Polymer-Metal-Carbon-Based Hybrid Materials for Biosensors

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensor Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 9058

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
University Centre for Research & Development (UCRD), Chandigarh University, Gharaun, Mohali 140413, Punjab, India
Interests: nanomaterials; biomaterials; biomedical; biosensors

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Guest Editor
Department of Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Alliance University, Anekal, Bengaluru 562 106, Karnataka, India
Interests: two-dimensional materials; polymeric composite

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Guest Editor
Beijing Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, China
Interests: polymeric composite; biosensor; microneedle-based drug delivery system

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The technological advancement in developing polymer-metal-carbon-based materials with excellent physio-chemical characteristics offers newer insight into the fabrication and designing of newer biosensor devices for a range of applications, especially biomedical use. Numerous materials, mainly polymers (polymeric nanoparticles, polymeric microneedle, poly lactic acid, hyaluronic acid, chitosan, gelatin, starch, polyvinyl alcohol, etc.), metal (Cu, Zn, Ni, Ag, and Au, etc.), and carbon (carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, graphene, and fullerenes, etc.) has been effectively used in a different application. Moreover, the applicability of these materials increased with the combination of two or three other materials. Through the process of combination, we can easily tune the characteristics of the materials and easily create designs based on the desired application. The polymer-metal-carbon-based emerging materials might be a promising candidate for highly sensitive and selective biosensors. With the help of nanomaterials, researchers continue developing highly selective and sensitive biosensors for biomedical and environmental applications.

This Special Issue aims to focus on the advancements in the development of functional nanomaterials-based biosensors and their applications in the biomedical field. Original research papers and reviews focused on polymers, metals, and carbon-based biosensors for biomedical and environmental remediation applications will be considered for publication. 

Dr. Mohammad Ashfaq
Dr. Neetu Talreja
Prof. Dr. Xindong Guo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • polymers
  • carbon
  • metals
  • biosensor
  • biomedical
  • environments

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 3996 KiB  
Article
A New Highly Sensitive Electrochemical Biosensor for Ethanol Detection Based on Gold Nanoparticles/Reduced Graphene Oxide/Polyallylamine Hydrochloride Nanocomposite
by Oana-Maria Istrate, Camelia Bala and Lucian Rotariu
Biosensors 2023, 13(11), 954; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13110954 - 25 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1523
Abstract
A highly sensitive electrochemical biosensor for ethanol based on a screen-printed electrode modified with gold nanoparticles—electrochemically reduced graphene oxide—poly (allylamine hydrochloride) nanocomposite (AuNPs-ERGO-PAH) is reported in this work. Ethanol was oxidized in the presence of the oxidized form of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide [...] Read more.
A highly sensitive electrochemical biosensor for ethanol based on a screen-printed electrode modified with gold nanoparticles—electrochemically reduced graphene oxide—poly (allylamine hydrochloride) nanocomposite (AuNPs-ERGO-PAH) is reported in this work. Ethanol was oxidized in the presence of the oxidized form of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) in a reaction catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) immobilized in sol-gel. The AuNPs-ERGO-PAH nanocomposite was used as a transducer for the electrocatalytic oxidation of the reduced form the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) produced in the enzyme reaction. Under the optimal conditions, the ethanol biosensor exhibits a wide dynamic range from 0.05 to 5 mM with a low detection limit of 10 µM (S/N = 3) and a high sensitivity of 44.6 ± 0.07 µA/mM·cm2 for the linear range between 0.05 and 0.2 mM. The biosensor response was stable for up to 6 weeks. Furthermore, the developed biosensor has been used to detect ethanol in alcoholic beverages with good results, suggesting its potential application in various fields, including fermentation processes and food quality control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer-Metal-Carbon-Based Hybrid Materials for Biosensors)
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17 pages, 7074 KiB  
Article
Ruthenium-Anchored Carbon Sphere-Customized Sensor for the Selective Amperometric Detection of Melatonin
by Sivaguru Jayaraman, Thenmozhi Rajarathinam, Hyeon-Geun Jang, Dinakaran Thirumalai, Jaewon Lee, Hyun-Jong Paik and Seung-Cheol Chang
Biosensors 2023, 13(10), 936; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13100936 - 18 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1335
Abstract
Melatonin (MT), a pineal gland hormone, regulates the sleep/wake cycle and is a potential biomarker for neurodegenerative disorders, depression, hypertension, and several cancers, including prostate cancer and hepatocarcinoma. The amperometric detection of MT was achieved using a sensor customized with ruthenium-incorporated carbon spheres [...] Read more.
Melatonin (MT), a pineal gland hormone, regulates the sleep/wake cycle and is a potential biomarker for neurodegenerative disorders, depression, hypertension, and several cancers, including prostate cancer and hepatocarcinoma. The amperometric detection of MT was achieved using a sensor customized with ruthenium-incorporated carbon spheres (Ru–CS), possessing C- and O-rich catalytically active Ru surfaces. The non-covalent interactions and ion–molecule adducts between Ru and CS favor the formation of heterojunctions at the sensor–analyte interface, thus accelerating the reactions towards MT. The Ru–CS/Screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) sensor demonstrated the outstanding electrocatalytic oxidation of MT owing to its high surface area and heterogeneous rate constants and afforded a lower detection limit (0.27 μM), high sensitivity (0.85 μA μM −1 cm−2), and excellent selectivity for MT with the co-existence of crucial neurotransmitters, including norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin. High concentrations of active biomolecules, such as ascorbic acid and tyrosine, did not interfere with MT detection. The practical feasibility of the sensor for MT detection in pharmaceutical samples was demonstrated, comparable to the data provided on the product labels. The developed amperometric sensor is highly suitable for the quality control of medicines because of its low cost, simplicity, small sample size, speed of analysis, and potential for automation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer-Metal-Carbon-Based Hybrid Materials for Biosensors)
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13 pages, 2011 KiB  
Communication
Laser Scribing Turns Plastic Waste into a Biosensor via the Restructuration of Nanocarbon Composites for Noninvasive Dopamine Detection
by Jagadeesh Suriyaprakash, Yang Huang, Zhifei Hu, Hao Wang, Yiyu Zhan, Yangtao Zhou, Indumathi Thangavelu and Lijun Wu
Biosensors 2023, 13(8), 810; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13080810 - 12 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2549
Abstract
The development of affordable and compact noninvasive point-of-care (POC) dopamine biosensors for the next generation is currently a major and challenging problem. In this context, a highly sensitive, selective, and low-cost sensing probe is developed by a simple one-step laser-scribing process of plastic [...] Read more.
The development of affordable and compact noninvasive point-of-care (POC) dopamine biosensors for the next generation is currently a major and challenging problem. In this context, a highly sensitive, selective, and low-cost sensing probe is developed by a simple one-step laser-scribing process of plastic waste. A flexible POC device is developed as a prototype and shows a highly specific response to dopamine in the real sample (urine) as low as 100 pmol/L in a broad linear range of 10−10–10−4 mol/L. The 3D topological feature, carrier kinetics, and surface chemistry are found to improve with the formation of high-density metal-embedded graphene-foam composite driven by laser irradiation on the plastic-waste surface. The development of various kinds of flexible and tunable biosensors by plastic waste is now possible thanks to the success of this simple, but effective, laser-scribing technique, which is capable of modifying the matrix’s electronic and chemical composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer-Metal-Carbon-Based Hybrid Materials for Biosensors)
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17 pages, 4058 KiB  
Article
Polyindole-Derived Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots-Based Electrochemical Sensor for Dopamine Detection
by Anjitha Thadathil, Dipin Thacharakkal, Yahya A. Ismail and Pradeepan Periyat
Biosensors 2022, 12(12), 1063; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12121063 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1606
Abstract
The sensitive monitoring of dopamine levels in the human body is of utmost importance since its abnormal levels can cause a variety of medical and behavioral problems. In this regard, we report the synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) from polyindole (PIN) [...] Read more.
The sensitive monitoring of dopamine levels in the human body is of utmost importance since its abnormal levels can cause a variety of medical and behavioral problems. In this regard, we report the synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) from polyindole (PIN) via a facile single-step hydrothermal synthetic strategy that can act as an efficient electrochemical catalyst for the detection of dopamine (DA). The average diameter of N-GQDs was ∼5.2 nm and showed a C/N atomic ratio of ∼2.75%. These N-GQDs exhibit a cyan fluorescence color under irradiation from a 365 nm lamp, while PIN has no characteristic PL. The presence of richly N-doped graphitic lattices in the N-GQDs possibly accounts for the improved catalytic activity of N-GQDs/GCE towards electrocatalytic DA detection. Under optimum conditions, this novel N-GQDs-modified electrode exhibits superior selectivity and sensitivity. Moreover, it could detect as low as 0.15 nM of DA with a linear range of 0.001–1000 µM. In addition, the outstanding sensing attributes of the detector were extended to the real samples as well. Overall, our findings evidence that N-GQDs-based DA electrochemical sensors can be synthesized from PIN precursor and could act as promising EC sensors in medical diagnostic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer-Metal-Carbon-Based Hybrid Materials for Biosensors)
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Review

