The Role of Cytokines in Health and Disease

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Cell Biology and Pathology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2023) | Viewed by 14614

Special Issue Editor

Department of Neurodegeneration Diagnostics, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-269 Bialystok, Poland
Interests: neurodegenerative diseases; cancer; specific proteins; cytokines; biomarkers; non-invasive diagnosis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The subject of this Special Issue mainly covers the usefulness of the determination of cytokines in healthy patients and patients with civilization diseases, with particular emphasis on neurodegenerative and neoplastic diseases. Despite being non-contagious, civilization diseases are often referred to as the epidemics of the 21st century because they spread globally and lead to over 80% of premature deaths. For many years, it has been observed that society is progressively ageing, which results in an increase in the number of elderly people who are most at risk of developing degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, as well as cancer. As part of this Special Issue, we are looking for new indicators allowing for early detection (even in potentially healthy patients, years before first symptoms of the emerging disease), and thus a better prognosis of survival of patients with selected civilization diseases. It is assumed that the introduction of the concentrations of the analyzed proteins to the diagnosis of patients with civilization diseases may facilitate the diagnosis and differentiation of these diseases, and thus enable early initiation of treatment.

This Special Issue aims to comprehensively study the role of cytokines in health and in various diseases (mainly, but not only, diseases of civilization, such as cancers or neurodegenerative diseases). Moreover, the aim of this Special Issue is also to understand the involvement of different cytokine groups in diagnosis and/or therapy and to investigate new potential therapies targeting cytokines. In this Special Issue, original research articles and reviews are welcome.

Research areas may include (but are not limited to) the following:

  • Cytokines as prognostic factors of different diseases;
  • Cytokines as novel tumor markers in malignant tumors;
  • Cytokines in neurodegeneration;
  • Cytokines in neuroinflammation;
  • Cytokines in COVID-19;
  • Potential novel role of cytokines in health and disease.

I look forward to receiving your contributions. 

Dr. Monika Zajkowska
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • cytokine
  • chemokine
  • neurodegenerative disease
  • cancer
  • inflammatory mediator
  • diagnosis
  • biomarker

