Advanced Materials for Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors Development

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensor Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2024) | Viewed by 17372

Special Issue Editor

MiCRA Biodiagnostics Technology Gateway and Health, Engineering & Material Sciences (HEMS) Hub, Technological University Dublin (TU Dublin), D24 FKT9 Dublin, Ireland
Interests: electrochemical sensors & biosensors; agri-food & diagnostic microbiology; immunoassay development; biomarkers detection and point-of-care devices; nanomaterials and antimicrobial resistance (AMR)
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electrochemical methods and electroanalytical techniques are promising next-generation analytical tools for various sensing and biosensing applications which, owing to their exceptional characteristics, offer a number of advantages over conventional analytical techniques. Electrochemical techniques are cost-effective and capable of rapid, sensitive, and selective measurements; portable and capable of easy handling; compatible with miniaturization; and thereby provide exciting prospects for various practical applications. Electrochemical approaches can be applied for bioanalysis (glucose sensing and antigen/antibody detection, as well as for non-biological contaminants such as food and environmental analysis etc.)

An electrochemical sensor device transforms electrochemical information into an analytically useful signal, usually composed of two basic components, a chemical (molecular) recognition system, which is the most important part of a sensor; and a physicochemical transducer, which converts the chemical reaction into a signal that can be detected by the electroanalytical techniques. Biosensors are a type of analytical device that can be classified according to the type of biological sensing element (enzymes, antibodies, aptamers, whole cells, etc.) that they employ or based on the transducer (electrochemical, optical, piezoelectric, etc.). When the target analyte interacts with the biological sensing element, a signal is generated which relates to the analyte concentration. Biosensors are self-contained integrated devices, but can be incorporated into larger analytical systems and can act as receptor devices that can selectively collect quantitative or semi-quantitative information. The fundamental principle of electrochemical biosensors is the recognition incident between the immobilized biological sensing element and target analyte that results in alterations in signal (current, potential and conductance/impedance). The transduction of a biological or chemical signal into an electrical signal can be achieved by amperometry, voltammetry, potentiometry, conductometry or electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Electrochemical sensors and biosensors offer a number of advantages, including high sensitivity, low detection limits, wider linear responses, and selective and reproducible responses, to meet the future needs for a diverse range of applications.

The sensing performance of a biosensor depends on its intrinsic characteristics, such as physicochemical properties, composition, crystal phases, and morphologies of the materials used in its fabrication. Novel materials and nanomaterials have been an emerging interest and extensively analyzed with respect to enhancing biosensor performance due to their characteristics (size-to-volume ratio, conductivity, quantum effects, surface and interface effects etc.). Thus, the investigation and exploitation of appropriate materials and advanced nanomaterials is key for fabricating sensors and biosensors with superior performance and in development of cost-effective, sensitive, biocompatible, and reliable next-generation sensors. The combination of advanced materials and electroanalytical techniques signifies the possibility for the advancement of electrochemical sensor and biosensor devices for various applications, including biological and biomedical, clinical and medical diagnostics, biotechnological, environmental monitoring and food industries. Their advantageous features, such as low cost, miniaturizability and portability, energy efficiency, simplicity, easy fabrication, potential for online monitoring, and their simultaneous sensing capabilities drive the continued growth of electrochemical sensing and biosensing platforms. Biosensor research is an interdisciplinary area spanning chemistry, material science, as well as biological and medical sciences.

This Special Issue aims to collect the latest developments in advanced materials for sensing and biosensing applications in order to demonstrate innovative approaches or technologies and identify new scientific frontiers in this space. Original research papers, reviews, mini-reviews and perspective articles are all welcome.

Dr. Baljit Singh
Guest Editor

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • electrochemical sensors and biosensors
  • sensor development
  • advanced materials
  • nanomaterials
  • nano-biosensors
  • conductive, functional and wearable materials
  • electrode materials and fabrication
  • screen-printed sensors
  • electrochemical analysis
  • electroanalytical techniques

