Novel Therapeutic Approaches in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 3.0

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular and Translational Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 18655

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by inflammation of the enteric wall, abdominal pain, diarrhea, bleeding, and malabsorption.

Conventional therapies for IBD include anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, thiopurines, methotrexate, and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents. The long-term use of these drugs can induce severe side effects with a negative impact on patients’ quality of life. For this reason, there is great interest in finding new therapeutic strategies with fewer side effects for the treatment of IBDs.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to publish original research papers and/or relevant updates of literature data on the beneficial effects of novel and safe treatments in gastrointestinal disorders.

Dr. Giovanni Pallio
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • IBD
  • colitis
  • Crohn’s disease
  • inflammation
  • cytokines
  • ROS
  • oxidative stress

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Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 203 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial: Novel Therapeutic Approaches in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
by Giovanni Pallio
Biomedicines 2023, 11(9), 2466; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11092466 - 05 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 709
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) encompass ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD), both of which are inflammatory ailments affecting the gastrointestinal tract [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Therapeutic Approaches in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 3.0)

Research

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12 pages, 240 KiB  
Article
Risk Factors for Complications and Disease Recurrence after Ileocecal Resection for Crohn’s Disease in Children and Adults
by Valeria Dipasquale, Erica Milone, Stefania Nigro, Angela Alibrandi, Enrica Antonelli, Donatella Di Fabrizio, Carmelo Romeo, Giuseppe Navarra and Claudio Romano
Biomedicines 2024, 12(4), 862; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines12040862 - 13 Apr 2024
Viewed by 236
Abstract
This study reports the complication and disease recurrence rates for ileocecal resection for pediatric and adult Crohn’s disease (CD) and identifies perioperative risk factors for these adverse outcomes in the two groups. Patients who underwent ileocecal resection for CD in a tertiary hospital [...] Read more.
This study reports the complication and disease recurrence rates for ileocecal resection for pediatric and adult Crohn’s disease (CD) and identifies perioperative risk factors for these adverse outcomes in the two groups. Patients who underwent ileocecal resection for CD in a tertiary hospital in Italy (2010–2021) were included. Risk factors for postoperative complications and clinical and surgical disease recurrences were investigated with multivariate models. A total of 96 patients were included (children, 25%). There were no intraoperative complications. Thirty-one (32.3%) patients experienced 35 (36.5%) postoperative complications, and five (5.2%) were severe (Clavien–Dindo III–IV–V), with no intergroup difference for either overall postoperative complication rate (p = 0.257) or severe postoperative complication rate (p = 0.097). Most of these (77.1%) occurred within 30 days after surgery, especially in adults (p = 0.013). The multivariate analysis did not show risk factors for postoperative complications. Clinical and surgical recurrence rates after 5 years were 46.8% and 14.6%, respectively, with no intergroup rate differences. Clinical disease recurrence was positively correlated with previous abdominal surgery (p = 0.047) and negatively correlated with preoperative Hb levels (p = 0.046). A positive correlation was found between perianal disease and both clinical (p = 0.045) and surgical disease recurrences (p = 0.045). Urgent surgery was positively associated with surgical disease recurrence (p = 0.045). Notably, no children underwent urgent surgery in this study. In conclusion, the risk of postoperative complications among CD patients receiving ileocecal resection remains high, but most of them are nonserious. Some factors, such as urgent surgery, may increase the risk of disease recurrences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Therapeutic Approaches in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 3.0)
16 pages, 2388 KiB  
Article
Protective Effect of Red Rice Extract Rich in Proanthocyanidins in a Murine Colitis Model
by Napapan Kangwan, Sarawut Kongkarnka, Komsak Pintha, Chalermpong Saenjum and Maitree Suttajit
Biomedicines 2023, 11(2), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11020265 - 18 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2158
