Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Immunology and Immunotherapy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2016) | Viewed by 94228

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, and University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Interests: oncolytic virus; cancer immunotherapy; oncolytic vaccine; therapeutic cancer vaccine; viro-immunotherapy; immunovirotherapy; gene therapy; vaccinia virus
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Guest Editor
Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, and University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Interests: oncolytic virus; cancer immunotherapy; oncolytic vaccine; therapeutic cancer vaccine; viro-immunotherapy; immunovirotherapy; gene therapy; vaccinia virus
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue, “Oncolytic viruses as a novel form of immunotherapy for cancer”, will mainly focus on oncolytic viruses (OVs) and their induced antitumor immunity for cancer immunotherapy.

The oncolytic virus (OV) has emerged as a novel form of immunotherapy for cancer. Until a few years ago, OV mediated therapeutic efficacy was thought to come mainly from direct viral oncolysis by the viruses. Recently, investigators started to realize that antitumor activity beyond direct oncolysis is also a key contributor to therapeutic efficacy. OV-induced antitumor immunity plays an important, sometimes essential, role in OV-mediated therapeutics for cancer.

We cordially invite authors in the field to submit original research or review articles pertaining to this important and fast-progressing field of biomedicine.

Dr. David L. Bartlett
Dr. Zong Sheng Guo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biomedicines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • oncolytic virus
  • antitumor immunity
  • tumor antigen
  • cancer vaccine
  • oncolytic vaccine
  • immunotherapy
  • viro-immunotherapy
  • combinatorial therapy

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Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Editorial of the Special Issue: Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer
by Zong Sheng Guo and David L. Bartlett
Biomedicines 2017, 5(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines5030052 - 24 Aug 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4160
Abstract
Oncolytic viruses (OVs), either occurring naturally or through genetic engineering, can selectively infect, replicate in, and kill cancer cells, while leaving normal cells (almost) unharmed [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer)

Research

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Article
Comparison of Liver Detargeting Strategies for Systemic Therapy with Oncolytic Adenovirus Serotype 5
by Tien V. Nguyen, Mary E. Barry, Mallory A. Turner, Catherine M. Crosby, Miguel A. Trujillo, John C. Morris III and Michael A. Barry
Biomedicines 2017, 5(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines5030046 - 10 Aug 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5279
Abstract
Oncolytic viruses would ideally be of use for systemic therapy to treat disseminated cancer. To do this safely, this may require multiple layers of cancer specificity. The pharmacology and specificity of oncolytic adenoviruses can be modified by (1) physical retargeting, (2) physical detargeting, [...] Read more.
Oncolytic viruses would ideally be of use for systemic therapy to treat disseminated cancer. To do this safely, this may require multiple layers of cancer specificity. The pharmacology and specificity of oncolytic adenoviruses can be modified by (1) physical retargeting, (2) physical detargeting, (3) chemical shielding, or (4) by modifying the ability of viral early gene products to selectively activate in cancer versus normal cells. We explored the utility of these approaches with oncolytic adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) in immunocompetent Syrian hamsters bearing subcutaneous HaK tumors. After a single intravenous injection to reach the distant tumors, the physically hepatocyte-detargeted virus Ad5-hexon-BAP was more effective than conditionally replicating Ad5-dl1101/07 with mutations in its E1A protein. When these control or Ad5 treated animals were treated a second time by intratumoral injection, prior exposure to Ad5 did not affect tumor growth, suggesting that anti-Ad immunity neither prevented treatment nor amplified anti-tumor immune responses. Ad5-dl1101/07 was next chemically shielded with polyethylene glycol (PEG). While 5 kDa of PEG blunted pro-inflammatory IL-6 production induced by Ad5-dl1101/07, this shielding reduced Ad oncolytic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer)
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Article
In Vitro Synergistic Enhancement of Newcastle Disease Virus to 5-Fluorouracil Cytotoxicity against Tumor Cells
by Ahmed M. Al-Shammari, Marwa I. Salman, Yahya D. Saihood, Nahi Y. Yaseen, Khansaa Raed, Hiba Kareem Shaker, Aesar Ahmed, Aseel Khalid and Ahlam Duiach
Biomedicines 2016, 4(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines4010003 - 29 Jan 2016
Cited by 72 | Viewed by 6358
Abstract
Background: Chemotherapy is one of the antitumor therapies used worldwide in spite of its serious side effects and unsatisfactory results. Many attempts have been made to increase its activity and reduce its toxicity. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is still a widely-used chemotherapeutic agent, especially in [...] Read more.