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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27 pages, 7670 KiB  
Article
Novel Cytochrome P450-3A4 Enzymatic Nanobiosensor for Lapatinib (a Breast Cancer Drug) Developed on a Poly(anilino-co-4-aminobenzoic Acid-Green-Synthesised Indium Nanoparticle) Platform
by Jaymi Leigh January, Ziyanda Zamaswazi Tshobeni, Nokwanda Precious Pearl Ngema, Abongile Nwabisa Jijana, Emmanuel Iheanyichukwu Iwuoha, Takalani Mulaudzi, Samantha Fiona Douman and Rachel Fanelwa Ajayi
Biosensors 2023, 13(9), 897; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13090897 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1301
Abstract
Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common types of cancer disease worldwide and it accounts for thousands of deaths annually. Lapatinib is among the preferred drugs for the treatment of breast cancer. Possible drug toxicity effects of lapatinib can be controlled [...] Read more.
Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common types of cancer disease worldwide and it accounts for thousands of deaths annually. Lapatinib is among the preferred drugs for the treatment of breast cancer. Possible drug toxicity effects of lapatinib can be controlled by real-time determination of the appropriate dose for a patient at the point of care. In this study, a novel highly sensitive polymeric nanobiosensor for lapatinib is presented. A composite of poly(anilino-co-4-aminobenzoic acid) co-polymer {poly(ANI-co-4-ABA)} and coffee extract-based green-synthesized indium nanoparticles (InNPs) was used to develop the sensor platform on a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE), i.e., SPCE||poly(ANI-co-4-ABA-InNPs). Cytochrome P450-3A4 (CYP3A4) enzyme and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were incorporated on the modified platform to produce the SPCE||poly(ANI-co-4-ABA-InNPs)|CYP3A4|PEG lapatinib nanobiosensor. Experiments for the determination of the electrochemical response characteristics of the nanobiosensor were performed with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The nanobiosensor calibration for 0–100 ng/mL lapatinib was linear and gave limit of detection (LOD) values of 13.21 ng/mL lapatinib and 18.6 ng/mL lapatinib in physiological buffer and human serum, respectively. The LOD values are much lower than the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of lapatinib (2.43 µg/mL), which is attained 4 h after the administration of a daily dose of 1250 mg lapatinib. The electrochemical nanobiosensor also exhibited excellent anti-interference performance and stability. Full article
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19 pages, 5454 KiB  
Article
Feather-like Gold Nanostructures Anchored onto 3D Mesoporous Laser-Scribed Graphene: A Highly Sensitive Platform for Enzymeless Glucose Electrochemical Detection in Neutral Media
by Achraf Berni, Aziz Amine, Juan José García-Guzmán, Laura Cubillana-Aguilera and José María Palacios-Santander
Biosensors 2023, 13(7), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13070678 - 25 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1416
Abstract
The authors present a novel sensing platform for a disposable electrochemical, non-enzymatic glucose sensor strip at physiological pH. The sensing material is based on dendritic gold nanostructures (AuNs) resembling feather branches, which are electrodeposited onto a laser-scribed 3D graphene electrode (LSGE). The LSGEs [...] Read more.
The authors present a novel sensing platform for a disposable electrochemical, non-enzymatic glucose sensor strip at physiological pH. The sensing material is based on dendritic gold nanostructures (AuNs) resembling feather branches, which are electrodeposited onto a laser-scribed 3D graphene electrode (LSGE). The LSGEs were fabricated via a one-step laser scribing process on a commercially available polyimide sheet. This study investigates several parameters that influence the morphology of the deposited Au nanostructures and the catalytic activity toward glucose electro-oxidation. The electrocatalytic activity of the AuNs-LSGE was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), and amperometry and was compared to commercially available carbon electrodes prepared under the same electrodeposition conditions. The sensor demonstrated good stability and high selectivity of the amperometric response in the presence of interfering agents, such as ascorbic acid, when a Nafion membrane was applied over the electrode surface. The proposed sensing strategy offers a wide linear detection range, from 0.5 to 20 mM, which covers normal and elevated levels of glucose in the blood, with a detection limit of 0.21 mM. The AuNs-LSGE platform exhibits great potential for use as a disposable glucose sensor strip for point-of-care applications, including self-monitoring and food management. Its non-enzymatic features reduce dependence on enzymes, making it suitable for practical and cost-effective biosensing solutions. Full article
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16 pages, 2985 KiB  
Article
A UiO-66-NH2 MOF/PAMAM Dendrimer Nanocomposite for Electrochemical Detection of Tramadol in the Presence of Acetaminophen in Pharmaceutical Formulations
by Fariba Garkani Nejad, Hadi Beitollahi and Iran Sheikhshoaie
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050514 - 30 Apr 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1896
Abstract
In this work, we prepared a novel electrochemical sensor for the detection of tramadol based on a UiO-66-NH2 metal–organic framework (UiO-66-NH2 MOF)/third-generation poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (G3-PAMAM dendrimer) nanocomposite drop-cast onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface. After the synthesis of the nanocomposite, [...] Read more.
In this work, we prepared a novel electrochemical sensor for the detection of tramadol based on a UiO-66-NH2 metal–organic framework (UiO-66-NH2 MOF)/third-generation poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (G3-PAMAM dendrimer) nanocomposite drop-cast onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface. After the synthesis of the nanocomposite, the functionalization of the UiO-66-NH2 MOF by G3-PAMAM was confirmed by various techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The UiO-66-NH2 MOF/PAMAM-modified GCE exhibited commendable electrocatalytic performance toward the tramadol oxidation owing to the integration of the UiO-66-NH2 MOF with the PAMAM dendrimer. According to differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), it was possible to detect tramadol under optimized circumstances in a broad concentration range (0.5 μM–500.0 μM) and a narrow limit of detection (0.2 μM). In addition, the stability, repeatability, and reproducibility of the presented UiO-66-NH2 MOF/PAMAM/GCE sensor were also studied. The sensor also possessed an acceptable catalytic behavior for the tramadol determination in the co-existence of acetaminophen, with the separated oxidation potential of ΔE = 410 mV. Finally, the UiO-66-NH2 MOF/PAMAM-modified GCE exhibited satisfactory practical ability in pharmaceutical formulations (tramadol tablets and acetaminophen tablets). Full article
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Review

