A Powerful Tool for Analytical Applications: Immunosensors

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensor and Bioelectronic Devices".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 May 2022) | Viewed by 6012

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biosensor technologies based on specific antigen–antibody interactions, and in which the transducer detects, either directly or indirectly, immunochemical reactions are called immunosensors.

Recently, the integration of new materials into biosensors, such as magnetic particles, has created the possibility to obtain fast and automated screening methods with increased sensitivity. More importantly, the advantages of using magnetic particles in the magnetic separation of bacteria, virus, and dangerous toxins coupled with different detection techniques (electrochemical and optical methods) have contributed significantly not only in clinical analyses (the traditional field of application of immunoanalysis), but also environmental analyses, quality control in pharmaceutical and food industries, biosecurity and the prevention of bioterrorism to avoid harmful contaminations for humans and the environment.

Prof. Dr. Laura Micheli
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (2 papers)

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17 pages, 2690 KiB  
Article
Rapid Quantification of SARS-Cov-2 Spike Protein Enhanced with a Machine Learning Technique Integrated in a Smart and Portable Immunosensor
by Simone Fortunati, Chiara Giliberti, Marco Giannetto, Angelo Bolchi, Davide Ferrari, Gaetano Donofrio, Valentina Bianchi, Andrea Boni, Ilaria De Munari and Maria Careri
Biosensors 2022, 12(6), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12060426 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2901
Abstract
An IoT-WiFi smart and portable electrochemical immunosensor for the quantification of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was developed with integrated machine learning features. The immunoenzymatic sensor is based on the immobilization of monoclonal antibodies directed at the SARS-CoV-2 S1 subunit on Screen-Printed Electrodes functionalized with [...] Read more.
An IoT-WiFi smart and portable electrochemical immunosensor for the quantification of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was developed with integrated machine learning features. The immunoenzymatic sensor is based on the immobilization of monoclonal antibodies directed at the SARS-CoV-2 S1 subunit on Screen-Printed Electrodes functionalized with gold nanoparticles. The analytical protocol involves a single-step sample incubation. Immunosensor performance was validated in a viral transfer medium which is commonly used for the desorption of nasopharyngeal swabs. Remarkable specificity of the response was demonstrated by testing H1N1 Hemagglutinin from swine-origin influenza A virus and Spike Protein S1 from Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Machine learning was successfully used for data processing and analysis. Different support vector machine classifiers were evaluated, proving that algorithms affect the classifier accuracy. The test accuracy of the best classification model in terms of true positive/true negative sample classification was 97.3%. In addition, the ML algorithm can be easily integrated into cloud-based portable Wi-Fi devices. Finally, the immunosensor was successfully tested using a third generation replicating incompetent lentiviral vector pseudotyped with SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, thus proving the applicability of the immunosensor to whole virus detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Powerful Tool for Analytical Applications: Immunosensors)
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17 pages, 5884 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Morphology and Electrical Properties of Graphene Used in the Development of Biosensors for Detection of Influenza Viruses
by Natalia M. Shmidt, Alexander S. Usikov, Evgeniia I. Shabunina, Alexey V. Nashchekin, Ekaterina V. Gushchina, Ilya A. Eliseev, Vasily N. Petrov, Mikhail V. Puzyk, Oleg V. Avdeev, Sergey A. Klotchenko, Sergey P. Lebedev, Elena M. Tanklevskaya, Yuri N. Makarov, Alexander A. Lebedev and Andrey V. Vasin
Biosensors 2022, 12(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12010008 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2703
Abstract
In this study, we discuss the mechanisms behind changes in the conductivity, low-frequency noise, and surface morphology of biosensor chips based on graphene films on SiC substrates during the main stages of the creation of biosensors for detecting influenza viruses. The formation of [...] Read more.
In this study, we discuss the mechanisms behind changes in the conductivity, low-frequency noise, and surface morphology of biosensor chips based on graphene films on SiC substrates during the main stages of the creation of biosensors for detecting influenza viruses. The formation of phenylamine groups and a change in graphene nano-arrangement during functionalization causes an increase in defectiveness and conductivity. Functionalization leads to the formation of large hexagonal honeycomb-like defects up to 500 nm, the concentration of which is affected by the number of bilayer or multilayer inclusions in graphene. The chips fabricated allowed us to detect the influenza viruses in a concentration range of 10−16 g/mL to 10−10 g/mL in PBS (phosphate buffered saline). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that these defects are responsible for the inhomogeneous aggregation of antibodies and influenza viruses over the functionalized graphene surface. Non-uniform aggregation is responsible for a weak non-linear logarithmic dependence of the biosensor response versus the virus concentration in PBS. This feature of graphene nano-arrangement affects the reliability of detection of extremely low virus concentrations at the early stages of disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Powerful Tool for Analytical Applications: Immunosensors)
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