Background: Chemotherapy is one of the antitumor therapies used worldwide in spite of its serious side effects and unsatisfactory results. Many attempts have been made to increase its activity and reduce its toxicity. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is still a widely-used chemotherapeutic agent, especially in combination with other chemotherapies. Combination therapy seems to be the best option for targeting tumor cells by different mechanisms. Virotherapy is a promising agent for fighting cancer because of its safety and selectivity. Newcastle disease virus is safe, and it selectively targets tumor cells. We previously demonstrated that Newcastle disease virus (NDV) could be used to augment other chemotherapeutic agents and reduce their toxicity by halving the administered dose and replacing the eliminated chemotherapeutic agents with the Newcastle disease virus; the same antitumor activity was maintained. Methods: In the current work, we tested this hypothesis on different tumor cell lines. We used the non-virulent LaSota strain of NDV in combination with 5-FU, and we measured the cytotoxicity effect. We evaluated this combination using Chou–Talalay analysis. Results: NDV was synergistic with 5-FU at low doses when used as a combination therapy on different cancer cells, and there were very mild effects on non-cancer cells. Conclusion: The combination of a virulent, non-pathogenic NDV–LaSota strain with a standard chemotherapeutic agent, 5-FU, has a synergistic effect on different tumor cells in vitro, suggesting this combination could be an important new adjuvant therapy for treating cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer)
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Review

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Review
Viroimmunotherapy for Colorectal Cancer: Clinical Studies
by Shyambabu Chaurasiya and Susanne Warner
Biomedicines 2017, 5(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines5010011 - 10 Mar 2017
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 5410
Abstract
Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer incidence and death. Therapies for those with unresectable or recurrent disease are not considered curative at present. More effective and less toxic therapies are desperately needed. Historically, the immune system was thought to be an [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer incidence and death. Therapies for those with unresectable or recurrent disease are not considered curative at present. More effective and less toxic therapies are desperately needed. Historically, the immune system was thought to be an enemy to oncolytic viral therapy. Thinking that oncolysis would be the only mechanism for cell death, oncolytic virologists theorized that immune clearance was a detriment to oncolysis. Recent advances in our understanding of the tumor microenvironment, and the interplay of tumor survival and a patient’s immune system have called into question our understanding of both arenas. It remains unclear what combination of restrictions or enhancements of innate and/or cell-mediated immunity can yield the highest likelihood of viral efficacy. This article reviews the variety of mechanisms explored for viruses such as immunotherapy for colorectal cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer)
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Review
The Continued Promise and Many Disappointments of Oncolytic Virotherapy in Gastrointestinal Malignancies
by Daniel H. Ahn and Tanios Bekaii-Saab
Biomedicines 2017, 5(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines5010010 - 04 Mar 2017
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4573
Abstract
Oncolytic virotherapy represents a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies. Oncolytic viruses, including genetically engineered and naturally occurring viruses, can selectively replicate in and induce tumor cell apoptosis without harming normal tissues, thus offering a promising tool in the armamentarium [...] Read more.
Oncolytic virotherapy represents a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies. Oncolytic viruses, including genetically engineered and naturally occurring viruses, can selectively replicate in and induce tumor cell apoptosis without harming normal tissues, thus offering a promising tool in the armamentarium for cancer therapy. While this approach has garnered much interest over the past several decades, there has not been significant headway across various tumor types. The recent approval of talimogene laherparepvec, a second-generation oncolytic herpes simplex virus type-1, for the treatment of metastatic melanoma, confirms the therapeutic potential of oncolytic viral therapy. Herein, we will highlight and review the role of oncolytic viral therapy in gastrointestinal malignancies while discussing its limitations and potential alternative mechanisms to improve its treatment efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer)
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Review
Oncolytic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus as a Viro-Immunotherapy: Defeating Cancer with a “Hammer” and “Anvil”
by Michael Karl Melzer, Arturo Lopez-Martinez and Jennifer Altomonte
Biomedicines 2017, 5(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines5010008 - 10 Feb 2017
Cited by 50 | Viewed by 7705
Abstract
Oncolytic viruses have gained much attention in recent years, due, not only to their ability to selectively replicate in and lyse tumor cells, but to their potential to stimulate antitumor immune responses directed against the tumor. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a negative-strand RNA [...] Read more.