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23 pages, 4014 KiB  
Review
Hybrid Nanomaterials: A Brief Overview of Versatile Solutions for Sensor Technology in Healthcare and Environmental Applications
by Norica-Carmen Godja and Florentina-Daniela Munteanu
Biosensors 2024, 14(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14020067 - 27 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1319
Abstract
The integration of nanomaterials into sensor technologies not only poses challenges but also opens up promising prospects for future research. These challenges include assessing the toxicity of nanomaterials, scalability issues, and the seamless integration of these materials into existing infrastructures. Future development opportunities [...] Read more.
The integration of nanomaterials into sensor technologies not only poses challenges but also opens up promising prospects for future research. These challenges include assessing the toxicity of nanomaterials, scalability issues, and the seamless integration of these materials into existing infrastructures. Future development opportunities lie in creating multifunctional nanocomposites and environmentally friendly nanomaterials. Crucial to this process is collaboration between universities, industry, and regulatory authorities to establish standardization in this evolving field. Our perspective favours using screen-printed sensors that employ nanocomposites with high electrochemical conductivity. This approach not only offers cost-effective production methods but also allows for customizable designs. Furthermore, incorporating hybrids based on carbon-based nanomaterials and functionalized Mxene significantly enhances sensor performance. These high electrochemical conductivity sensors are portable, rapid, and well-suited for on-site environmental monitoring, seamlessly aligning with Internet of Things (IoT) platforms for developing intelligent systems. Simultaneously, advances in electrochemical sensor technology are actively working to elevate sensitivity through integrating nanotechnology, miniaturization, and innovative electrode designs. This comprehensive approach aims to unlock the full potential of sensor technologies, catering to diverse applications ranging from healthcare to environmental monitoring. This review aims to summarise the latest trends in using hybrid nanomaterial-based sensors, explicitly focusing on their application in detecting environmental contaminants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer-Metal-Carbon-Based Hybrid Materials for Biosensors)
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