Advanced Functional Materials for Electrochemical Sensor and Biosensor Applications

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensor Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2023) | Viewed by 21418

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Republic of Korea
Interests: 2D materials; sensors; biosensors; photovoltaics; smart windows; electrochromic device
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electrochemical sensors and biosensors have received enormous attention because of their low cost, rapid response, high sensitivity, good detection limit, and excellent selectivity. The development of biosensors and sensors is of great significance, and is urgently required for the detection of various biomolecules such as glucose, ascorbic acid, serotonin, tryptophan, uric acid, cholesterol, and so on. This Special Issue aims to focus on on the design and fabrication of highly sensitive and selective electrochemical sensors and biosensors for the determination of various biomolecules, such as glucose, etc. Original research articles (theoretical or experimental) and review articles addressing recent advances in the field of electrochemical sensors and biosensors are welcome. 

Dr. Khursheed Ahmad
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Dr. Khursheed Ahmad
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • 2D materials
  • hybrid composite materials for sensors and biosensors
  • electrode materials
  • biosensors
  • electrochemical sensors
  • electrochemistry
  • biomolecules sensor

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 1565 KiB  
Article
Cost-Effective Modular Biosensor for SARS-CoV-2 and Influenza A Detection
by Andrew Murray, Julio Ojeda, Omar El Merhebi, Percy Calvo-Marzal, Yulia Gerasimova and Karin Chumbimuni-Torres
Biosensors 2023, 13(9), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13090874 - 07 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1178
Abstract
A modular, multi-purpose, and cost-effective electrochemical biosensor based on a five-stranded four-way junction (5S-4WJ) system was developed for SARS-CoV-2 (genes S and N) and Influenza A virus (gene M) detection. The 5S-4WJ structure consists of an electrode-immobilized universal stem-loop (USL) strand, two auxiliary [...] Read more.
A modular, multi-purpose, and cost-effective electrochemical biosensor based on a five-stranded four-way junction (5S-4WJ) system was developed for SARS-CoV-2 (genes S and N) and Influenza A virus (gene M) detection. The 5S-4WJ structure consists of an electrode-immobilized universal stem-loop (USL) strand, two auxiliary DNA strands, and a universal methylene blue redox strand (UMeB). This design allows for the detection of specific nucleic acid sequences using square wave voltammetry (SWV). The sequence-specific auxiliary DNA strands (m and f) ensure selectivity of the biosensor for target recognition utilizing the same USL and UMeB components. An important feature of this biosensor is the ability to reuse the USL-modified electrodes to detect the same or alternative targets in new samples. This is accomplished by a simple procedure involving rinsing the electrodes with water to disrupt the 5S-4WJ structure and subsequent re-hybridization of the USL strand with the appropriate set of strands for a new analysis. The biosensor exhibited minimal loss in signal after rehybridization, demonstrating its potential as a viable multiplex assay for both current and future pathogens, with a low limit of quantification (LOQ) of as low as 17 pM. Full article
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16 pages, 3875 KiB  
Article
Flavocytochrome b2-Mediated Electroactive Nanoparticles for Developing Amperometric L-Lactate Biosensors
by Olha Demkiv, Galina Gayda, Nataliya Stasyuk, Anna Moroz, Roman Serkiz, Asta Kausaite-Minkstimiene, Mykhailo Gonchar and Marina Nisnevitch
Biosensors 2023, 13(6), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13060587 - 28 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1458
Abstract
L-Lactate is an indicator of food quality, so its monitoring is essential. Enzymes of L-Lactate metabolism are promising tools for this aim. We describe here some highly sensitive biosensors for L-Lactate determination which were developed using flavocytochrome b2 (Fcb2) [...] Read more.
