Special Issue "Emerging Issues in COVID and T Cells"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 29 February 2024 | Viewed by 4758
2. Lower Silesian Oncology, Pulmonology, and Hematology Center, Wroclaw, Poland
Interests: viral infections immunity; risk factors affecting the outcome of patients post hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (virus infection, GvHD, relapses); HSCT; immunotherapy; hematology; TCR receptors; transplantation immunity; immunology of allogeneic cell transplantation
Natural or artificial immunization that provides lifelong immunity to antigens is particularly desirable for eradicating a pathogen from a population and for pandemic control. This immunization can only be achieved by certain infections and vaccines. In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is particularly relevant to know how long postvaccination and/or postinfectious immunity lasts, to identify its most prominent components, and to determine what factors influence it.
A substantial amount of information on COVID-19 immunity focuses on the antibody response. This is because it is relatively easy to measure the B-lymphocyte response. We have many standardized methods for measuring antibodies and neutralizing antibodies. As a result, we are now reasonably familiar with the dynamics of antibody appearance, class switching, and their decline. However, as variants such as Omicron evolve to avoid antibodies, the role of another part of the immune system, T cells, seems to become more prominent. Unlike antibodies, T lymphocytes attack infected cells, not directly at the virus. The activity of T cells is driven by the presentation of antigen, which is only a small fragment of the virus. It appears that mutations in subsequent COVID-19 variants do not affect the effective action of T cells to eliminate the infection. This explains why there are decreasing numbers of fatalities with each successive wave of the pandemic, even in regions with low vaccination rates.
We already know a great deal about the critical role of T cells in other viral infections, but their importance for battling SARS-CoV-2 remains unclear. In addition to the role of cytotoxic CD8+ lymphocytes directly involved in the elimination of infected cells, we must consider other subpopulations of T cells that are relevant in the development of an immune response after infection and vaccination and defense against infection including CD4+ lymphocytes; Tfh lymphocytes activating and supporting B lymphocytes for the production of antibodies; regulatory lymphocytes protecting against the excessive response of the immune system to the pathogen; γδ T cells, which possess receptors (TCRs) that can recognize stress signals from infected cells; and other T-cell subpopulations.
In this research topic, we would like to include recent scientific developments on the role of T cells in SARS-CoV-2 infection and immune response post vaccination.
We cordially invite authors to contribute original research articles or reviews focusing on, but not limited to, the following:
- Functional characterization of SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response to infection and vaccination.
- Phenotypic characteristic of T-cell subpopulations during SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or post-vaccination.
- Mechanisms regulating infection/vaccine-induced T-cell longevity.
- Characterization of immune memory induced by SARS-CoV-2 infections and vaccines.
- Cross-talk between T cells and other immune system components in infection or vaccination.
- Factors that influence T-cell responses (immunizing; immunosenescence; malignancy onset; or the influence of associated immunotherapies, drugs, or immunosuppression).
- Role of TCRs and HLA in T-cell response to SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccines.
- Identify the factors mediating COVID-19 immune protection.
- Vaccine response in immunocompromised patients.
- COVID-19 complications.
Dr. Emilia Jaskuła
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- T cells
- gamma delta T cells
- epitope recognition
- T-cell response