Physiological Roles of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Cell Biology and Pathology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 7917

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Section of Physiology, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 97, 95123 Catania, Italy
Interests: mesenchymal stem cells; cell differentiation; intercellular communication
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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, Università degli Studi di Messina, Viale Ferdinando Stagno d’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina, Italy
Interests: adipose-derived stem cells; neural differentiation; conditioned media; schwann cells; olfactory ensheathing cells
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells that can be exploited in the field of regenerative medicine. In addition to a multipotent differentiation capacity and anti-inflammatory properties, MSCs can release extracellular vesicles that carry proteins, mRNAs and microRNAs that make them suitable for the treatment of numerous human pathologies, especially for those in which surgical or pharmacological therapies produce limited effects.

This Special Issue entitled "Physiological Roles of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering" aims to collect studies that describe some aspects of the physiological role of MSCs in tissue homeostasis, cell-to-cell interactions and differentiation mechanisms. Moreover, investigations into the use of different types of MSCs, different delivery strategies and new methods or materials for tissue engineering are encouraged.

This Special Issue welcomes review articles, bioinformatic analysis and experimental evidence included in original research, which focus on the roles played by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in regenerative medicine, providing new insights into their application in disease or aging.

Dr. Debora Lo Furno
Dr. Giuliana Mannino
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • mesenchymal stem cells
  • cell differentiation
  • regenerative medicine
  • disease
  • aging
  • extracellular vesicles

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 2210 KiB  
Article
Arthroscopic Treatment of a Subchondral Bone Cyst via Stem Cells Application: A Case Study in Equine Model and Outcomes
by Fernando Canonici, Daniele Marcoccia, Pamela Bonini, Valentina Monteleone, Elisa Innocenzi, Alessia Zepparoni, Annalisa Altigeri, Daniela Caciolo, Silvia Tofani, Paola Ghisellini, Cristina Rando, Eugenia Pechkova, Julietta V. Rau, Roberto Eggenhöffner, Maria Teresa Scicluna and Katia Barbaro
Biomedicines 2023, 11(12), 3307; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11123307 - 14 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1304
Abstract
Subchondral bone cysts in horses represent one of the main causes of lameness that can occur in different anatomical locations. The study describes the treatment in regenerative therapy of the intracystic implantation of adipose tissue mesenchymal stromal cells (AMSCs) included in platelet-rich plasma [...] Read more.
Subchondral bone cysts in horses represent one of the main causes of lameness that can occur in different anatomical locations. The study describes the treatment in regenerative therapy of the intracystic implantation of adipose tissue mesenchymal stromal cells (AMSCs) included in platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The ability of AMSCs to differentiate in osteogenic cells was tested in vitro and in vivo. Given the aim to investigate the application of AMSCs in bone defects and orthopedic pathologies in horses, a four-year-old male thoroughbred racing horse that had never raced before was treated for lameness of the left hind leg caused by a cyst of the medial femoral condyle. The horse underwent a new surgery performed with an arthroscopic approach in which the cystic cavity was filled with AMSCs contained in the PRP. Radiographs were taken 3, 5, and 10 months after the surgery to assess the development of newly regenerated bone tissue in the gap left by the cyst. Twelve months after the operation and after six months of regular daily training, the horse did not show any symptoms of lameness and started a racing career. According to the study, the use of AMSCs and PRP suggests promising benefits for treating subchondral bone cysts. Full article
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Review

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23 pages, 684 KiB  
Review
Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: A Tool for Bone and Cartilage Repair
by Ivana Roberta Romano, Floriana D’Angeli, Nunzio Vicario, Cristina Russo, Carlo Genovese, Debora Lo Furno, Giuliana Mannino, Serena Tamburino, Rosalba Parenti and Rosario Giuffrida
Biomedicines 2023, 11(7), 1781; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11071781 - 21 Jun 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1390
Abstract
The osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation ability of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs) and their potential therapeutic applications in bone and cartilage defects are reported in this review. This becomes particularly important when these disorders can only be poorly treated by conventional therapeutic approaches, [...] Read more.
The osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation ability of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs) and their potential therapeutic applications in bone and cartilage defects are reported in this review. This becomes particularly important when these disorders can only be poorly treated by conventional therapeutic approaches, and tissue engineering may represent a valuable alternative. Being of mesodermal origin, ASCs can be easily induced to differentiate into chondrocyte-like and osteocyte-like elements and used to repair damaged tissues. Moreover, they can be easily harvested and used for autologous implantation. A plethora of ASC-based strategies are being developed worldwide: they include the transplantation of freshly harvested cells, in vitro expanded cells or predifferentiated cells. Moreover, improving their positive effects, ASCs can be implanted in combination with several types of scaffolds that ensure the correct cell positioning; support cell viability, proliferation and migration; and may contribute to their osteogenic or chondrogenic differentiation. Examples of these strategies are described here, showing the enormous therapeutic potential of ASCs in this field. For safety and regulatory issues, most investigations are still at the experimental stage and carried out in vitro and in animal models. Clinical applications have, however, been reported with promising results and no serious adverse effects. Full article
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18 pages, 2496 KiB  
Review
Multilineage-Differentiating Stress-Enduring Cells (Muse Cells): An Easily Accessible, Pluripotent Stem Cell Niche with Unique and Powerful Properties for Multiple Regenerative Medicine Applications
by Riccardo Ossanna, Sheila Veronese, Lindsey Alejandra Quintero Sierra, Anita Conti, Giamaica Conti and Andrea Sbarbati
Biomedicines 2023, 11(6), 1587; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11061587 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3639
Abstract
Cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine is a powerful tool that can be used both to restore various cells lost in a wide range of human disorders and in renewal processes. Stem cells show promise for universal use in clinical medicine, potentially enabling the [...] Read more.
Cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine is a powerful tool that can be used both to restore various cells lost in a wide range of human disorders and in renewal processes. Stem cells show promise for universal use in clinical medicine, potentially enabling the regeneration of numerous organs and tissues in the human body. This is possible due to their self-renewal, mature cell differentiation, and factors release. To date, pluripotent stem cells seem to be the most promising. Recently, a novel stem cell niche, called multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells, is emerging. These cells are of particular interest because they are pluripotent and are found in adult human mesenchymal tissues. Thanks to this, they can produce cells representative of all three germ layers. Furthermore, they can be easily harvested from fat and isolated from the mesenchymal stem cells. This makes them very promising, allowing autologous treatments and avoiding the problems of rejection typical of transplants. Muse cells have recently been employed, with encouraging results, in numerous preclinical studies performed to test their efficacy in the treatment of various pathologies. This review aimed to (1) highlight the specific potential of Muse cells and provide a better understanding of this niche and (2) originate the first organized review of already tested applications of Muse cells in regenerative medicine. The obtained results could be useful to extend the possible therapeutic applications of disease healing. Full article
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Other

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17 pages, 1106 KiB  
Systematic Review
Comparative Analysis of Stromal Vascular Fraction and Alternative Mechanisms in Bone Fracture Stimulation to Bridge the Gap between Nature and Technological Advancement: A Systematic Review
by Evgeniy Nikolaevich Goncharov, Oleg Aleksandrovich Koval, Eduard Nikolaevich Bezuglov, Mikhail Engelgard, Eremin Ilya Igorevich, Konstantin Velentinovich Kotenko, Manuel De Jesus Encarnacion Ramirez and Nicola Montemurro
Biomedicines 2024, 12(2), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines12020342 - 1 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Background: Various stimulation methods, including electrical, ultrasound, mechanical, and biological interventions, are explored, each leveraging intricate cellular and molecular dynamics to expedite healing. The advent of stromal vascular fraction (SVF) marks a significant stride, offering multifarious benefits in bone healing, from enhanced bone [...] Read more.
Background: Various stimulation methods, including electrical, ultrasound, mechanical, and biological interventions, are explored, each leveraging intricate cellular and molecular dynamics to expedite healing. The advent of stromal vascular fraction (SVF) marks a significant stride, offering multifarious benefits in bone healing, from enhanced bone formation to optimal vascular integration, drawing a harmonious balance between innate mechanisms and scientific advancements. Methods: This systematic review was conducted focusing on literature from 2016 to 2023 and encompassing various bone healing stimulation mechanisms like SVF, electrical, ultrasound, and mechanical stimulation. The extracted data underwent meticulous synthesis and analysis, emphasizing comparative evaluations of mechanisms, applications, and outcomes of each intervention. Results: The reviewed studies reveal the potential of SVF in bone fracture healing, with its regenerative and anti-inflammatory effects. The purification of SVF is crucial for safe therapeutic use. Characterization involves flow cytometry and microscopy. Studies show SVF’s efficacy in bone regeneration, versatility in various contexts, and potential for clinical use. SVF appears superior to electrical, ultrasound, and mechanical stimulation, with low complications. Conclusions: This review compares bone healing methods, including SVF. It provides valuable insights into SVF’s potential for bone regeneration. However, due to limited human studies and potential bias, cautious interpretation is necessary. Further research is essential to validate these findings and determine the optimal SVF applications in bone healing. Full article
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