Oncolytic viruses have gained much attention in recent years, due, not only to their ability to selectively replicate in and lyse tumor cells, but to their potential to stimulate antitumor immune responses directed against the tumor. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a negative-strand RNA virus, is under intense development as an oncolytic virus due to a variety of favorable properties, including its rapid replication kinetics, inherent tumor specificity, and its potential to elicit a broad range of immunomodulatory responses to break immune tolerance in the tumor microenvironment. Based on this powerful platform, a multitude of strategies have been applied to further improve the immune-stimulating potential of VSV and synergize these responses with the direct oncolytic effect. These strategies include: 1. modification of endogenous virus genes to stimulate interferon induction; 2. virus-mediated expression of cytokines or immune-stimulatory molecules to enhance anti-tumor immune responses; 3. vaccination approaches to stimulate adaptive immune responses against a tumor antigen; 4. combination with adoptive immune cell therapy for potentially synergistic therapeutic responses. A summary of these approaches will be presented in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer)
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Review
Targeting Autophagy for Oncolytic Immunotherapy
by Lulu Hu, Ke Jiang, Chan Ding and Songshu Meng
Biomedicines 2017, 5(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines5010005 - 11 Jan 2017
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5890
Abstract
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are capable of exerting anti-cancer effects by a variety of mechanisms, including immune-mediated tumor cell death, highlighting their potential use in immunotherapy. Several adaptation mechanisms such as autophagy contribute to OV-mediated anti-tumor properties. Autophagy regulates immunogenic signaling during cancer therapy [...] Read more.
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are capable of exerting anti-cancer effects by a variety of mechanisms, including immune-mediated tumor cell death, highlighting their potential use in immunotherapy. Several adaptation mechanisms such as autophagy contribute to OV-mediated anti-tumor properties. Autophagy regulates immunogenic signaling during cancer therapy which can be utilized to design therapeutic combinations using approaches that either induce or block autophagy to potentiate the therapeutic efficacy of OVs. In this article, we review the complicated interplay between autophagy, cancer, immunity, and OV, summarize recent progress in the contribution of OV-perturbed autophagy to oncolytic immunity, and discuss the challenges in targeting autophagy to enhance oncolytic immunotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer)
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Review
Taking a Stab at Cancer; Oncolytic Virus-Mediated Anti-Cancer Vaccination Strategies
by Amelia Sadie Aitken, Dominic Guy Roy and Marie-Claude Bourgeois-Daigneault
Biomedicines 2017, 5(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines5010003 - 04 Jan 2017
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 6851
Abstract
Vaccines have classically been used for disease prevention. Modern clinical vaccines are continuously being developed for both traditional use as well as for new applications. Typically thought of in terms of infectious disease control, vaccination approaches can alternatively be adapted as a cancer [...] Read more.
Vaccines have classically been used for disease prevention. Modern clinical vaccines are continuously being developed for both traditional use as well as for new applications. Typically thought of in terms of infectious disease control, vaccination approaches can alternatively be adapted as a cancer therapy. Vaccines targeting cancer antigens can be used to induce anti-tumour immunity and have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy both pre-clinically and clinically. Various approaches now exist and further establish the tremendous potential and adaptability of anti-cancer vaccination. Classical strategies include ex vivo-loaded immune cells, RNA- or DNA-based vaccines and tumour cell lysates. Recent oncolytic virus development has resulted in a surge of novel viruses engineered to induce powerful tumour-specific immune responses. In addition to their use as cancer vaccines, oncolytic viruses have the added benefit of being directly cytolytic to cancer cells and thus promote antigen recognition within a highly immune-stimulating tumour microenvironment. While oncolytic viruses are perfectly equipped for efficient immunization, this complicates their use upon previous exposure. Indeed, the host’s anti-viral counter-attacks often impair multiple-dosing regimens. In this review we will focus on the use of oncolytic viruses for anti-tumour vaccination. We will explore different strategies as well as ways to circumvent some of their limitations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer)
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Review
Viroimmunotherapy of Thoracic Cancers
by Alexander S. Dash and Manish R. Patel
Biomedicines 2017, 5(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines5010002 - 04 Jan 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5774
Abstract
Thoracic cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MM), cause the highest rate of cancer mortality worldwide. Most of these deaths are as a result of NSCLC; however, prognoses for the other two diseases [...] Read more.