L-Lactate is an indicator of food quality, so its monitoring is essential. Enzymes of L-Lactate metabolism are promising tools for this aim. We describe here some highly sensitive biosensors for L-Lactate determination which were developed using flavocytochrome b2 (Fcb2) as a bio-recognition element, and electroactive nanoparticles (NPs) for enzyme immobilization. The enzyme was isolated from cells of the thermotolerant yeast Ogataea polymorpha. The possibility of direct electron transfer from the reduced form of Fcb2 to graphite electrodes has been confirmed, and the amplification of the electrochemical communication between the immobilized Fcb2 and the electrode surface was demonstrated to be achieved using redox nanomediators, both bound and freely diffusing. The fabricated biosensors exhibited high sensitivity (up to 1436 A·M−1·m−2), fast responses, and low limits of detection. One of the most effective biosensors, which contained co-immobilized Fcb2 and the hexacyanoferrate of gold, having a sensitivity of 253 A·M−1·m−2 without freely diffusing redox mediators, was used for L-Lactate analysis in samples of yogurts. A high correlation was observed between the values of analyte content determined using the biosensor and referenced enzymatic-chemical photometric methods. The developed biosensors based on Fcb2-mediated electroactive nanoparticles can be promising for applications in laboratories of food control. Full article
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15 pages, 11983 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Biosensing of L-DOPA Using Tyrosinase Immobilized on Carboxymethyl Starch-Graft-Polyaniline@MWCNTs Nanocomposite
by Fahimeh Mollamohammadi, Hassan Faridnouri and Ehsan Nazarzadeh Zare
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050562 - 21 May 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1548
Abstract
The electrochemical behavior of the immobilized tyrosinase (Tyrase) on a modified glassy carbon electrode with carboxymethyl starch-graft-polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite (CMS-g-PANI@MWCNTs) was investigated. The molecular properties of CMS-g-PANI@MWCNTs nanocomposite and its morphological characterization were examined by Fourier [...] Read more.
The electrochemical behavior of the immobilized tyrosinase (Tyrase) on a modified glassy carbon electrode with carboxymethyl starch-graft-polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite (CMS-g-PANI@MWCNTs) was investigated. The molecular properties of CMS-g-PANI@MWCNTs nanocomposite and its morphological characterization were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). A simple drop-casting method was employed to immobilize Tyrase on the CMS-g-PANI@MWCNTs nanocomposite. In the cyclic voltammogram (CV), a pair of redox peaks were observed at the potentials of +0.25 to −0.1 V and E°’ was equal to 0.1 V and the apparent rate constant of electron transfer (Ks) was calculated at 0.4 s−1. Using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), the sensitivity and selectivity of the biosensor were investigated. The biosensor exhibits linearity towards catechol and L-dopa in the concentration range of 5–100 and 10–300 μM with a sensitivity of 2.4 and 1.11 μA μΜ−1 cm−2 and limit of detection (LOD) 25 and 30 μM, respectively. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) was calculated at 42 μΜ for catechol and 86 μΜ for L-dopa. After 28 working days, the biosensor provided good repeatability and selectivity, and maintained 67% of its stability. The existence of -COO and -OH groups in carboxymethyl starch, -NH2 groups in polyaniline, and high surface-to-volume ratio and electrical conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the CMS-g-PANI@MWCNTs nanocomposite cause good Tyrase immobilization on the surface of the electrode. Full article
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11 pages, 2853 KiB  
Communication
A Colorimetric Aptasensor for Ochratoxin A Detection Based on Tetramethylrhodamine Charge Effect-Assisted Silver Enhancement
by Xiaoyan Yang, Rong Huang, Lulu Xiong, Feng Chen, Wei Sun and Ling Yu
Biosensors 2023, 13(4), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13040468 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1622
Abstract
A novel colorimetric aptasensor based on charge effect-assisted silver enhancement was developed to detect ochratoxin A (OTA). To achieve this objective, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which can catalyze silver reduction and deposition, were used as the carrier of the aptamers tagged with a positively [...] Read more.
A novel colorimetric aptasensor based on charge effect-assisted silver enhancement was developed to detect ochratoxin A (OTA). To achieve this objective, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which can catalyze silver reduction and deposition, were used as the carrier of the aptamers tagged with a positively charged tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA). Due to the mutual attraction of positive and negative charges, the TAMRA attracted and retained the silver lactate around the AuNPs. Thus, the chance of AuNP-catalyzed silver reduction was increased. The charge effect-assisted silver enhancement was verified by tagging different base pair length aptamers with TAMRA. Under optimized conditions, the as-prepared OTA aptasensor had a working range of 1 × 102–1 × 106 pg mL−1. The detection limit was as low as 28.18 pg mL−1. Moreover, the proposed aptasensor has been successfully applied to determine OTA in actual samples with satisfactory results. Full article
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15 pages, 2593 KiB  
Article
Multi-Parameter Detection of Urine Based on Electropolymerized PANI: PSS/AuNPs/SPCE
by Dong Wang, Xiyu Mao, Yitao Liang, Yu Cai, Tingting Tu, Shanshan Zhang, Tianyu Li, Lu Fang, Yue Zhou, Zhaoyang Wang, Yu Jiang, Xuesong Ye and Bo Liang
Biosensors 2023, 13(2), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13020272 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2005
Abstract
Urine analysis is widely used in clinical practice to indicate human heathy status and is important for diagnosing chronic kidney disease (CKD). Ammonium ions (NH4+), urea, and creatinine metabolites are main clinical indicators in urine analysis of CKD patients. In [...] Read more.