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25 pages, 12755 KiB  
Review
Multifunctional Electrospun Nanofibers for Biosensing and Biomedical Engineering Applications
by Zhou Chen, Mengdi Guan, Yi Bian and Xichen Yin
Biosensors 2024, 14(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14010013 - 25 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1206
Abstract
Nanotechnology is experiencing unprecedented developments, leading to the advancement of functional nanomaterials. The properties that stand out include remarkable porosity, high-specific surface area, excellent loading capacity, easy modification, and low cost make electrospun nanofibers. In the biomedical field, especially in biosensors, they exhibit [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology is experiencing unprecedented developments, leading to the advancement of functional nanomaterials. The properties that stand out include remarkable porosity, high-specific surface area, excellent loading capacity, easy modification, and low cost make electrospun nanofibers. In the biomedical field, especially in biosensors, they exhibit amazing potential. This review introduces the principle of electrospinning, describes several structures and biomaterials of electrospun nanofibers used for biomedicine, and summarizes the applications of this technology in biosensors and other biomedical applications. In addition, the technical challenges and limitations of electrospinning for biomedicine are discussed; however, more research work is needed to elucidate its full potential. Full article
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39 pages, 9752 KiB  
Review
Electrochemical Biosensors for the Detection of Antibiotics in Milk: Recent Trends and Future Perspectives
by Baljit Singh, Abhijnan Bhat, Lesa Dutta, Kumari Riya Pati, Yaroslav Korpan and Isha Dahiya
Biosensors 2023, 13(9), 867; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13090867 - 01 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2799
Abstract
Antibiotics have emerged as ground-breaking medications for the treatment of infectious diseases, but due to the excessive use of antibiotics, some drugs have developed resistance to microorganisms. Because of their structural complexity, most antibiotics are excreted unchanged, polluting the water, soil, and natural [...] Read more.
Antibiotics have emerged as ground-breaking medications for the treatment of infectious diseases, but due to the excessive use of antibiotics, some drugs have developed resistance to microorganisms. Because of their structural complexity, most antibiotics are excreted unchanged, polluting the water, soil, and natural resources. Additionally, food items are being polluted through the widespread use of antibiotics in animal feed. The normal concentrations of antibiotics in environmental samples typically vary from ng to g/L. Antibiotic residues in excess of these values can pose major risks the development of illnesses and infections/diseases. According to estimates, 300 million people will die prematurely in the next three decades (by 2050), and the WHO has proclaimed “antibiotic resistance” to be a severe economic and sociological hazard to public health. Several antibiotics have been recognised as possible environmental pollutants (EMA) and their detection in various matrices such as food, milk, and environmental samples is being investigated. Currently, chromatographic techniques coupled with different detectors (e.g., HPLC, LC-MS) are typically used for antibiotic analysis. Other screening methods include optical methods, ELISA, electrophoresis, biosensors, etc. To minimise the problems associated with antibiotics (i.e., the development of AMR) and the currently available analytical methods, electrochemical platforms have been investigated, and can provide a cost-effective, rapid and portable alternative. Despite the significant progress in this field, further developments are necessary to advance electrochemical sensors, e.g., through the use of multi-functional nanomaterials and advanced (bio)materials to ensure efficient detection, sensitivity, portability, and reliability. This review summarises the use of electrochemical biosensors for the detection of antibiotics in milk/milk products and presents a brief introduction to antibiotics and AMR followed by developments in the field of electrochemical biosensors based on (i) immunosensor, (ii) aptamer (iii) MIP, (iv) enzyme, (v) whole-cell and (vi) direct electrochemical approaches. The role of nanomaterials and sensor fabrication is discussed wherever necessary. Finally, the review discusses the challenges encountered and future perspectives. This review can serve as an insightful source of information, enhancing the awareness of the role of electrochemical biosensors in providing information for the preservation of the health of the public, of animals, and of our environment, globally. Full article
