Special Issue "New Advance in Immuno-Oncology"

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Immunology and Immunotherapy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2023) | Viewed by 18223

Special Issue Editor

National Cancer Institute, "Regina Elena", Rome, Italy
Interests: oncology; immuno-oncology; immune system and cancer; immune checkpoint inhibitors; targeted therapy; translational oncology; breast cancer; lung cancer; gastrointestinal cancer

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Immune system plays an important role in tumor development, acting by means of both innate and adaptive immunity. The immune surveillance mechanism is a dynamic process characterized by three phases: Elimination, Equilibrium and Escape. Thus, the immune system not only protects against cancer development but also shapes emerging tumors. T cells are able to recognize tumor associated antigens as non-self. The CD8+ T lymphocytes act releasing cytotoxic granules, while CD4+ T cells release substances promoting proliferation and lymphocytes activation. The chronic stimulation of immune system due to the continuous release of antigens, leads to the amplification of negative feedback, such as the lymphocytes exhaustion, the immune checkpoint activation or the T regulatory cells attraction. Moreover, the cancer cells could express molecules inhibiting the immune response, such as PD-L1. Recent studies demonstrated the association between immune cells infiltration of tumor tissue or circulating immune cells and prognosis or response to anticancer treatment in various cancer types. Moreover, different anticancer treatment, including target therapy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, are able to modify patients’ immune-fitness.

This Special Issue “ New Advance in Immuno-Oncology ” will include reviews and original research focusing on the role of the immune system in tumour development, on predictive or prognostic immune biomarkers identification, and on new treatments in immuno-oncology field in all types of solid tumor.

Dr. Concetta Elisa Onesti
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biomedicines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • immuno-oncology
  • immunotherapy
  • immune system and cancer
  • biomarker