Urine analysis is widely used in clinical practice to indicate human heathy status and is important for diagnosing chronic kidney disease (CKD). Ammonium ions (NH4+), urea, and creatinine metabolites are main clinical indicators in urine analysis of CKD patients. In this paper, NH4+ selective electrodes were prepared using electropolymerized polyaniline-polystyrene sulfonate (PANI: PSS), and urea- and creatinine-sensing electrodes were prepared by modifying urease and creatinine deiminase, respectively. First, PANI: PSS was modified on the surface of an AuNPs-modified screen-printed electrode, as a NH4+-sensitive film. The experimental results showed that the detection range of the NH4+ selective electrode was 0.5~40 mM, and the sensitivity reached 192.6 mA M−1 cm−2 with good selectivity, consistency, and stability. Based on the NH4+-sensitive film, urease and creatinine deaminase were modified by enzyme immobilization technology to achieve urea and creatinine detection, respectively. Finally, we further integrated NH4+, urea, and creatinine electrodes into a paper-based device and tested real human urine samples. In summary, this multi-parameter urine testing device offers the potential for point-of-care testing of urine and benefits the efficient chronic kidney disease management. Full article
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14 pages, 4766 KiB  
Article
Defect-Engineering of 2D Dichalcogenide VSe2 to Enhance Ammonia Sensing: Acumens from DFT Calculations
by Gopal Sanyal, Surinder Pal Kaur, Chandra Sekhar Rout and Brahmananda Chakraborty
Biosensors 2023, 13(2), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13020257 - 11 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1708
Abstract
Opportune sensing of ammonia (NH3) gas is industrially important for avoiding hazards. With the advent of nanostructured 2D materials, it is felt vital to miniaturize the detector architecture so as to attain more and more efficacy with simultaneous cost reduction. Adaptation [...] Read more.
Opportune sensing of ammonia (NH3) gas is industrially important for avoiding hazards. With the advent of nanostructured 2D materials, it is felt vital to miniaturize the detector architecture so as to attain more and more efficacy with simultaneous cost reduction. Adaptation of layered transition metal dichalcogenide as the host may be a potential answer to such challenges. The current study presents a theoretical in-depth analysis regarding improvement in efficient detection of NH3 using layered vanadium di-selenide (VSe2) with the introduction of point defects. The poor affinity between VSe2 and NH3 forbids the use of the former in the nano-sensing device’s fabrications. The adsorption and electronic properties of VSe2 nanomaterials can be tuned with defect induction, which would modulate the sensing properties. The introduction of Se vacancy to pristine VSe2 was found to cause about an eight-fold increase (from −012 eV to −0.97 eV) in adsorption energy. A charge transfer from the N 2p orbital of NH3 to the V 3d orbital of VSe2 has been observed to cause appreciable NH3 detection by VSe2. In addition to that, the stability of the best-defected system has been confirmed through molecular dynamics simulation, and the possibility of repeated usability has been analyzed for calculating recovery time. Our theoretical results clearly indicate that Se-vacant layered VSe2 can be an efficient NH3 sensor if practically produced in the future. The presented results will thus potentially be useful for experimentalists in designing and developing VSe2-based NH3 sensors. Full article
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13 pages, 2253 KiB  
Article
Point-of-Care Diagnostic Biosensors to Monitor Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing IgG/sIgA Antibodies and Antioxidant Activity in Saliva
by Eiichi Tamiya, Shuto Osaki, Tomoko Tsuchihashi, Hiromi Ushijima and Keiichi Tsukinoki
Biosensors 2023, 13(2), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13020167 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2099
Abstract
Monitoring biomarkers is a great way to assess daily physical condition, and using saliva instead of blood samples is more advantageous as the process is simple and allows individuals to test themselves. In the present study, we analyzed the titers of neutralizing antibodies, [...] Read more.
