
Recent Progress in Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Biosensors
by Kaimin Wu, Feizhi Kong, Jingjing Zhang, Ying Tang, Yao Chen, Long Chao, Libo Nie and Zhao Huang
Biosensors 2023, 13(9), 864; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13090864 - 01 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1779
Abstract
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the most common form of genetic variation in the human genome, are the main cause of individual differences. Furthermore, such attractive genetic markers are emerging as important hallmarks in clinical diagnosis and treatment. A variety of destructive abnormalities, such as [...] Read more.
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the most common form of genetic variation in the human genome, are the main cause of individual differences. Furthermore, such attractive genetic markers are emerging as important hallmarks in clinical diagnosis and treatment. A variety of destructive abnormalities, such as malignancy, cardiovascular disease, inherited metabolic disease, and autoimmune disease, are associated with single-nucleotide variants. Therefore, identification of SNPs is necessary for better understanding of the gene function and health of an individual. SNP detection with simple preparation and operational procedures, high affinity and specificity, and cost-effectiveness have been the key challenge for years. Although biosensing methods offer high specificity and sensitivity, as well, they suffer drawbacks, such as complicated designs, complicated optimization procedures, and the use of complicated chemistry designs and expensive reagents, as well as toxic chemical compounds, for signal detection and amplifications. This review aims to provide an overview on improvements for SNP biosensing based on fluorescent and electrochemical methods. Very recently, novel designs in each category have been presented in detail. Furthermore, detection limitations, advantages and disadvantages, and challenges have also been presented for each type. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Techniques for Bioanalysis and Biosensing)
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28 pages, 2572 KiB  
Review
Advances in Simple, Rapid, and Contamination-Free Instantaneous Nucleic Acid Devices for Pathogen Detection
by Yue Wang, Chengming Wang, Zepeng Zhou, Jiajia Si, Song Li, Yezhan Zeng, Yan Deng and Zhu Chen
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070732 - 14 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2353
Abstract
Pathogenic pathogens invade the human body through various pathways, causing damage to host cells, tissues, and their functions, ultimately leading to the development of diseases and posing a threat to human health. The rapid and accurate detection of pathogenic pathogens in humans is [...] Read more.
Pathogenic pathogens invade the human body through various pathways, causing damage to host cells, tissues, and their functions, ultimately leading to the development of diseases and posing a threat to human health. The rapid and accurate detection of pathogenic pathogens in humans is crucial and pressing. Nucleic acid detection offers advantages such as higher sensitivity, accuracy, and specificity compared to antibody and antigen detection methods. However, conventional nucleic acid testing is time-consuming, labor-intensive, and requires sophisticated equipment and specialized medical personnel. Therefore, this review focuses on advanced nucleic acid testing systems that aim to address the issues of testing time, portability, degree of automation, and cross-contamination. These systems include extraction-free rapid nucleic acid testing, fully automated extraction, amplification, and detection, as well as fully enclosed testing and commercial nucleic acid testing equipment. Additionally, the biochemical methods used for extraction, amplification, and detection in nucleic acid testing are briefly described. We hope that this review will inspire further research and the development of more suitable extraction-free reagents and fully automated testing devices for rapid, point-of-care diagnostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Techniques for Bioanalysis and Biosensing)
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24 pages, 7702 KiB  
Review
Enzyme-Assisted Nucleic Acid Amplification in Molecular Diagnosis: A Review
by Meiling Wang, Hongna Liu, Jie Ren, Yunqi Huang, Yan Deng, Yuan Liu, Zhu Chen, Franklin Wang-Ngai Chow, Polly Hang-Mei Leung and Song Li
Biosensors 2023, 13(2), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13020160 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3057
Abstract
Infectious diseases and tumors have become the biggest medical challenges in the 21st century. They are driven by multiple factors such as population growth, aging, climate change, genetic predispositions and more. Nucleic acid amplification technologies (NAATs) are used for rapid and accurate diagnostic [...] Read more.
Infectious diseases and tumors have become the biggest medical challenges in the 21st century. They are driven by multiple factors such as population growth, aging, climate change, genetic predispositions and more. Nucleic acid amplification technologies (NAATs) are used for rapid and accurate diagnostic testing, providing critical information in order to facilitate better follow-up treatment and prognosis. NAATs are widely used due their high sensitivity, specificity, rapid amplification and detection. It should be noted that different NAATs can be selected according to different environments and research fields; for example, isothermal amplification with a simple operation can be preferred in developing countries or resource-poor areas. In the field of translational medicine, CRISPR has shown great prospects. The core component of NAAT lies in the activity of different enzymes. As the most critical material of nucleic acid amplification, the key role of the enzyme is self-evident, playing the upmost important role in molecular diagnosis. In this review, several common enzymes used in NAATs are compared and described in detail. Furthermore, we summarize both the advances and common issues of NAATs in clinical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Techniques for Bioanalysis and Biosensing)
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23 pages, 2624 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in the Roles of MicroRNA and MicroRNA-Based Diagnosis in Neurodegenerative Diseases
by Juan Zhang, Zhu Chen, Hui Chen, Yan Deng, Song Li and Lian Jin
Biosensors 2022, 12(12), 1074; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12121074 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2435
Abstract
Neurodegenerative diseases manifest as progressive loss of neuronal structures and their myelin sheaths and lead to substantial morbidity and mortality, especially in the elderly. Despite extensive research, there are few effective treatment options for the diseases. MicroRNAs have been shown to be involved [...] Read more.