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has become a global concern. Proanthocyanidin-rich red rice extract (PRRE) has been shown to suppress the inflammatory response in cellular cultures. However, the anti-colitis effect of PRRE has never been investigated in animals. This study aimed to examine the [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has become a global concern. Proanthocyanidin-rich red rice extract (PRRE) has been shown to suppress the inflammatory response in cellular cultures. However, the anti-colitis effect of PRRE has never been investigated in animals. This study aimed to examine the protective effect of the PRRE against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Male mice were orally administrated with PRRE of 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day for 21 days. Acute colitis was subsequently induced by administrated 2.5% DSS in drinking water for the final seven days. Sulfasalazine-treated mice were the positive group. All doses of PRRE and sulfasalazine significantly ameliorated DSS-induced severity of colitis, as indicated by decreasing daily activity index and restoring colon shortening. Treatments with PRRE, but not sulfasalazine, significantly reduced the histopathological index and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, the PRRE treatments effectively improved mucous in colonic goblet cells using PAS staining, and suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 induced by DSS, while sulfasalazine reduced only IL-1β and IL-6. This study suggested that PRRE had a greater anti-colitis effect than sulfasalazine. Thus, PRRE has a potential anti-colitis effect, and should be developed in a clinical trial as a natural active pharmaceutical ingredient for IBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Therapeutic Approaches in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 3.0)
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16 pages, 1089 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness and Safety Profiles of Biological Therapies in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Real Life Data from an Active Pharmacovigilance Project
by Maria Antonietta Barbieri, Anna Viola, Giuseppe Cicala, Edoardo Spina and Walter Fries
Biomedicines 2022, 10(12), 3280; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10123280 - 18 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2204
Abstract
Post-marketing surveillance is essential to evaluate the risk/benefit profile of drugs; however, pharmacovigilance studies comparing persistence and safety of biologic therapies in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are scant. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate persistence together with safety [...] Read more.
Post-marketing surveillance is essential to evaluate the risk/benefit profile of drugs; however, pharmacovigilance studies comparing persistence and safety of biologic therapies in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are scant. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate persistence together with safety profiles of biologics in a cohort of patients diagnosed with Crohn’s Disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) followed by the IBD unit of Messina and treated with infliximab (IFX), adalimumab (ADA), golimumab (GOL), vedolizumab (VED), and ustekinumab (UST) from 2017 through 2021. Descriptive and treatment persistence analyses with predictors for discontinuation and occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were performed. A total of 675 IBD patients were enrolled. A higher persistence rate was noted for UST and ADA in the first year (83.8% and 83.1%, respectively) and for IFX in the fifth year of treatment (58.1%). GOL, VED, and UST—all used as second/third-line therapies—seemed to have a higher risk of non-persistence than IFX (in order HR: 2.19; CI 95%: 1.33–3.61, 1.45; 1.04–2.04, 2.25; 1.25–4.07) as well as switchers and those who had at least one ADR (18.1; 13.22–24.68 and 1.55; 1.20–1.99, respectively). The reported ADRs, which were generally mild–moderate, were largely known. However, real-world data should be implemented to further study undetected safety concerns, including risk of malignancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Therapeutic Approaches in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 3.0)
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11 pages, 2535 KiB  
Article
Early Clinical Remission Is a Predictor of Long-Term Remission with the Use of Vedolizumab for Ulcerative Colitis
by Keiichi Haga, Tomoyoshi Shibuya, Taro Osada, Shunsuke Sato, Yuka Fukuo, Osamu Kobayashi, Toshio Yamada, Daisuke Asaoka, Kentaro Ito, Kei Nomura, Mayuko Haraikawa, Osamu Nomura, Hirofumi Fukushima, Takashi Murakami, Dai Ishikawa, Mariko Hojo and Akihito Nagahara
Biomedicines 2022, 10(10), 2526; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10102526 - 09 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2312
Abstract
Vedolizumab (VDZ) is an α4β7 integrin-antibody used to manage refractory ulcerative colitis (UC). This retrospective multicenter study aimed to identify predictors of efficacy or the time points when evaluation of VDZ therapy for UC would be most useful. We compiled data on 87 [...] Read more.
Vedolizumab (VDZ) is an α4β7 integrin-antibody used to manage refractory ulcerative colitis (UC). This retrospective multicenter study aimed to identify predictors of efficacy or the time points when evaluation of VDZ therapy for UC would be most useful. We compiled data on 87 patients with moderate to severe active UC that was treated with VDZ. Overall clinical remission (CR) rates at 6 weeks and 52 weeks after VDZ administration were 44.4% (bio-naïve 44.2%, bio-failure 44.8%) and 52.8% (bio-naïve 53.5%, bio-failure 51.7%) respectively. Also, 83.3% (bio-naïve 81.3%, bio-failure 85.7%) of patients achieved mucosal healing at week 52. Among patients with a CR at week 52, 73.3% had a CR at week 6. In contrast, of patients who discontinued VDZ, 82.4% had not reached a CR at week 6. Our study demonstrated that VDZ was effective in a large percentage of UC patients, with a high mucosal healing rate even after prior biological exposures. This suggests that VDZ can be a treatment option even in bio-failure cases. Additionally, it was considered that early CR can predict long-term remission and that week 6 can be a helpful evaluation point for treatment decisions when using VDZ for UC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Therapeutic Approaches in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 3.0)
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Review