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18 pages, 5371 KiB  
Review
Covalent Organic Frameworks-Based Electrochemical Sensors for Food Safety Analysis
by Zhenyu Lu, Yingying Wang and Gongke Li
Biosensors 2023, 13(2), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13020291 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2596
Abstract
Food safety is a key issue in promoting human health and sustaining life. Food analysis is essential to prevent food components or contaminants causing foodborne-related illnesses to consumers. Electrochemical sensors have become a desirable method for food safety analysis due to their simple, [...] Read more.
Food safety is a key issue in promoting human health and sustaining life. Food analysis is essential to prevent food components or contaminants causing foodborne-related illnesses to consumers. Electrochemical sensors have become a desirable method for food safety analysis due to their simple, accurate and rapid response. The low sensitivity and poor selectivity of electrochemical sensors working in complex food sample matrices can be overcome by coupling them with covalent organic frameworks (COFs). COFs are a kind of novel porous organic polymer formed by light elements, such as C, H, N and B, via covalent bonds. This review focuses on the recent progress in COF-based electrochemical sensors for food safety analysis. Firstly, the synthesis methods of COFs are summarized. Then, a discussion of the strategies is given to improve the electrochemistry performance of COFs. There follows a summary of the recently developed COF-based electrochemical sensors for the determination of food contaminants, including bisphenols, antibiotics, pesticides, heavy metal ions, fungal toxin and bacterium. Finally, the challenges and the future directions in this field are discussed. Full article
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35 pages, 5596 KiB  
Review
Advanced Nanomaterials-Based Electrochemical Biosensors for Catecholamines Detection: Challenges and Trends
by Zina Fredj and Mohamad Sawan
Biosensors 2023, 13(2), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13020211 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4048
Abstract
Catecholamines, including dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, are considered one of the most crucial subgroups of neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS), in which they act at the brain’s highest levels of mental function and play key roles in neurological disorders. Accordingly, the [...] Read more.
Catecholamines, including dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, are considered one of the most crucial subgroups of neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS), in which they act at the brain’s highest levels of mental function and play key roles in neurological disorders. Accordingly, the analysis of such catecholamines in biological samples has shown a great interest in clinical and pharmaceutical importance toward the early diagnosis of neurological diseases such as Epilepsy, Parkinson, and Alzheimer diseases. As promising routes for the real-time monitoring of catecholamine neurotransmitters, optical and electrochemical biosensors have been widely adopted and perceived as a dramatically accelerating development in the last decade. Therefore, this review aims to provide a comprehensive overview on the recent advances and main challenges in catecholamines biosensors. Particular emphasis is given to electrochemical biosensors, reviewing their sensing mechanism and the unique characteristics brought by the emergence of nanotechnology. Based on specific biosensors’ performance metrics, multiple perspectives on the therapeutic use of nanomaterial for catecholamines analysis and future development trends are also summarized. Full article
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