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 881 KiB  
Article
Cytokine-Induced iNOS in A549 Alveolar Epithelial Cells: A Potential Role in COVID-19 Lung Pathology
Biomedicines 2023, 11(10), 2699; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11102699 - 03 Oct 2023
Viewed by 985
Abstract
Background. In COVID-19, an uncontrolled inflammatory response might worsen lung damage, leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Recent evidence points to the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2/iNOS) as a component of inflammatory response since NOS2 is upregulated in [...] Read more.
Background. In COVID-19, an uncontrolled inflammatory response might worsen lung damage, leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Recent evidence points to the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2/iNOS) as a component of inflammatory response since NOS2 is upregulated in critical COVID-19 patients. Here, we explore the mechanisms underlying the modulation of iNOS expression in human alveolar cells. Methods. A549 WT and IRF1 KO cells were exposed to a conditioned medium of macrophages treated with SARS-CoV-2 spike S1. Additionally, the effect of IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα, either alone or combined, was addressed. iNOS expression was assessed with RT-qPCR and Western blot. The effect of baricitinib and CAPE, inhibitors of JAK/STAT and NF-kB, respectively, was also investigated. Results. Treatment with a conditioned medium caused a marked induction of iNOS in A549 WT and a weak stimulation in IRF1 KO. IFNγ induced NOS2 and synergistically cooperated with IL-1β and TNFα. The inhibitory pattern of baricitinb and CAPE indicates that cytokines activate both IRF1 and NF-κB through the JAK/STAT1 pathway. Conclusions. Cytokines secreted by S1-activated macrophages markedly induce iNOS, whose expression is suppressed by baricitinib. Our findings sustain the therapeutic efficacy of this drug in COVID-19 since, besides limiting the cytokine storm, it also prevents NOS2 induction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Cytokines in Health and Disease)
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15 pages, 3119 KiB  
Article
The Value of CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL8 as Potential Prognosis Markers in Cervical Cancer: Evidence of E6/E7 from HPV16 and 18 in Chemokines Regulation
Biomedicines 2023, 11(10), 2655; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11102655 - 28 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1067
Abstract
Cervical cancer (CC) is a serious global health issue, and it is well-known that HPV infection is the main etiological factor that triggers carcinogenesis. In cancer, chemokine ligands and receptors are involved in tumor cell growth, metastasis, leukocyte infiltration, and angiogenesis; however, information [...] Read more.
Cervical cancer (CC) is a serious global health issue, and it is well-known that HPV infection is the main etiological factor that triggers carcinogenesis. In cancer, chemokine ligands and receptors are involved in tumor cell growth, metastasis, leukocyte infiltration, and angiogenesis; however, information on the role played by E6/E7 of HPV16/18 in the modulation of chemokines is very limited. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether chemokines are differentially expressed in CC-derived cell lines; if E6/E7 oncoproteins from HPV16 and 18 are capable of mediating chemokine expression, what is the expression profile of chemokines in tissues derived from CC and what is their impact on the overall survival of patients with this pathology? For this purpose, RNA sequencing and real-time PCR were performed on SiHa, HeLa, and C33A tumorigenic cell lines, on the non-tumorigenic HaCaT cells, and the E6/E7 HPV-transduced HaCaT cell models. Furthermore, chemokine expression and survival analysis were executed on 304 CC and 22 normal tissue samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) repository. The results demonstrate that CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL8 are regulated by E6/E7 of HPV16 and 18, are overexpressed in CC biopsies, and that their higher expression is related to a worse prognostic survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Cytokines in Health and Disease)
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14 pages, 4107 KiB  
Article
Immunomorphogenesis in Degenerative Disc Disease: The Role of Proinflammatory Cytokines and Angiogenesis Factors
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2184; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082184 - 03 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 953
Abstract
Back pain (BP) due to degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a severe, often disabling condition. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the expression level of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-17), angiogenesis markers (VEGF-A and CD31) in intervertebral [...] Read more.
Back pain (BP) due to degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a severe, often disabling condition. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the expression level of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-17), angiogenesis markers (VEGF-A and CD31) in intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue and IVD degeneration in young people with discogenic BP. In patients who underwent discectomy for a disc herniation, a clinical examination, magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine, histological and immunohistochemical analyses of these factors in IVD were performed in comparison with the parameters of healthy group samples (controls). Histology image analysis of IVD fragments of the DDD group detected zones of inflammatory infiltration, combined with vascularization, the presence of granulation tissue and clusters of chondrocytes in the tissue of nucleus pulposus (NP). Statistically significant increased expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, VEGF-A and CD31 was evident in the samples of the DDD group compared with the controls, that showed a strong correlation with the histological disc degeneration stage. Our results denote an immunoinflammatory potential of chondrocytes and demonstrates their altered morphogenetic properties, also NP cells may trigger the angiogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Cytokines in Health and Disease)
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13 pages, 1055 KiB  
Article
The Significance of CXCL1 and CXCR1 as Potential Biomarkers of Colorectal Cancer
Biomedicines 2023, 11(7), 1933; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11071933 - 07 Jul 2023
Viewed by 840
Abstract
The CXCL1/CXCR2 and CXCL8-CXCR1/CXCR2 axes are under intensive investigation as they appear to regulate the progression and invasion of colorectal cancer (CRC). Growing evidence demonstrates the elevated expression of these proteins in CRC. However, a majority of relevant studies have been performed on [...] Read more.