Published Papers (5 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Review

Jump to: Other

13 pages, 541 KiB  
Review
YAP/Hippo Pathway and Cancer Immunity: It Takes Two to Tango
Biomedicines 2021, 9(12), 1949; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9121949 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4751
Abstract
Hippo pathway with its main molecule YAP is a crucial pathway for development, tissue homeostasis, wound healing, tissue regeneration, and cancer. In this review, we discuss the multiple effects of the YAP/Hippo pathway in the immune system and cancer. We analyzed a series [...] Read more.
Hippo pathway with its main molecule YAP is a crucial pathway for development, tissue homeostasis, wound healing, tissue regeneration, and cancer. In this review, we discuss the multiple effects of the YAP/Hippo pathway in the immune system and cancer. We analyzed a series of effects: extracellular vesicles enhanced immunity through inhibition of LATS1/2, ways of modulation of the tumor microenvironment, YAP- and TAZ-mediated upregulation of PDL1, high expression of YAP and PDL1 in EGFR-TKI-resistant cells, enhanced YAP activity in inflammation, and the effect of the Hippo pathway on T cells, B cells, Tregs, macrophages, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). These pleiotropic effects render the YAP and Hippo pathway a key pathway for exploitation in the future, in order to enhance our immunotherapy treatment strategies in oncology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advance in Immuno-Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 2746 KiB  
Review
Immunotherapy in Breast Cancer: When, How, and What Challenges?
Biomedicines 2021, 9(11), 1687; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9111687 - 14 Nov 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4939
Abstract
Breast Cancer (BC) is the second most frequent cause of cancer death among women worldwide and, although there have been significant advances in BC therapies, a significant percentage of patients develop metastasis and disease recurrence. Since BC was demonstrated to be an immunogenic [...] Read more.
Breast Cancer (BC) is the second most frequent cause of cancer death among women worldwide and, although there have been significant advances in BC therapies, a significant percentage of patients develop metastasis and disease recurrence. Since BC was demonstrated to be an immunogenic tumor, immunotherapy has broken through as a significant therapy strategy against BC. Over the years, immunotherapy has improved the survival rate of HER2+ BC patients due to the approval of some monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) such as Trastuzumab, Pertuzumab and, recently, Margetuximab, along with the antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) Trastuzumab-Emtansine (T-DM1) and Trastuzumab Deruxtecan. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) showed promising efficacy in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) treatment, namely Atezolizumab and Pembrolizumab. Despite the success of immunotherapy, some patients do not respond to immunotherapy or those who respond to the treatment relapse or progress. The main causes of these adverse events are the complex, intrinsic or extrinsic resistance mechanisms. In this review, we address the different immunotherapy approaches approved for BC and some of the mechanisms responsible for resistance to immunotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advance in Immuno-Oncology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 1092 KiB  
Review
Immunity and Breast Cancer: Focus on Eosinophils
Biomedicines 2021, 9(9), 1087; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9091087 - 26 Aug 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3178
Abstract
The role of eosinophils, a cell type involved in the immune response to parasitic infections and allergies, has been investigated in different cancer types, in both tumor tissue and at the circulating level. Most studies showed a role mainly in conjunction with immunotherapy [...] Read more.
The role of eosinophils, a cell type involved in the immune response to parasitic infections and allergies, has been investigated in different cancer types, in both tumor tissue and at the circulating level. Most studies showed a role mainly in conjunction with immunotherapy in melanomas and lung tumors, while few data are available in breast cancer. In this review, we summarize literature data on breast cancer, showing a prognostic role of circulating eosinophil counts as well as of the presence of tumor tissue infiltration by eosinophils. In particular, some studies showed an association between a higher circulating eosinophil count and a good prognosis, as well as an association with response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in hormone receptor-negative/HER2-positive and in triple negative breast cancer. Several mechanistic studies have also been conducted in in vivo models, but the exact mechanism by which eosinophils act in the presence of breast cancer is still unknown. Further studies on this subject are desirable, in order to understand their role at the cellular level, identify related biomarkers and/or possibly search for new therapeutic targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advance in Immuno-Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 1225 KiB  
Review
Novel Insights into the Immunotherapy of Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Do We Need a Change of Perspective?
Biomedicines 2021, 9(8), 935; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9080935 - 01 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2233
Abstract
Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) are rare mesenchymal tumors. With more than 80 histological subtypes of STSs, data regarding novel biomarkers of strong prognostic and therapeutic value are very limited. To date, the most important prognostic factor is the tumor grade, and approximately 50% [...] Read more.
Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) are rare mesenchymal tumors. With more than 80 histological subtypes of STSs, data regarding novel biomarkers of strong prognostic and therapeutic value are very limited. To date, the most important prognostic factor is the tumor grade, and approximately 50% of patients that are diagnosed with high-grade STSs die of metastatic disease within five years. Systemic chemotherapy represents the mainstay of metastatic STSs treatment for decades but induces response in only 15–35% of the patients, irrespective of the histological subtype. In the era of immunotherapy, deciphering the immune cell signatures within the STSs tumors may discriminate immunotherapy responders from non-responders and different immunotherapeutic approaches could be combined based on the predominant cell subpopulations infiltrating the STS tumors. Furthermore, understanding the immune diversity of the STS tumor microenvironment (TME) in different histological subtypes may provide a rationale for stratifying patients according to the TME immune parameters. In this review, we introduce the most important immune cell types infiltrating the STSs tumors and discuss different immunotherapies, as well as promising clinical trials, that would target these immune cells to enhance the antitumor immune responses and improve the prognosis of metastatic STSs patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advance in Immuno-Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Review

27 pages, 2207 KiB  
Systematic Review
Immunotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer When, How, and Why?
Biomedicines 2022, 10(9), 2151; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10092151 - 01 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2100
Abstract
Head and neck cancer (HNC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Alcohol and tobacco consumption, besides viral infections, are the main risk factors associated with this cancer. When diagnosed in advanced stages, HNC patients present a higher probability of recurrence or [...] Read more.
Head and neck cancer (HNC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Alcohol and tobacco consumption, besides viral infections, are the main risk factors associated with this cancer. When diagnosed in advanced stages, HNC patients present a higher probability of recurrence or metastasising. The complexity of therapeutic options and post-treatment surveillance is associated with poor prognosis and reduced overall survival (OS). This review aims to explore immunotherapy (immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), therapeutic vaccines, and oncolytic viruses) in HNC patients’ treatment, and to explore when, how, and why patients can benefit from it. The monotherapy with ICI or in combination with chemotherapy (QT) shows the most promising results. Compared to standard therapy, ICI are able to increase OS and patients’ quality of life. QT in combination with ICI demonstrates significant response rates and considerable long-term clinical benefits. However, the toxicity associated with this approach is still a hurdle to overcome. In parallel, the therapeutic vaccines directed to the Human Papilloma Virus are also efficient in increasing the antitumour response, inducing cellular and humoral immunity. Although these results demonstrate clinical benefits compared to standard therapy, it is also important to unravel the resistance mechanisms in order to predict the clinical benefit of immunotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advance in Immuno-Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop