Molecular Mechanism in Inflammation and Immunity

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Cell Biology and Pathology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 1117

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
ImmunoPharmaLab, Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Montesano 49, 80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: IL-17; inflammation; autoimmune-based diseases; Th17; Treg; natural compounds and nutraceuticals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Inflammation is a complex biological response to injury as a result of different stimuli, such
as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. Inflammatory injuries induce the release of a variety of systemic mediators, cytokines, and chemokines that orchestrate the cellular infiltration that consequentially brings about the resolution of inflammatory responses and the restoration of tissue integrity. However, persistent inflammatory stimuli or the dysregulation of mechanisms of the resolution phase can lead to chronic inflammation and inflammatory-based diseases.  

The recent and emerging scientific community slant is oriented towards novel mechanisms and mediators that could represent a boon for the discovery of new active molecules and for the development of new drugs and potentially useful therapeutic agents in different inflammatory and immune-mediated/related diseases. 

We cordially invite authors and investigators within this complex field of global interest to submit original research and/or review articles pertaining to this Special Issue.

Dr. Anella Saviano
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • adaptive immunity
  • autoimmune-based diseases
  • cyto/chemokines
  • inflammation
  • macrophages
  • natural compounds
  • nutraceuticals
  • signaling pathway in arachidonic acid cascade
  • T-cells
  • trained immunity

Published Papers (2 papers)

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13 pages, 3370 KiB  
Article
Ursodeoxycholic Acid Modulates the Interaction of miR-21 and Farnesoid X Receptor and NF-κB Signaling
by Chi-Yi Peng, Yi-Chun Liao, Yi-Chin Yang, Yi-Wen Hung, Lan-Ru Huang and Yen-Chun Peng
Biomedicines 2024, 12(6), 1236; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines12061236 - 2 Jun 2024
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Abstract
(1) Background: This study investigates the effects of Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on NF-κB signaling, farnesoid X receptor (FXR) singling, and microRNA-21 in HepG2 cells. (2) Methods: HepG2 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to simulate hepatic inflammation. The investigation focused on the expression [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This study investigates the effects of Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on NF-κB signaling, farnesoid X receptor (FXR) singling, and microRNA-21 in HepG2 cells. (2) Methods: HepG2 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to simulate hepatic inflammation. The investigation focused on the expression of NF-κB activation, which was analyzed using Western blot, confocal microscopy, and Electrophoretic Mobility-shift Assays (EMSA). Additionally, NF-κB and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) singling expressions of micro-RNA-21, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, cyp7A1, and shp were assessed by RT-PCR. (3) Results: UDCA effectively downregulated LPS-induced expressions of NF-κB/65, p65 phosphorylation, and also downregulated FXR activity by Western blot. Confocal microscopy and EMSA results confirmed UDCA’s role in modulating NF-κB signaling. UDCA reduced the expressions of LPS-induced COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6, which were related to NF-κB signaling. UDCA downregulated LPS-induced cyp7A1 gene expression and upregulated shp gene expression, demonstrating selective gene regulation via FXR. UDCA also significantly decreased micro-RNA 21 levels. (4) Conclusions: This study demonstrates UDCA’s potent anti-inflammatory effects on NF-κB and FXR signaling pathways, and thus its potential to modulate hepatic inflammation and carcinogenesis through interactions with NF-κB and FXR. The decrease in micro-RNA 21 expression further underscores its therapeutic potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism in Inflammation and Immunity)
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20 pages, 894 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Pharmacological Effect of Hemin in Inflammatory-Related Diseases: A Systematic Review
by João Estarreja, Gonçalo Caldeira, Inês Silva, Priscila Mendes and Vanessa Mateus
Biomedicines 2024, 12(4), 898; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines12040898 - 18 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Background: Hemin is clinically used in acute attacks of porphyria; however, recent evidence has also highlighted its capability to stimulate the heme oxygenase enzyme, being associated with cytoprotective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Indeed, current preclinical evidence emphasizes the potential anti-inflammatory role of hemin [...] Read more.
Background: Hemin is clinically used in acute attacks of porphyria; however, recent evidence has also highlighted its capability to stimulate the heme oxygenase enzyme, being associated with cytoprotective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Indeed, current preclinical evidence emphasizes the potential anti-inflammatory role of hemin through its use in animal models of disease. Nevertheless, there is no consensus about the underlying mechanism(s) and the most optimal therapeutic regimens. Therefore, this review aims to summarize, analyze, and discuss the current preclinical evidence concerning the pharmacological effect of hemin. Methods: Following the application of the search expression and the retrieval of the articles, only nonclinical studies in vivo written in English were considered, where the potential anti-inflammatory effect of hemin was evaluated. Results: Forty-nine articles were included according to the eligibility criteria established. The results obtained show the preference of using 30 to 50 mg/kg of hemin, administered intraperitoneally, in both acute and chronic contexts. This drug demonstrates significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities considering its capacity for reducing the expression of proinflammatory and oxidative markers. Conclusions: This review highlighted the significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of hemin, providing a clearer vision for the medical community about the use of this drug in several human diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism in Inflammation and Immunity)
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