The CXCL1/CXCR2 and CXCL8-CXCR1/CXCR2 axes are under intensive investigation as they appear to regulate the progression and invasion of colorectal cancer (CRC). Growing evidence demonstrates the elevated expression of these proteins in CRC. However, a majority of relevant studies have been performed on CRC tissues using immunohistochemical techniques. Our study is the first to evaluate the diagnostic significance of serum CXCL1 and CXCR1 levels in CRC patients in comparison to well-established tumor markers, such as the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and markers of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein (CRP). Thus, the aim of our study was to assess whether circulating serum levels of CXCL1 and CXCR1 might be candidates for novel biomarkers in the diagnosis and progression of CRC. The study was performed on 76 subjects, including patients with CRC and healthy volunteers as a control group. Serum concentrations of CXCL1, CXCR1, and the classical tumor marker (CEA) were measured using immunoenzyme assays, while CRP levels were assessed with the immunoturbidimetric method. Serum CXCL1 levels were statistically significantly increased in CRC patients when compared to healthy subjects, and similar results were found for CEA and CRP levels. The percentage of elevated concentrations of CXCL1 and CXCR1 was higher than that of the classical tumor biomarker and increased in the combined measurement of these proteins with CEA. In addition, among all proteins tested, serum CXCL1 seems to be the best indicator in the differentiation between CRC patients with nodal involvement and patients without the presence of lymph node metastasis. Our preliminary results indicate the role of serum CXCL1 and CXCR1 in the diagnosis of CRC, particularly in the combined measurement with CEA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Cytokines in Health and Disease)
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20 pages, 1430 KiB  
Article
Post-Traumatic Stress Response and Appendicitis in Children—Clinical Usefulness of Selected Biomarkers
Biomedicines 2023, 11(7), 1880; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11071880 - 02 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1182
Abstract
Acute appendicitis is an inflammatory process which is one of the most frequent global causes of surgical interventions in children. The goal of the study was to determine whether acute phase proteins, that is, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [...] Read more.
Acute appendicitis is an inflammatory process which is one of the most frequent global causes of surgical interventions in children. The goal of the study was to determine whether acute phase proteins, that is, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), interleukin 6 (IL-6), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) and cortisol (HC) play a role in the pathomechanism of post-trauma stress response of the organism and to establish the impact of the applied surgical procedure and/or of inflammation on their concentrations. An additional purpose was to establish the clinical usefulness of the studied biomarkers in the diagnostics of appendicitis. CRP concentrations were quantified via the immunoturbidimetric method, while the levels of IL-6 and PCT were assessed using a bead-based multiplexed immunoassay system in a microplate format (Luminex xMAP technology); NGAL, TGF-β1 and cortisol concentrations were determined via the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. All the investigated biomarkers were assayed twice, i.e., immediately before the surgery and 12–24 h after its completion. Significant increases in CRP, IL-6 and PCT concentrations were found in all children subjected to laparoscopic surgeries (p = 0.001, p = 0.006, and p = 0.009, respectively) and open (classic) surgeries (p = 0.001, p = 0.016, and p = 0.044, respectively) compared to the initial concentrations. The patients undergoing classical surgery moreover presented with significant (p = 0.002, and p = 0.022, respectively) increases in NGAL and TGF-β1 levels after the procedures. In a group of children undergoing laparoscopic surgery, the appendicitis induced an increase in cortisol concentration, whereas in patients undergoing classical surgery the increase in the levels of this biomarker was caused by the type of performed surgical procedure. Simultaneously assaying the levels of CRP, NGAL and IL-6 (p = 0.008, p = 0.022, and p = 0.000, respectively) may prove useful in clinical practice, enabling the diagnosis of appendicitis in paediatric patients reporting to a hospital with abdominal pains, in addition to data from anamnesis and from clinical or ultrasound examination. The performed study confirms the participation of examined biomarkers in the pathomechanism of post-injury stress reaction of the organism to surgical trauma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Cytokines in Health and Disease)
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13 pages, 2443 KiB  
Article
The Role of NETosis and Complement Activation in COVID-19-Associated Coagulopathies
Biomedicines 2023, 11(5), 1371; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11051371 - 05 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1251
Abstract
Inflammation-induced coagulopathy is a common complication associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aim to evaluate the association of NETosis and complement markers with each other as well as their association with thrombogenicity and disease severity in COVID-19. The study included hospitalized patients [...] Read more.
Inflammation-induced coagulopathy is a common complication associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aim to evaluate the association of NETosis and complement markers with each other as well as their association with thrombogenicity and disease severity in COVID-19. The study included hospitalized patients with an acute respiratory infection: patients with SARS-CoV2 infection (COVpos, n = 47) or either pneumonia or infection-triggered acute exacerbated COPD (COVneg, n = 36). Our results show that NETosis, coagulation, and platelets, as well as complement markers, were significantly increased in COVpos patients, especially in severely ill COVpos patients. NETosis marker MPO/DNA complexes correlated with coagulation, platelet, and complement markers only in COVpos. Severely ill COVpos patients showed an association between complement C3 and SOFA (R = 0.48; p ≤ 0.028), C5 and SOFA (R = 0.46; p ≤ 0.038), and C5b-9 and SOFA (R = 0.44; p ≤ 0.046). This study provides further evidence that NETosis and the complement system are key players in COVID-19 inflammation and clinical severity. Unlike previous studies that found NETosis and complement markers to be elevated in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls, our findings show that this characteristic distinguishes COVID-19 from other pulmonary infectious diseases. Based on our results, we propose that COVID-19 patients at high risk for immunothrombosis could be identified via elevated complement markers such as C5. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Cytokines in Health and Disease)
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8 pages, 34107 KiB  
Communication
Histopathological Characterization of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms from Patients with Multiple Aneurysms Compared to Patients with a Single Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
Biomedicines 2023, 11(5), 1311; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11051311 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1025
