New Generation Imaging in Oncology

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular and Translational Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020) | Viewed by 4888

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Medical Sciences, Università degli Studi di Torino, Turin, Italy
Interests: clinical and preclinical application of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) for imaging and therapy in prostate cancer; clinical application of new generation imaging procedures in genitourinary malignancy; clinical application of predictive models in prostate cancer; clinical and preclinical application of radioligand therapy (RLT) in oncology; translational imaging and development of new PET radiopharmaceuticals in oncology
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Special Issue Information

The introduction of molecular imaging, namely positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in oncology, has already changed the clinical outcomes and therapeutic management of oncological patients. Several PET radiopharmaceuticals have been proposed in oncology over the last decade, and these diagnostic techniques are now currently placed under the umbrella term new generation imaging.

The most successful approaches proposed for PET imaging, other than FDG-PET, have been receptorial tracers targeting the somatostatin receptors (SSRs) and the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), proposed to investigate neuroendocrine tumours and prostate cancer, respectively. Both of these in vivo biomarkers can be used both for diagnostic (PET imaging) and therapeutic (radioligand therapy) purposes, and are currently considered the cornerstones of the theranostic approach.

Fluciclovine, a synthetic amino acid, is also considered a promising PET radiopharmaceutical, and recently received FDA approval in the investigation of prostate cancer.

However, FDG-PET still holds an innovative position when considering its application to evaluate the efficacy of new generation therapeutic approaches in oncology, like immunotherapy, that currently represents one of the most successful treatments for lung cancer and melanoma.

Finally, the application of radiomics in PET imaging is an emerging field. Radiomics is defined as the high-throughput extraction of quantitative features from medical images. This approach provides high-dimensional data describing properties of shape and texture of tumours captured in different diagnostic procedures. The radiomics features are believed to contain information that reflects the underlying tumour pathophysiology and allows for the evaluation of tumour heterogeneity.

Dr. Francesco Ceci
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • PSMA
  • fluciclovine
  • immunotherapy
  • immuno-PET
  • radiomics
  • textural features
  • machine learning
  • DOTA-TOC
  • prostate cancer
  • lung cancer
  • melanoma
  • neuroendocrine tumours
  • NET

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 1443 KiB  
Article
Diagnostic Value of Conventional PET Parameters and Radiomic Features Extracted from 18F-FDG-PET/CT for Histologic Subtype Classification and Characterization of Lung Neuroendocrine Neoplasms
by Philippe Thuillier, Virginia Liberini, Osvaldo Rampado, Elena Gallio, Bruno De Santi, Francesco Ceci, Jasna Metovic, Mauro Papotti, Marco Volante, Filippo Molinari and Désirée Deandreis
Biomedicines 2021, 9(3), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9030281 - 10 Mar 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2268
Abstract
Aim: To evaluate if conventional Positron emission tomography (PET) parameters and radiomic features (RFs) extracted by 18F-FDG-PET/CT can differentiate among different histological subtypes of lung neuroendocrine neoplasms (Lu-NENs). Methods: Forty-four naïve-treatment patients on whom 18F-FDG-PET/CT was performed for histologically confirmed Lu-NEN (n = [...] Read more.
Aim: To evaluate if conventional Positron emission tomography (PET) parameters and radiomic features (RFs) extracted by 18F-FDG-PET/CT can differentiate among different histological subtypes of lung neuroendocrine neoplasms (Lu-NENs). Methods: Forty-four naïve-treatment patients on whom 18F-FDG-PET/CT was performed for histologically confirmed Lu-NEN (n = 46) were retrospectively included. Manual segmentation was performed by two operators allowing for extraction of four conventional PET parameters (SUVmax, SUVmean, metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG)) and 41 RFs. Lu-NENs were classified into two groups: lung neuroendocrine tumors (Lu-NETs) vs. lung neuroendocrine carcinomas (Lu-NECs). Lu-NETs were classified according to histological subtypes (typical (TC)/atypical carcinoid (AC)), Ki67-level, and TNM staging. The least absolute shrink age and selection operator (LASSO) method was used to select the most predictive RFs for classification and Pearson correlation analysis was performed between conventional PET parameters and selected RFs. Results: PET parameters, in particular, SUVmax (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.91; cut-off = 5.16) were higher in Lu-NECs vs. Lu-NETs (p < 0.001). Among RFs, HISTO_Entropy_log10 was the most predictive (AUC = 0.90), but correlated with SUVmax/SUVmean (r = 0.95/r = 0.94, respectively). No statistical differences were found between conventional PET parameters and RFs (p > 0.05) and TC vs. AC classification. Conventional PET parameters were correlated with N+ status in Lu-NETs. Conclusion: In our study, conventional PET parameters were able to distinguish Lu-NECs from Lu-NETs, but not TC from AC. RFs did not provide additional information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Generation Imaging in Oncology)
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11 pages, 1681 KiB  
Article
68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT-Guided Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Retreatment in Prostate Cancer Patients with PSA Failure after Salvage Radiotherapy
by Paola Caroli, Sarah Pia Colangione, Ugo De Giorgi, Giulia Ghigi, Monica Celli, Emanuela Scarpi, Manuela Monti, Valentina Di Iorio, Anna Sarnelli, Giovanni Paganelli, Federica Matteucci and Antonino Romeo
Biomedicines 2020, 8(12), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8120536 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2134
Abstract
(1) Purpose: To investigate the role of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in guiding retreatment stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in prostate cancer (PCa) patients in biochemical recurrence (BCR) after salvage radiotherapy (S-RT). (2) Methods: We retrospectively evaluated PCa patients previously treated with S-RT on [...] Read more.
(1) Purpose: To investigate the role of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in guiding retreatment stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in prostate cancer (PCa) patients in biochemical recurrence (BCR) after salvage radiotherapy (S-RT). (2) Methods: We retrospectively evaluated PCa patients previously treated with S-RT on the prostate bed and with proven serum prostate antigen (PSA) failure after S-RT. In all patients (pts), 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT was positive in the prostate bed only and guided retreatment SBRT. All retreatments were performed by applying the same radiotherapy protocol (median dose of 18 Gy/3 fractions; IQR 18–21 Gy). The median follow-up was 27 months (range 4–35 months). (3) Results: 38 consecutive patients were considered in this analysis. The overall median PSA level before RT was 1.10 ng/mL (IQR 0.82–2.59). PSA decreased at 3 and 6 months after treatment, with a median value of 0.60 ng/mL (IQR 0.31–0.96; p < 0.001) and 0.51 ng/mL (IQR 0.29–1.17; p < 0.001), respectively. Overall, biochemical recurrence-free survival (b-RFS) was 15.0 months (95% CI 13–23). Grade-1 toxicity was reported in 31.6% of patients (12/38). (4) Conclusion: These results confirm that 68Ga-PSMA-11-PET/CT is able to identify the site of recurrence in patients who have failed S-RT, thus supporting the use of metastases-directed radiotherapy as a safe and effective treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Generation Imaging in Oncology)
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