Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Cell-Based Therapies, and Biomaterials as New Regenerative Strategies 2.0

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular and Translational Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (8 November 2022) | Viewed by 15815

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Associate Professor of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Surgical Science Department, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy
Interests: regenerative plastic surgery; adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells; fat grafting; platelet-rich plasma; growth factors; mesenchymal stem cells; biomaterials; hair loss; androgenetic alopecia
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs), cell-based therapies, and biomaterials are interrelated terms that often go hand in hand when discussing strategies to improve tissue regeneration or repair tissue defects. In particular, stem cells (mesenchymal and follicular), biotechnology and bioactive molecules (platelet-rich plasma (PRP), micrografts), and biomaterials (mesh, scaffolds, hydrogels) may be helpful in this field. In light of current knowledge on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), AD-MSCs, epithelial and dermal cells, human follicle mesenchymal stem cells (HF-MSCs), and biomaterials such as titanium/polypropylene mesh, numerous researchers have developed different strategies to improve the effects of these varied biotechnology applications. This Special Issue aims to collect multidisciplinary submissions of original research articles that demonstrate the basic research and clinical impacts of MSCs, AD-MSCs, PRP, micrografts, and biomaterials in tissue repair. Review articles that describe the current state of the art are also welcomed. Potential topics include but are not limited to: the molecular mechanisms of MSCs during regeneration; therapeutic application of MSCs for major diseases and clinical conditions such as regenerative plastic surgery; MSCs and engineered MSCs as vehicles for drug delivery; therapeutic application of biomaterials (titanium/polypropylene mesh, scaffolds, hydrogel, colloids) for major diseases (outcomes of breast cancer, mastectomy, ulcers, loss of substances) and additional clinical conditions; skin biostimulation with biomaterials/PRP/stem cells/microneedling; and the new emergent potential use of AD-MSCs in COVID-19 treatment.

Dr. Pietro Gentile
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • regenerative plastic surgery
  • adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells
  • fat grafting
  • platelet-rich plasma
  • growth factors
  • mesenchymal stem cells
  • biomaterials
  • hair loss
  • androgenetic alopecia
  • plastic surgery
  • tissue engineering
  • biotechnology

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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20 pages, 19437 KiB  
Article
Rapamycin Improves Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (ADMSCs) Renoprotective Effect against Cisplatin-Induced Acute Nephrotoxicity in Rats by Inhibiting the mTOR/AKT Signaling Pathway
by Amira Awadalla, Abdelaziz M. Hussein, Yousra M. El-Far, Fardous F. El-Senduny, Nashwa Barakat, Eman T. Hamam, Hanaa M. Abdeen, Mohamed El-Sherbiny, Mohamed S. Serria, Amira A. Sarhan, Asmaa M. Sena and Ahmed A. Shokeir
Biomedicines 2022, 10(6), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10061295 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2305
Abstract
Objective: Because the poor survival of transplanted cells in a hostile microenvironment limits stem cell therapy, in the current study, we investigated the effect of rapamycin (Rapa)-preactivated autophagy on the survival and homing of transplanted adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) in a rat [...] Read more.
Objective: Because the poor survival of transplanted cells in a hostile microenvironment limits stem cell therapy, in the current study, we investigated the effect of rapamycin (Rapa)-preactivated autophagy on the survival and homing of transplanted adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) in a rat model of cisplatin (Cis)-induced nephrotoxicity, as well as the possible role of the mTOR/AKT signaling pathway. Materials and methods: In vitro, ADMSCs isolated from rats were treated with 50 nmol/L rapamycin for 2 h, after which the cytoprotective and autophagy-inducing effects of Rapa were investigated. The cis-induced acute nephrotoxicity rat model was constructed in vivo. ADMSCs and Rapa-ADMSCs were administered into the tail vein before Cis therapy. At 3, 7, and 10 days after Cis injection, all animals were euthanized. The renal functions and morphology as well as autophagy response were assessed. Results: The pretreatment of cultured ADMSCs with Rapa caused a significant increase in autophagic activities and lysosome production of the cells, with a significant increase in the secretion of SDF-1, IL-10 and autophagy promoter LC3 and Beclin from these cells, while mTOR/AKT pathways were inhibited. In addition, the transplantation of Rapa-pretreated ADMSCs restored the kidney functions and morphology dramatically. Renal expression of SDF-1 and HIF1 was upregulated, while expression of IL-6, NF-kB and TGF-β1 was downregulated. Conclusions: We concluded that the preactivation of autophagy with Rapa improves the survival and differentiation of the transplanted ADMSCs by inhibiting the mTOR/AKT signaling pathway, which in turn could significantly attenuate the Cis-induced acute renal injury. Full article
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Review