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate histopathological differences in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) between patients with multiple and single arterial aneurysms, as we suspect that there are different underlying mechanisms in aneurysm formation. Analysis was based on a previous retrospective study [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate histopathological differences in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) between patients with multiple and single arterial aneurysms, as we suspect that there are different underlying mechanisms in aneurysm formation. Analysis was based on a previous retrospective study on patients with multiple arterial aneurysms (mult-AA; defined as at least four, n = 143) and a single AAA (sing-AAA, n = 972) who were admitted to our hospital for treatment between 2006 and 2016. Available paraffin-embedded AAA wall specimens were derived from the Vascular Biomaterial Bank Heidelberg (mult-AA, n = 12 vs. sing-AAA, n = 19). Sections were analyzed regarding structural damage of the fibrous connective tissue and inflammatory cell infiltration. Alterations to the collagen and elastin constitution were assessed by Masson–Goldner trichrome and Elastica van Gieson staining. Inflammatory cell infiltration, response and transformation were assessed by CD45 and IL-1β immunohistochemistry and von Kossa staining. The extent of aneurysmal wall alterations was assessed by semiquantitative gradings and was compared between the groups using Fisher’s exact test. IL-1β was significantly more present in the tunica media in mult-AA compared to sing-AAA (p = 0.022). The increased expression of IL-1β in mult-AA compared to sing-AAA indicates inflammatory processes play a role in aneurysm formation in patients with multiple arterial aneurysms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Cytokines in Health and Disease)
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15 pages, 2986 KiB  
Article
Knockdown SENP1 Suppressed the Angiogenic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Impacting CXCR4-Regulated MRTF-A SUMOylation and CCN1 Expression
Biomedicines 2023, 11(3), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11030914 - 15 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1326
Abstract
The angiogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is critical for adult vascular regeneration and repair, which is regulated by various growth factors and cytokines. In the current study, we report that knockdown SUMO-specific peptidase 1 (SENP1) stimulated the SUMOylation of MRTF-A and [...] Read more.
The angiogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is critical for adult vascular regeneration and repair, which is regulated by various growth factors and cytokines. In the current study, we report that knockdown SUMO-specific peptidase 1 (SENP1) stimulated the SUMOylation of MRTF-A and prevented its translocation into the nucleus, leading to downregulation of the cytokine and angiogenic factor CCN1, which significantly impacted MSC-mediated angiogenesis and cell migration. Further studies showed that SENP1 knockdown also suppressed the expression of a chemokine receptor CXCR4, and overexpression of CXCR4 could partially abrogate MRTF-A SUMOylation and reestablish the CCN1 level. Mutation analysis confirmed that SUMOylation occurred on three lysine residues (Lys-499, Lys-576, and Lys-624) of MRTF-A. In addition, SENP1 knockdown abolished the synergistic co-activation of CCN1 between MRTF-A and histone acetyltransferase p300 by suppressing acetylation on histone3K9, histone3K14, and histone4. These results revealed an important signaling pathway to regulate MSC differentiation and angiogenesis by MRTF-A SUMOylation involving cytokine/chemokine activities mediated by CCN1 and CXCR4, which may potentially impact a variety of cellular processes such as revascularization, wound healing, and progression of cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Cytokines in Health and Disease)
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13 pages, 1339 KiB  
Article
Hirsutidin Prevents Cisplatin-Evoked Renal Toxicity by Reducing Oxidative Stress/Inflammation and Restoring the Endogenous Enzymatic and Non-Enzymatic Level
Biomedicines 2023, 11(3), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11030804 - 06 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1489
Abstract
Recent research has shown that phytocomponents may be useful in the treatment of renal toxicity. This study was conducted to evaluate the renal disease hirsutidin in the paradigm of renal toxicity induced by cisplatin. Male Wistar rats were given cisplatin (3 mg/kg body [...] Read more.
Recent research has shown that phytocomponents may be useful in the treatment of renal toxicity. This study was conducted to evaluate the renal disease hirsutidin in the paradigm of renal toxicity induced by cisplatin. Male Wistar rats were given cisplatin (3 mg/kg body weight/day, for 25 days, i.p.) to induce renal toxicity. Experimental rats were randomly allocated to four different groups: group I received saline, group II received cisplatin, group III received cisplatin + hirsutidin (10 mg/kg) and group IV (per se) received hirsutidin (10 m/kg) for 25 days. Various biochemical parameters were assessed, oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione transferase (GSH), malonaldehyde (MDA) and catalase (CAT)), blood-chemistry parameters (blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and cholesterol), non-protein-nitrogenous components (uric acid, urea, and creatinine), and anti-inflammatory-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β(IL-1β). IL-6 and nuclear factor-kB (NFκB) were evaluated and histopathology was conducted. Hirsutidin alleviated renal injury which was manifested by significantly diminished uric acid, urea, urine volume, creatinine, and BUN, compared to the cisplatin group. Hirsutidin restored the activities of several antioxidant enzyme parameters—MDA, CAT, GSH, and SOD. Additionally, there was a decline in the levels of inflammatory markers—TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and NFκB—compared to the cisplatin group. The current research study shows that hirsutidin may act as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Cytokines in Health and Disease)
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12 pages, 1598 KiB  
Article
CXCL12 and CXCR4 as Novel Biomarkers in Uric Acid-Induced Inflammation and Patients with Gouty Arthritis
Biomedicines 2023, 11(3), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11030649 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1186
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 in patients with gout and uric acid-induced inflammation. A total of 40 patients with intercritical gout and 27 controls were consecutively enrolled. The serum levels [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 in patients with gout and uric acid-induced inflammation. A total of 40 patients with intercritical gout and 27 controls were consecutively enrolled. The serum levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-18, CXCL12, and CXCR4 were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The gene and protein expressions for these target molecules were measured in human U937 cells incubated with monosodium urate (MSU) crystals using a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Patients with intercritical gout showed higher serum IL-1β, IL-18, and CXCL12 levels, but not the serum CXCR4 level, than in the controls.The serum CXCR4 level in gout patients was associated with the serum IL-18 level, uric acid level, and uric acid/creatinine ratio (r = 0.331, p = 0.037; r = 0.346, p = 0.028; and r = 0.361, p = 0.022, respectively). U937 cells treated with MSU crystals significantly induced the CXCL12 and CXCR4 mRNA and protein expression in addition to IL-1β and IL-18. In cells transfected with IL-1β siRNA or IL-18 siRNA, the CXCL12 and CXCR4 expression was downregulated compared with the non-transfected cells in MSU crystal-induced inflammation. In this study, we revealed that CXCL12 and CXCR4 were involved in the pathogenesis of uric acid-induced inflammation and gouty arthritis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Cytokines in Health and Disease)
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Review