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17 pages, 1417 KiB  
Review
Helminth Lessons in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD)
by Tyler Atagozli, David E. Elliott and Mirac Nedim Ince
Biomedicines 2023, 11(4), 1200; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11041200 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3268
Abstract
Helminths are multicellular invertebrates that colonize the gut of many vertebrate animals including humans. This colonization can result in pathology, which requires treatment. It can also lead to a commensal and possibly even a symbiotic relationship where the helminth and the host benefit [...] Read more.
Helminths are multicellular invertebrates that colonize the gut of many vertebrate animals including humans. This colonization can result in pathology, which requires treatment. It can also lead to a commensal and possibly even a symbiotic relationship where the helminth and the host benefit from each other’s presence. Epidemiological data have linked helminth exposure to protection from immune disorders that include a wide range of diseases, such as allergies, autoimmune illnesses, and idiopathic inflammatory disorders of the gut, which are grouped as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Treatment of moderate to severe IBD involves the use of immune modulators and biologics, which can cause life-threatening complications. In this setting, their safety profile makes helminths or helminth products attractive as novel therapeutic approaches to treat IBD or other immune disorders. Helminths stimulate T helper-2 (Th2) and immune regulatory pathways, which are targeted in IBD treatment. Epidemiological explorations, basic science studies, and clinical research on helminths can lead to the development of safe, potent, and novel therapeutic approaches to prevent or treat IBD in addition to other immune disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Therapeutic Approaches in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 3.0)
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16 pages, 1236 KiB  
Review
Exploring the Pipeline of Novel Therapies for Inflammatory Bowel Disease; State of the Art Review
by Yasmin Zurba, Beatriz Gros and Mohammad Shehab
Biomedicines 2023, 11(3), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11030747 - 01 Mar 2023
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5642
Abstract
Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), known as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), are characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Over the last two decades, numerous medications have been developed and repurposed to induce and maintain remission in IBD patients. Despite [...] Read more.
Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), known as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), are characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Over the last two decades, numerous medications have been developed and repurposed to induce and maintain remission in IBD patients. Despite the approval of multiple drugs, the major recurring issues continue to be primary non-response and secondary loss of response, as well as short- and long-term adverse events. Most clinical trials show percentages of response under 60%, possibly as a consequence of strict inclusion criteria and definitions of response. That is why these percentages appear to be more optimistic in real-life studies. A therapeutic ceiling has been used as a term to define this invisible bar that has not been crossed by any drug yet. This review highlights novel therapeutic target agents in phases II and III of development, such as sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulators, selective Janus kinase inhibitors, anti-interleukins, and other small molecules that are currently under research until 1 January 2023. Emerging treatments for CD and UC that have just received approval or are undergoing phase III clinical trials are also discussed in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Therapeutic Approaches in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 3.0)
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Other

11 pages, 544 KiB  
Systematic Review
Defining the Failure of Medical Therapy for Inflammatory Bowel Disease in the Era of Advanced Therapies: A Systematic Review
by Monica State and Lucian Negreanu
Biomedicines 2023, 11(2), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11020544 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1424
Abstract
Background: The expansion of advanced therapies for inflammatory bowel disease created a lag between the development of these new therapies and their incorporation and use in daily practice. At present, no clear definitions for treatment optimization, treatment failure or criteria to abandon therapy [...] Read more.
Background: The expansion of advanced therapies for inflammatory bowel disease created a lag between the development of these new therapies and their incorporation and use in daily practice. At present, no clear definitions for treatment optimization, treatment failure or criteria to abandon therapy are available. We aimed to centralize criteria for a nonresponse to all available molecules and to summarize guideline principles for treatment optimization. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of studies that reported criteria for the treatment response to all advanced therapies (infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab, ustekinumab, vedolizumab and tofacitinib) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Results: Across trials, criteria for a response of both patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are heterogenous. Investigators use different definitions for clinical and endoscopic remission, and endoscopic response and outcomes are assessed at variable time points. Current society guidelines provide heterogenous recommendations on treatment optimization. Most available data on loss of response concern anti-TNF molecules, and newer therapies are not included in the guidelines. Conclusion: The lack of clear definitions and formal recommendations provide the premise for empirical treatment strategies and premature abandonment of therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Therapeutic Approaches in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 3.0)
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