Monitoring biomarkers is a great way to assess daily physical condition, and using saliva instead of blood samples is more advantageous as the process is simple and allows individuals to test themselves. In the present study, we analyzed the titers of neutralizing antibodies, IgG and secretory IgA (sIgA), in response to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, in saliva. A total of 19 saliva and serum samples were collected over a 10-month period 3 weeks after the first vaccine, 8 months after the second vaccine, and 1 month after the third vaccine. The ranges of antibody concentrations post-vaccination were: serum IgG: 81–15,000 U/mL, salivary IgG: 3.4–330 U/mL, and salivary IgA: 58–870 ng/mL. A sharp increase in salivary IgG levels was observed after the second vaccination. sIgA levels also showed an increasing trend. A correlation with trends in serum IgG levels was observed, indicating the possibility of using saliva to routinely assess vaccine efficacy. The electrochemical immunosensor assay developed in this study based on the gold-linked electrochemical immunoassay, and the antioxidant activity measurement based on luminol electrochemiluminescence (ECL), can be performed using portable devices, which would prove useful for individual-based diagnosis using saliva samples. Full article
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16 pages, 3981 KiB  
Article
Graphitic Carbon Nitride Nanoheterostructures as Novel Platforms for the Electrochemical Sensing of the Chemotherapeutic and Immunomodulator Agent MTX
by Reham G. Elfarargy, Mahmoud A. Saleh, Mohamed Mahrous Abodouh, Mahmoud A. Hamza and Nageh K. Allam
Biosensors 2023, 13(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13010051 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1771
Abstract
We report on the electrochemical determination of one the most effective and widely used chemotherapeutic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulator agents, methotrexate (MTX), using low-cost, green, and facile one-pot prepared graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN ) nanosheets. The g-CN nanosheets have been characterized utilizing Fourier transform [...] Read more.
We report on the electrochemical determination of one the most effective and widely used chemotherapeutic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulator agents, methotrexate (MTX), using low-cost, green, and facile one-pot prepared graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN ) nanosheets. The g-CN nanosheets have been characterized utilizing Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), and density functional theory (DFT). In comparison to the bare carbon paste electrode (CPE), the g-CN -modified electrode showed a spectacular enhancement in the electrochemical oxidation and detection abilities of MTX. The proposed material exhibits very low limits of detection (12.45 nM) and quantification (41.5 nM), while possessing a wide linear range of 0.22–1.11 μM and 1.11–27.03 μM under optimized conditions at pH 7.0. Due to the ease of preparation of g-CN, it can be adopted for the cost-effective detection of MTX in industrial and clinical analyses. Full article
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20 pages, 6770 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of a Molecularly Imprinted Nano-Interface-Based Electrochemical Biosensor for the Detection of CagA Virulence Factors of H. pylori
by Kirti Saxena, Bayu Tri Murti, Po-Kang Yang, Bansi Dhar Malhotra, Nidhi Chauhan and Utkarsh Jain
Biosensors 2022, 12(12), 1066; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12121066 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2387
Abstract
H. pylori is responsible for several stomach-related diseases including gastric cancer. The main virulence factor responsible for its establishment in human gastric cells is known as CagA. Therefore, in this study, we have fabricated a highly sensitive MIP-based electrochemical biosensor for the detection [...] Read more.
H. pylori is responsible for several stomach-related diseases including gastric cancer. The main virulence factor responsible for its establishment in human gastric cells is known as CagA. Therefore, in this study, we have fabricated a highly sensitive MIP-based electrochemical biosensor for the detection of CagA. For this, an rGO and gold-coated, screen-printed electrode sensing platform was designed to provide a surface for the immobilization of a CagA-specific, molecularly imprinted polymer; then it was characterized electrochemically. Interestingly, molecular dynamics simulations were studied to optimize the MIP prepolymerization system, resulting in a well-matched, optimized molar ratio within the experiment. A low binding energy upon template removal indicates the capability of MIP to recognize the CagA antigen through a strong binding affinity. Under the optimized electrochemical experimental conditions, the fabricated CagA-MIP/Au/rGO@SPE sensor exhibited high sensitivity (0.275 µA ng−1 mL−1) and a very low limit of detection (0.05 ng mL−1) in a linear range of 0.05–50 ng mL−1. The influence of other possible interferents in analytical response has also been observed with the successful determination of the CagA antigen. Full article
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12 pages, 5664 KiB  
Communication
Synthesis and Characterization of TiO2 Thick Films for Glucose Sensing
by G. Silva-Galindo and M. Zapata-Torres
Biosensors 2022, 12(11), 973; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12110973 - 05 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1531