Thoracic cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MM), cause the highest rate of cancer mortality worldwide. Most of these deaths are as a result of NSCLC; however, prognoses for the other two diseases remain as some of the poorest of any cancers. Recent advances in immunotherapy, specifically immune checkpoint inhibitors, have begun to help a small population of patients with advanced lung cancer. People who respond to these immune therapies generally have a durable response and many see dramatic decreases in their disease. However, response to immune therapies remains relatively low. Therefore, intense research is now underway to rationally develop combination therapies to expand the range of patients who will respond to and benefit from immune therapy. One promising approach is with oncolytic viruses. These oncolytic viruses (OVs) have been found to be selective for or have been engineered to preferentially infect and kill cancer cells. In pre-clinical models of different thoracic cancers, it has been found that these viruses can induce immunogenic cell death, increase the number of immune mediators brought into the tumor microenvironment and broaden the neoantigen-specific T cell response. We will review here the literature regarding the application of virotherapy toward augmenting immune responses in thoracic cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer)
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Review
Showing the Way: Oncolytic Adenoviruses as Chaperones of Immunostimulatory Adjuncts
by Jing Li Huang, Christopher J. LaRocca and Masato Yamamoto
Biomedicines 2016, 4(3), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines4030023 - 19 Sep 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4513
Abstract
Oncolytic adenoviruses (OAds) are increasingly recognized as vectors for immunotherapy in the treatment of various solid tumors. The myriads of advantages of using adenovirus include targeted specificity upon infection and selective replication, which lead to localized viral burst, exponential spread of OAds, and [...] Read more.
Oncolytic adenoviruses (OAds) are increasingly recognized as vectors for immunotherapy in the treatment of various solid tumors. The myriads of advantages of using adenovirus include targeted specificity upon infection and selective replication, which lead to localized viral burst, exponential spread of OAds, and antitumor effect. OAds can also induce a strong immune reaction due to the massive release of tumor antigens upon cytolysis and the presence of viral antigens. This review will highlight recent advances in adenoviral vectors expressing immunostimulatory effectors, such as GM-CSF (granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor), interferon-α, interleukin-12, and CD40L. We will also discuss the combination of OAds with other immunotherapeutic strategies and describe the current understanding of how adenoviral vectors interact with the immune system to eliminate cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer)
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Review
Capitalizing on Cancer Specific Replication: Oncolytic Viruses as a Versatile Platform for the Enhancement of Cancer Immunotherapy Strategies
by Donald Bastin, Scott R. Walsh, Meena Al Saigh and Yonghong Wan
Biomedicines 2016, 4(3), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines4030021 - 24 Aug 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 6275
Abstract
The past decade has seen considerable excitement in the use of biological therapies in treating neoplastic disease. In particular, cancer immunotherapy and oncolytic virotherapy have emerged as two frontrunners in this regard with the first FDA approvals for agents in both categories being [...] Read more.
The past decade has seen considerable excitement in the use of biological therapies in treating neoplastic disease. In particular, cancer immunotherapy and oncolytic virotherapy have emerged as two frontrunners in this regard with the first FDA approvals for agents in both categories being obtained in the last 5 years. It is becoming increasingly apparent that these two approaches are not mutually exclusive and that much of the therapeutic benefit obtained from the use of oncolytic viruses (OVs) is in fact the result of their immunotherapeutic function. Indeed, OVs have been shown to recruit and activate an antitumor immune response and much of the current work in this field centers around increasing this activity through strategies such as engineering genes for immunomodulators into OV backbones. Because of their broad immunostimulatory functions, OVs can also be rationally combined with a variety of other immunotherapeutic approaches including cancer vaccination strategies, adoptive cell transfer and checkpoint blockade. Therefore, while they are important therapeutics in their own right, the true power of OVs may lie in their ability to enhance the effectiveness of a wide range of immunotherapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer)
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Review
Recombinant Poxvirus and the Tumor Microenvironment: Oncolysis, Immune Regulation and Immunization
by Daniel W. Sharp and Edmund C. Lattime
Biomedicines 2016, 4(3), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines4030019 - 12 Aug 2016
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 7162
Abstract
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are being extensively studied for their potential roles in the development of cancer therapy regimens. In addition to their direct lytic effects, OVs can initiate and drive systemic antitumor immunity indirectly via release of tumor antigen, as well as by [...] Read more.