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34 pages, 3876 KiB  
Review
Lipedema: Insights into Morphology, Pathophysiology, and Challenges
by Ankita Poojari, Kapil Dev and Atefeh Rabiee
Biomedicines 2022, 10(12), 3081; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10123081 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 9328
Abstract
Lipedema is an adipofascial disorder that almost exclusively affects women. Lipedema leads to chronic pain, swelling, and other discomforts due to the bilateral and asymmetrical expansion of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Although various distinctive morphological characteristics, such as the hyperproliferation of fat cells, fibrosis, [...] Read more.
Lipedema is an adipofascial disorder that almost exclusively affects women. Lipedema leads to chronic pain, swelling, and other discomforts due to the bilateral and asymmetrical expansion of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Although various distinctive morphological characteristics, such as the hyperproliferation of fat cells, fibrosis, and inflammation, have been characterized in the progression of lipedema, the mechanisms underlying these changes have not yet been fully investigated. In addition, it is challenging to reduce the excessive fat in lipedema patients using conventional weight-loss techniques, such as lifestyle (diet and exercise) changes, bariatric surgery, and pharmacological interventions. Therefore, lipedema patients also go through additional psychosocial distress in the absence of permanent treatment. Research to understand the pathology of lipedema is still in its infancy, but promising markers derived from exosome, cytokine, lipidomic, and metabolomic profiling studies suggest a condition distinct from obesity and lymphedema. Although genetics seems to be a substantial cause of lipedema, due to the small number of patients involved in such studies, the extrapolation of data at a broader scale is challenging. With the current lack of etiology-guided treatments for lipedema, the discovery of new promising biomarkers could provide potential solutions to combat this complex disease. This review aims to address the morphological phenotype of lipedema fat, as well as its unclear pathophysiology, with a primary emphasis on excessive interstitial fluid, extracellular matrix remodeling, and lymphatic and vasculature dysfunction. The potential mechanisms, genetic implications, and proposed biomarkers for lipedema are further discussed in detail. Finally, we mention the challenges related to lipedema and emphasize the prospects of technological interventions to benefit the lipedema community in the future. Full article
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11 pages, 583 KiB  
Review
Breast Cancer Therapy: The Potential Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Translational Biomedical Research
by Pietro Gentile
Biomedicines 2022, 10(5), 1179; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10051179 - 19 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3415
Abstract
The potential role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the treatment of metastatic cancers, including breast cancer, has been investigated for many years leading to encouraging results. The role of fat grafting and the related adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) has been detailed [...] Read more.
The potential role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the treatment of metastatic cancers, including breast cancer, has been investigated for many years leading to encouraging results. The role of fat grafting and the related adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) has been detailed and described for breast reconstruction purposes confirming the safety of AD-MSCs. MSCs have great potential for delivering anticancer agents, suicide genes, and oncolytic viruses to tumors. Currently, many studies have focused on the products of MSCs, including extracellular vesicles (EVs), as a cell-free therapy. This work aimed to review and discuss the current knowledge on MSCs and their EVs in breast cancer therapy. Full article
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