Abstract
In this paper, we present the results of a non-enzymatic electrochemical glucose biosensor based on TiO2. An anatase working electrode was synthesized using the spin coating technique with the polymeric precursor method and dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles. Through scanning electron microscopy, [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present the results of a non-enzymatic electrochemical glucose biosensor based on TiO2. An anatase working electrode was synthesized using the spin coating technique with the polymeric precursor method and dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles. Through scanning electron microscopy, it was observed that the electrode presented an irregular surface with clusters of nanoparticles. Electrochemical characterization indicated that the response was directly related to the morphology of the electrode. In the presence of glucose, the electrode exhibited adsorption behavior toward the molecules, enabling their recognition. The electrode was tested by employing PBS (phosphate buffer solutions) with varying pH values (from 4 to 9), demonstrating its electrochemical stability, even in the presence of glucose. Amperometric characterization was used to determine that the working region appeared from 0.2 mM to 2 mM, with a sensitivity of 4.46 μAcm−2mM−1 in PBS pH 7. The obtained results suggest that TiO2-based electrodes could be used for the detection of glucose concentration in sweat (0.277–1 mM) and saliva (0.23–1.77 mM). Full article
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15 pages, 6515 KiB  
Article
Design and Fabrication of α-MnO2-Nanorods-Modified Glassy-Carbon-Electrode-Based Serotonin Sensor
by Mohd Quasim Khan, Rais Ahmad Khan, Ali Alsalme, Khursheed Ahmad and Haekyoung Kim
Biosensors 2022, 12(10), 849; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12100849 - 09 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1386
Abstract
Serotonin is a very important monoamine neurotransmitter, which takes part in biological and psychological processes. In the present scenario, design and fabrication of a serotonin electrochemical sensor is of great significance. In this study, we have synthesized α-MnO2 via a hydrothermal synthesis [...] Read more.
Serotonin is a very important monoamine neurotransmitter, which takes part in biological and psychological processes. In the present scenario, design and fabrication of a serotonin electrochemical sensor is of great significance. In this study, we have synthesized α-MnO2 via a hydrothermal synthesis method using potassium permanganate as a precursor. The physiochemical properties, such as structural and phase-purity of the prepared α-MnO2, were investigated by various characterization techniques and methods (powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Furthermore, the serotonin sensor was fabricated using α-MnO2 as an electrode modifier or electro-catalyst. The bare glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was adopted as a working substrate, and its active carbon surface was modified with the synthesized α-MnO2. This modified GCE (α-MnO2/GCE = MGCE) was explored as a serotonin sensor. The electrochemical investigations showed that the MGCE has excellent electro-catalytic properties towards determination of serotonin. The MGCE exhibits an excellent detection limit (DL) of 0.14 µM, along with good sensitivity of 2.41 µAµM−1 cm−2. The MGCE also demonstrated excellent selectivity for determination of serotonin in the presence of various electro-active/interfering molecules. The MGCE also exhibits good cyclic repeatability, stability, and storage stability. Full article
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14 pages, 4148 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of CeO2/GCE for Electrochemical Sensing of Hydroquinone
by Archana Chaudhary, Mohd Quasim Khan, Rais Ahmad Khan, Ali Alsalme, Khursheed Ahmad and Haekyoung Kim
Biosensors 2022, 12(10), 846; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12100846 - 08 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1788
Abstract
Hydroquinone is a widely used derivative of phenol which has a negative influence on human beings and the environment. The determination of the accurate amount of hydroquinone is of great importance. Recently, the fabrication of an electrochemical sensing device has received enormous attention. [...] Read more.
Hydroquinone is a widely used derivative of phenol which has a negative influence on human beings and the environment. The determination of the accurate amount of hydroquinone is of great importance. Recently, the fabrication of an electrochemical sensing device has received enormous attention. In this study, we reported on the facile synthesis of cerium dioxide (CeO2) nanoparticles (NPs). The CeO2 NPs were synthesized using cerium nitrate hexahydrate as a precursor. For determining the physicochemical properties of synthesized CeO2 NPs, various advanced techniques, viz., powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), were studied. Further, these synthesized CeO2 NPs were used for the modification of a glassy carbon electrode (CeO2/GCE), which was utilized for the sensing of hydroquinone (HQ). A decent detection limit of 0.9 µM with a sensitivity of 0.41 µA/µM cm2 was exhibited by the modified electrode (CeO2/GCE). The CeO2/GCE also exhibited good stability, selectivity, and repeatability towards the determination of HQ. Full article
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