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are being extensively studied for their potential roles in the development of cancer therapy regimens. In addition to their direct lytic effects, OVs can initiate and drive systemic antitumor immunity indirectly via release of tumor antigen, as well as by encoding and delivering immunostimulatory molecules. This combination makes them an effective platform for the development of immunotherapeutic strategies beyond their primary lytic function. Engineering the viruses to also express tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) allows them to simultaneously serve as therapeutic vaccines, targeting and amplifying an immune response to TAAs. Our group and others have shown that vaccinating intratumorally with a poxvirus that encodes TAAs, in addition to immune stimulatory molecules, can modulate the tumor microenvironment, overcome immune inhibitory pathways, and drive both local and systemic tumor specific immune responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer)
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Review
From Benchtop to Bedside: A Review of Oncolytic Virotherapy
by Audrey H. Choi, Michael P. O’Leary, Yuman Fong and Nanhai G. Chen
Biomedicines 2016, 4(3), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines4030018 - 02 Aug 2016
Cited by 50 | Viewed by 7837
Abstract
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) demonstrate the ability to replicate selectively in cancer cells, resulting in antitumor effects by a variety of mechanisms, including direct cell lysis and indirect cell death through immune-mediate host responses. Although the mechanisms of action of OVs are still not [...] Read more.
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) demonstrate the ability to replicate selectively in cancer cells, resulting in antitumor effects by a variety of mechanisms, including direct cell lysis and indirect cell death through immune-mediate host responses. Although the mechanisms of action of OVs are still not fully understood, major advances have been made in our understanding of how OVs function and interact with the host immune system, resulting in the recent FDA approval of the first OV for cancer therapy in the USA. This review provides an overview of the history of OVs, their selectivity for cancer cells, and their multifaceted mechanism of antitumor action, as well as strategies employed to augment selectivity and efficacy of OVs. OVs in combination with standard cancer therapies are also discussed, as well as a review of ongoing human clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer)
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Review
Fifty Years of Clinical Application of Newcastle Disease Virus: Time to Celebrate!
by Volker Schirrmacher
Biomedicines 2016, 4(3), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines4030016 - 20 Jul 2016
Cited by 62 | Viewed by 7267
Abstract
This review provides an overview of 50 years of basic and clinical research on an oncolytic avian virus, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), which has particular anti-neoplastic and immune stimulatory properties. Of special interest is the fact that this biological agent induces immunogenic cell [...] Read more.
This review provides an overview of 50 years of basic and clinical research on an oncolytic avian virus, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), which has particular anti-neoplastic and immune stimulatory properties. Of special interest is the fact that this biological agent induces immunogenic cell death and systemic anti-tumor immunity. Furthermore, localized oncolytic virotherapy with NDV was shown to overcome systemic tumor resistance to immune checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Clinical experience attests to low side effects and a high safety profile. This is due among others to the strong virus-induced type I interferon response. Other viral characteristics are lack of interaction with host cell DNA, lack of genetic recombination and independence of virus replication from cell proliferation. In this millennium, new recombinant strains of viruses are being produced with improved therapeutic properties. Clinical applications include single case observations, case series studies and Phase I to III studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer)
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Review
Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Oncolytic Virotherapy: Friend or Foe?
by Nicholas L. Denton, Chun-Yu Chen, Thomas R. Scott and Timothy P. Cripe
Biomedicines 2016, 4(3), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines4030013 - 07 Jul 2016
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 7517
Abstract
Cancer therapy remains a challenge due to toxicity limitations of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Oncolytic viruses that selectively replicate and destroy cancer cells are of increasing interest. In addition to direct cell lysis, these vectors stimulate an anti-tumor immune response. A key regulator [...] Read more.
Cancer therapy remains a challenge due to toxicity limitations of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Oncolytic viruses that selectively replicate and destroy cancer cells are of increasing interest. In addition to direct cell lysis, these vectors stimulate an anti-tumor immune response. A key regulator of tumor immunity is the tumor-associated macrophage population. Macrophages can either support oncolytic virus therapy through pro-inflammatory stimulation of the anti-tumor response at the cost of hindering direct oncolysis or through immunosuppressive protection of virus replication at the cost of hindering the anti-tumor immune response. Despite similarities in macrophage interaction between adult and pediatric tumors and the abundance of research supporting macrophage modulation in adult tumors, there are few studies investigating macrophage modulation in pediatric cancers or modulation of immunotherapy. We review the current state of knowledge regarding macrophages in cancers and their influence on oncolytic virotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer)
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