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22 pages, 2863 KiB  
Review
Insights into Zika Virus Pathogenesis and Potential Therapeutic Strategies
Biomedicines 2023, 11(12), 3316; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11123316 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 878
Abstract
Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged as a significant public health threat, reaching pandemic levels in 2016. Human infection with ZIKV can manifest as either asymptomatic or as an acute illness characterized by symptoms such as fever and headache. Moreover, it has been associated [...] Read more.
Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged as a significant public health threat, reaching pandemic levels in 2016. Human infection with ZIKV can manifest as either asymptomatic or as an acute illness characterized by symptoms such as fever and headache. Moreover, it has been associated with severe neurological complications in adults, including Guillain–Barre syndrome, and devastating fetal abnormalities, like microcephaly. The primary mode of transmission is through Aedes spp. mosquitoes, and with half of the world’s population residing in regions where Aedes aegypti, the principal vector, thrives, the reemergence of ZIKV remains a concern. This comprehensive review provides insights into the pathogenesis of ZIKV and highlights the key cellular pathways activated upon ZIKV infection. Additionally, we explore the potential of utilizing microRNAs (miRNAs) and phytocompounds as promising strategies to combat ZIKV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Cytokines in Health and Disease)
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33 pages, 4146 KiB  
Review
Systems Biology and Cytokines Potential Role in Lung Cancer Immunotherapy Targeting Autophagic Axis
Biomedicines 2023, 11(10), 2706; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11102706 - 05 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1362
Abstract
Lung cancer accounts for the highest number of deaths among men and women worldwide. Although extensive therapies, either alone or in conjunction with some specific drugs, continue to be the principal regimen for evolving lung cancer, significant improvements are still needed to understand [...] Read more.
Lung cancer accounts for the highest number of deaths among men and women worldwide. Although extensive therapies, either alone or in conjunction with some specific drugs, continue to be the principal regimen for evolving lung cancer, significant improvements are still needed to understand the inherent biology behind progressive inflammation and its detection. Unfortunately, despite every advancement in its treatment, lung cancer patients display different growth mechanisms and continue to die at significant rates. Autophagy, which is a physiological defense mechanism, serves to meet the energy demands of nutrient-deprived cancer cells and sustain the tumor cells under stressed conditions. In contrast, autophagy is believed to play a dual role during different stages of tumorigenesis. During early stages, it acts as a tumor suppressor, degrading oncogenic proteins; however, during later stages, autophagy supports tumor cell survival by minimizing stress in the tumor microenvironment. The pivotal role of the IL6-IL17-IL23 signaling axis has been observed to trigger autophagic events in lung cancer patients. Since the obvious roles of autophagy are a result of different immune signaling cascades, systems biology can be an effective tool to understand these interconnections and enhance cancer treatment and immunotherapy. In this review, we focus on how systems biology can be exploited to target autophagic processes that resolve inflammatory responses and contribute to better treatment in carcinogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Cytokines in Health and Disease)
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