Neurodegenerative diseases manifest as progressive loss of neuronal structures and their myelin sheaths and lead to substantial morbidity and mortality, especially in the elderly. Despite extensive research, there are few effective treatment options for the diseases. MicroRNAs have been shown to be involved in the developmental processes of the central nervous system. Mounting evidence suggest they play an important role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. However, there are few reviews regarding the roles of miRNAs in neurodegenerative diseases. This review summarizes the recent developments in the roles of microRNAs in neurodegenerative diseases and presents the application of microRNA-based methods in the early diagnosis of these diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Techniques for Bioanalysis and Biosensing)
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18 pages, 2643 KiB  
Review
Recent Progress in Spectroscopic Methods for the Detection of Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria
by Mubashir Hussain, Jun Zou, He Zhang, Ru Zhang, Zhu Chen and Yongjun Tang
Biosensors 2022, 12(10), 869; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12100869 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2536
Abstract
Detection of foodborne pathogens at an early stage is very important to control food quality and improve medical response. Rapid detection of foodborne pathogens with high sensitivity and specificity is becoming an urgent requirement in health safety, medical diagnostics, environmental safety, and controlling [...] Read more.
Detection of foodborne pathogens at an early stage is very important to control food quality and improve medical response. Rapid detection of foodborne pathogens with high sensitivity and specificity is becoming an urgent requirement in health safety, medical diagnostics, environmental safety, and controlling food quality. Despite the existing bacterial detection methods being reliable and widely used, these methods are time-consuming, expensive, and cumbersome. Therefore, researchers are trying to find new methods by integrating spectroscopy techniques with artificial intelligence and advanced materials. Within this progress report, advances in the detection of foodborne pathogens using spectroscopy techniques are discussed. This paper presents an overview of the progress and application of spectroscopy techniques for the detection of foodborne pathogens, particularly new trends in the past few years, including surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance, fluorescence spectroscopy, multiangle laser light scattering, and imaging analysis. In addition, the applications of artificial intelligence, microfluidics, smartphone-based techniques, and advanced materials related to spectroscopy for the detection of bacterial pathogens are discussed. Finally, we conclude and discuss possible research prospects in aspects of spectroscopy techniques for the identification and classification of pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Techniques for Bioanalysis and Biosensing)
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32 pages, 4929 KiB  
Review
Sensors Based on the Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors for Chemical and Biological Analyses
by Yixi Deng, Lei Liu, Jingyan Li and Li Gao
Biosensors 2022, 12(10), 776; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12100776 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3119
Abstract
Nano biochemical sensors play an important role in detecting the biomarkers related to human diseases, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have become an important factor in promoting the vigorous development of this field due to their special structure and excellent electronic properties. This paper [...] Read more.
Nano biochemical sensors play an important role in detecting the biomarkers related to human diseases, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have become an important factor in promoting the vigorous development of this field due to their special structure and excellent electronic properties. This paper focuses on applying carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNT-FET) biochemical sensors to detect biomarkers. Firstly, the preparation method, physical and electronic properties and functional modification of CNTs are introduced. Then, the configuration and sensing mechanism of CNT-FETs are introduced. Finally, the latest progress in detecting nucleic acids, proteins, cells, gases and ions based on CNT-FET sensors is summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Techniques for Bioanalysis and Biosensing)
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25 pages, 4791 KiB  
Review
Liquid Crystal Droplet-Based Biosensors: Promising for Point-of-Care Testing
by Ruwen Xie, Na Li, Zunhua Li, Jinrong Chen, Kaixuan Li, Qiang He, Lishang Liu and Shusheng Zhang
Biosensors 2022, 12(9), 758; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12090758 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3803
Abstract
The development of biosensing platforms has been impressively accelerated by advancements in liquid crystal (LC) technology. High response rate, easy operation, and good stability of the LC droplet-based biosensors are all benefits of the long-range order of LC molecules. Bioprobes emerged when LC [...] Read more.
The development of biosensing platforms has been impressively accelerated by advancements in liquid crystal (LC) technology. High response rate, easy operation, and good stability of the LC droplet-based biosensors are all benefits of the long-range order of LC molecules. Bioprobes emerged when LC droplets were combined with biotechnology, and these bioprobes are used extensively for disease diagnosis, food safety, and environmental monitoring. The LC droplet biosensors have high sensitivity and excellent selectivity, making them an attractive tool for the label-free, economical, and real-time detection of different targets. Portable devices work well as the accessory kits for LC droplet-based biosensors to make them easier to use by anyone for on-site monitoring of targets. Herein, we offer a review of the latest developments in the design of LC droplet-based biosensors for qualitative target monitoring and quantitative target analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Techniques for Bioanalysis and Biosensing)
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32 pages, 6602 KiB  
Review
Application of Janus Particles in Point-of-Care Testing
by Yuhan Wang, Peixuan Zhao, Shihao Zhang, Kexiao Zhu, Xiaoya Shangguan, Lishang Liu and Shusheng Zhang
Biosensors 2022, 12(9), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12090689 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2885
Abstract
Janus particles (JPs), named after the two-faced Roman god, are asymmetric particles with different chemical properties or polarities. JPs have been widely used in the biomedical field in recent years, including as drug carriers for targeted controlled drug release and as biosensors for [...] Read more.
Janus particles (JPs), named after the two-faced Roman god, are asymmetric particles with different chemical properties or polarities. JPs have been widely used in the biomedical field in recent years, including as drug carriers for targeted controlled drug release and as biosensors for biological imaging and biomarker detection, which is crucial in the early detection and treatment of diseases. In this review, we highlight the most recent advancements made with regard to Janus particles in point-of-care testing (POCT). Firstly, we introduce several commonly used methods for preparing Janus particles. Secondly, we present biomarker detection using JPs based on various detection methods to achieve the goal of POCT. Finally, we discuss the challenges and opportunities for developing Janus particles in POCT. This review will facilitate the development of POCT biosensing devices based on the unique properties of Janus particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Techniques for Bioanalysis and Biosensing)
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